Archives staff attend "Archives in the Electronic Age" symposium
Last week, several JDC Archives staff attended a symposium on “Archives in the Electronic Age” at Cardozo Law School in the West Village. Director of Global Archives Linda Levi, Digitization Project Manager Jeff Edelstein, Digitization Project Specialist Hannah Silverman, and Senior Processing Archivist Tamar Zeffren joined over 60 attendees—archivists, curators, lawyers, records managers, academics, and other information management professionals from across the New York metropolitan area—to discuss skills, technologies, and strategies required to address preservation and access challenges posed by born-digital records.
The symposium, co-sponsored by the Archivists Round Table of Metropolitan New York, Inc. (A.R.T.), the Cardozo Data Law Initiative, and The Sedona Conference®, featured an array of experts who analyzed four case studies about archival materials, ranging from a warehouse that burns down, resulting in the destruction of all of the rare archival material housed inside it, to uncovering hundreds of VHS tapes which have lost their labels. The symposium was a very helpful resource for the Archives as staff begin to focus on JDC’s born-digital assets.
JDC Archives Fellow Lectures on Holocaust Survivors and "the Right to Health"
On Wednesday, March 4, Sara Silverstein delivered an engaging lecture at the Center for Jewish History entitled, “Jewish Rehabilitation, European Reconstruction: Holocaust Survivors and the Right to Health.” An awardee of the Fred and Ellen Lewis/JDC Archives Fellowship, Silverstein used the JDC Archives to research the way Jewish Eastern European doctors in the mid-twentieth century shaped national and international health services, as well as the understanding of social and human rights in the post-Holocaust period. Silverstein is completing her doctoral dissertation at Yale University.
Jewish doctors from Eastern Europe, many of whom were refugees themselves, played a prominent role in providing health for survivors in the Displaced Persons (DP) camps after World War II. Chief among them were Zalman Grinberg, Samson Gottlieb, and Boris Pliskin.These practitioners recognized the need for long-term rehabilitative care for the chronically ill.
When medical personnel arrived at the DP camps, they first provided emergency care for those in need. Afterwards they set up a health services system, replete with medical facilities. Finally, they provided rehabilitation for the chronically ill. In providing care for survivors with tuberculosis and other long term illnesses, they realized that everyone should have the right to proper healthcare. By advocating for these patients with the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration and the International Refugee Organization, Grinberg, Gottlieb and Pliskin helped expand the concept of “human rights” and allowed even the ailing to take their place in society.
Expanding Our Digital Reach through Collaboration
To raise further awareness of JDC’s archival resources among diverse research communities, the JDC Archives is entering into exciting partnerships with other institutions and digital projects around the world to increase the discoverability of its holdings and to encourage ongoing scholarship using JDC Archives records. These projects will continue to increase the accessibility of JDC’s rich archival collections.
These projects include:
• Europeana: Judaica Europeana, a project that gathers digital content to the Europeana portal, coordinates with cultural institutions “to provide integrated access to digital collections which document the Jewish presence and heritage in Europe.” As the culmination of a two-year effort to prepare our collections for the portal, the JDC Archives provided Judaica Europeana with file-level data from its earliest records, the historically rich 1914-1918 collection. When users searching the Europeana portal find a JDC Archives file of interest, the link leads back to the file on the JDC Archives website and to the documents within it. Not only does this bring traffic to our site, but it also connects users to JDC archival resources beyond the 1914-1918 collection. Search Europeana.
• EHRI: The European Holocaust Research Initiative is dedicated to making Holocaust-era sources available in one place through its online portal. The EHRI portal includes key information about all JDC Archives Holocaust-era collections, among them the Cyprus, Geneva, Istanbul, New York, Stockholm, and Warsaw collections. The JDC Archives is one of EHRI’s cooperating institutions, joining other repositories such as the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, the State Archives of Belgium, the Hungarian Jewish Archives, and Yad Vashem. The EHRI portal officially launched on March 26 in Berlin at an event attended by JDC Archives’ Digitization Project Manager, Jeffrey Edelstein. Search EHRI.
The JDC Archives is currently pursuing additional collaborations with:
• CENDARI: CENDARI (the Collaborative European Digital Archival Infrastructure), a collaborative initiative that brings together digital resources on the medieval and World War I eras, has requested to include our WWI-era collections (1914-1918 and 1919-1921) in its portal.
• Beit Hatfutsot: Beit Hatfutsot, the “Museum of the Jewish People” based in Tel-Aviv, is interested in incorporating results from the JDC Archives Names Index into a new online search feature it is creating based on its genealogical database of family trees.
• DLoC: DLoC, the Digital Library of the Caribbean, is a cooperative digital library for primary source records about the Caribbean and its neighboring territories. The project is administered by Florida International University in partnership with the University of the Virgin Islands and the University of Florida. The JDC Archives plans to share its DORSA collection, which documents JDC’s establishment in 1938 of the Dominican Republic Settlement Association, an agricultural settlement for over 700 Austrian and German Jewish refugees in Sosúa in the north of the Dominican Republic.
JDC Participates in OSE Centennial Conference
A long-time JDC partner in delivering medical and public health assistance, Oevure de Secours aux Enfants (OSE), marked its centenary in 2012. Scholars from France, Germany, Israel, Russia, and the United States, including JDC’s Senior Archivist Mikhail Mitsel, attended a conference in Paris on the international history of OSE.
Founded in St. Petersburg in 1912 as Obshchestvo Zdravookhraneniia Evreev (OZE), OSE began providing public health, medical, and feeding services to Jewish communities in the Russian Empire. It later established a vast health care network in Poland in the 1920s with JDC assistance. During World War II in France, OSE staff joined the underground Resistance movement. Its staff set up a network of orphanages to assist refugees from Germany and Eastern Europe, working in close collaboration with JDC. OSE placed Jewish children with foster families and smuggled others out of France to neutral Switzerland. In the aftermath of World War II, OSE provided assistance to more than 85,000 children and adults in Europe, Israel, Latin America, and North Africa.
Conference proceedings were recently published in L'Oeuvre de Secours aux Enfants et les populations juives au XXe siècle: Prévenir et guérir dans un siècle de violences (Oeuvre de Secours aux Enfants and Jewish Populations in the 20th Century: Prevention and Healing in a Century of Violence). The book is organized into three sections:
1. The Creation of OSE in the context of the Hygienist Movement
2. OSE as it crossed borders (i.e. Transnationalism)
3. OSE and the populations it served
Many of the presentations were based upon research conducted in the JDC Archives, reflecting the long-time partnership between JDC and OSE in delivering medical aid to vulnerable Jewish communities, especially during the reconstruction of European Jewish life in the aftermath of the Holocaust and to vulnerable Jewish communities in the Middle East and North Africa. JDC was a primary funder of OSE activities in Russia and Poland since its earliest days, funded OSE children’s homes in France, and continues to support OSE programs in Morocco to this day.
See stunning images of JDC’s extensive relief work with OSE in Europe and North Africa!
Biographer Praises Role of JDC's Dr. Joseph Schwartz in Wartime Europe
Professor Tuvia Friling of the Ben-Gurion University in Israel spoke with members of the JDC staff and American Associates, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev at a joint presentation in New York on February 11th. The professor is completing a biography of Joseph J. Schwartz (1899-1975), the Joint’s Director of European Operations from 1940 to 1949. The biography is expected to be published in late 2016.
In analyzing the impact of Dr. Schwartz and his organization, Professor Friling pointed to two key elements: his personality and the circumstances under which he operated. As to the personality, he characterized Schwartz as an ordained rabbi who possessed bold leadership skills and someone who was able to convince others of the steps needed to implement the Joint’s program for rescuing Jews in Europe and other troubled areas of the world during the late 1930s and 1940s.
The circumstances facing the JDC, according to Prof. Friling, included (1) Hitler’s rise to power in 1933, (2) the publication of a British White Paper in 1939 which proposed limiting Jewish immigration to Palestine to 75,000 over the following five years, (3) the scarcity of transportation for transporting refugees caused by the demands of the U.S. Army for moving troops during World War II, (4) U.S. government restrictions on transferring money to occupied countries, and (5) Congressional impediments to mass immigration into the United States. Despite the daunting challenges of these restrictions, Dr. Schwartz and his JDC colleagues were able to assist many thousands with financial aid and logistical support in emigrating from dangerous areas.
The longtime secretary to Joseph Schwartz, Lolita Goldstein, who worked for him and the organization during the years of the 1940s in Lisbon, Portugal, also made some brief remarks about the man and the period. She recalled the wonderful qualities of Dr. Schwartz as well as the challenges of keeping in touch with other leaders at a time when international calls required one to two days of advance planning before they could be made. Mrs. Goldstein’s late husband was part of Joe Schwartz’s inner circle at JDC and a key member of the organization’s administration.
Scholar Researches Soviet Jewish Transmigrant Experience
Inga Veksler recently defended her dissertation at Rutgers University on the Soviet Jewish transmigrant experience: “'We Left Forever and Into the Unknown': Soviet Jewish Experiences of Transit Migration."
For Veksler, her dissertation topic is particularly resonant: her family was assisted by JDC in their emigration from the Soviet Union to the United States.
In the late 1980s, under glasnost, the number of Soviet Jews emigrating to the West soared. Thousands of Soviet Jews were essentially stranded in transit—“transmigrants”— in Rome and Vienna as they waited for the processing of their applications by the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service. In response, JDC provided basic care and maintenance services, including medical care, social services, housing assistance, and an array of educational, religious and cultural resources to thousands of transmigrants.
Veksler and 9 family members left Odessa in 1989. They spent six months in Italy, waiting for their immigration applications to the United States to be processed. Her family travelled by boat from Odessa to Vienna, and then embarked on an 18-hour train ride to Orte, a town outside of Rome. Individuals she interviewed in her research remember disembarking in Orte as “the worst time in the entire emigration process”- a stressful and chaotic scene. After leaving a note on a bulletin board in a refugee center, Veksler's family found housing in a town near Ladispoli. She recalls her Italian neighbors as “laced with benevolence, [and] empathetic and kind.”
According to Veksler, most scholarship in migration highlights “displacement and the way it rearranges social worlds in a different way—tears worlds apart.” Her research, which focuses on individuals who immigrated to the United States, analyzes the indelible experience of transit migration and how these encounters left a lasting impact on people's lives. She conducted interviews with over 50 individuals, primarily family and extended friends, in the New York metropolitan area and in Boston.
The primary interviewees were "heads of households": adults who were between the ages of 25 and 50 during their emigration experiences. Veksler describes this generation as “defined by the fact of emigration.” To older individuals in their late 70s and 80s, their formative emigration experiences were evacuations that occurred during World War II, whereas younger generations' experiences were dominated by the adjustment to a new country.
In her research, Veksler builds upon an insight of the cultural anthropologist Fran Markowitz regarding the relative lack of broad fraternal organizations among Soviet transmigrants. Veksler attributes this lack to the emphasis among Soviet Jews on personal networks rather than organized communal activities. Personally, she has "a familial, intimate recollection" of her own family gathering to commemorate their departure from Odessa.
Veksler notes that transmigrants had very little sense of the organizational and governmental roles in the processing of their applications and the services they received while in transit. They were also unaware of the rapidly evolving response on the part of relief organizations like JDC to meet the needs of these refugees. Veksler learned in her research in the JDC Archives that in 1989 alone, when Veksler and her family were in transit, JDC served over 66,000 Soviet transmigrants.
Thus, her research in the JDC Archives was “absolutely crucial" to learning about the Jewish communal organizations, such as JDC and HIAS, which provided services to this population in transit. Veksler notes, "The coordination required for this undertaking was immense.”
All JDC Records from Post-World War II Period Digitized
The JDC Archives is pleased to announce the completion of a major effort to catalogue, microfilm and digitize all of its post-Holocaust era collections, 1945-1954. The culmination of a six-year effort, this project is part of an ongoing plan to make historically significant documents available to scholars, genealogists and the general public. This material is searchable on the JDC Archives website. Online finding aids provide information on the contents of these collections and enable users to identify materials of interest to their research.
Highlights from this remarkable trove include:
- JDC’s far-reaching global rescue and relief efforts to resettle Holocaust survivors around the world
- Emigration and social services assistance to the remnant Jewish community in Poland from 1945 until JDC’s expulsion by the Communist government in 1949
- Aid to deportees to Cyprus from 1946 to 1949, against the backdrop of the birth of the State of Israel
- Its lifesaving work in neutral Turkey, a country strategically located at the crossroads of war-torn Europe and the nascent Jewish State in Palestine
- JDC’s provision of essential supplemental aid to the hundreds of thousands of Jews living in displaced persons camps after the war
- Efforts to rescue and provide relief to Holocaust survivors in Stockholm
- Oral histories of JDC veteran staff and lay leaders who were active during this period
This major effort was made possible through the generosity of a number of loyal donors. A lead gift was provided by Dr. Georgette Bennett and Dr. Leonard Polonsky, CBE. Other contributors include the Swiss Banks Settlement-Victims List Fund, the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Memorial de la Shoah (Paris), the Kronhill Pletka Foundation, the Rothschild Foundation (Hanadiv) Europe, the Wilf Family Foundations, and several JDC Board Members including Donald Robinson, Marshall Weinberg, and Jane Weitzman.
JDC Announces New Archives Fellowship
JDC is delighted to announce the establishment of the Ruth and David Musher/JDC Archives Fellowship. This fellowship was made possible by a generous gift from Ruth and David Musher of New York City, supporters of JDC with a long-time commitment to Jewish education and academic research and scholarship.
Ruth and David are affiliated with JDC’s Ambassadors group which is dedicated to creating a visionary and caring Jewish community. They have both traveled internationally to places where the JDC operates including Russia, Siberia, the Russian Far East, and Israel.
After attending the public lecture “Lost Souls: Retrieving Jewish War Orphans after the Holocaust” in March 2013, delivered by Fred and Ellen Lewis/JDC Archives Fellowship awardee Dr. Pamela Joy Shatzkes, David Musher found himself quite inspired. He and Ruth committed themselves to creating more opportunities for scholars to conduct research in the JDC Archives and to share their work with the public.
“As JDC Ambassadors, it is thrilling to see the work of the JDC on the ground in real time. The JDC Archive is a treasure trove of documents, videos and photographs of a century of JDC projects and programs. By supporting scholars who use this archive of modern Jewish history and humanitarian assistance to the Jewish People, we hope to encourage its use and value not only for the people and communities it benefits directly, but also the broader world of academics, policy makers and humanitarians. As Albert Einstein said, ‘Learn from yesterday, live for today, hope for tomorrow. The important thing is to not stop questioning.’”
One (1) fellowship will be awarded each year to a deserving scholar engaged in graduate level, post-doctoral, or independent study to conduct research in the JDC Archives facility in New York or Jerusalem. The amount granted will be $2,500 per fellow per year. The deadline for next year's applications is January, 2016.
Galicia Jewish Museum in Poland Showcases JDC Archival Photos in Upcoming Exhibit
“Rescue, Relief, and Renewal: 100 Years of ’the Joint’ in Poland” will open on October 30 at the Galicia Jewish Museum in Krakow. The exhibit features almost 100 images from the JDC Archives image collection which portray JDC’s extensive social welfare and humanitarian activities in Poland through the decades to the present day.
A collaboration of the Galicia Jewish Museum, the JDC Archives, and JDC Poland, the exhibit is co-curated by Tomasz Strug, Chief Curator of the Galicia Jewish Museum and Dr. Anna Sommer Schneider, a Polish scholar and historian who recently published a book about JDC’s relief work in Poland in the postwar period. Dr. Sommer Schneider conducted research in the JDC Archives over the last 8 years.
“Rescue, Relief and Renewal” showcases images of JDC’s vital activities in eight broad areas: Health Care and Feeding Programs: Vocational Training and “Productivization;” Children; Assistance to the Elderly; Education and Yiddishkeit—Jewish Heritage and Tradition; Refugees, Emigration and Victims of Persecutions; Jewish Community Life: and The Joint Today.
The accompanying catalogue, rich in photos, provides historical context for JDC’s century of activity in Poland. It highlights early relief shipments of food, medicine, and supplies during World War I; extensive work in the interwar years, the Holocaust era and its aftermath, and JDC’s return to Poland to sustain Holocaust survivors. More recent efforts to nourish a growing Jewish renewal in the post-Communist years to the present are also featured. “Rescue, Relief, and Renewal: 100 Years of ‘the Joint’ in Poland” testifies to JDC’s ongoing commitment to Polish Jewry.
The exhibit will extend until August 2015, after which it will be available for traveling exhibits. Institutions interested in hosting the exhibit should contact the Galicia Jewish Museum at firstname.lastname@example.org.
For additional images evoking JDC’s work in Poland, visit our Collection Highlight of Post-World War I Poland Photos. Please view a brief promotional video below about the exhibit!
Research Uncovers Insights into Historic Photo Collection
The JDC Archives photo collection constitutes one of the most valuable sources in the world for a pictorial study of Jewish life in the 20th century. Over JDC’s first 100 years, from the outbreak of World War I to the present, JDC commissioned professional photographers to inform the public about its relief initiatives for vulnerable individuals and communities around the world.
Its significance has been noted by photographic experts and by researchers. JDC’s centennial activities, including the I Live. Send Help. book and museum exhibit, required extensive photographer research for legal as well as credit purposes.
Crisis conditions, the passage of time, various moves, and at times the confiscation of records often obscured the trail of authorship. At different times, the Archives received large groups of photographs from JDC offices around the world. Often, these groups contained uncredited copy prints or negatives; just as often, there were no photographer credits on them. JDC Archives staff does its best to fill in the information gaps whenever possible.
The photographs of Fred Csasznik (1913-1985) are a prime example of this process. Csasznik immigrated to Israel from Germany in 1933. In the course of researching photo credits for the centennial projects, Archives staff reviewed images already cataloged into the Archives’ database, as well as prints, negatives, contact sheets, and, where present, historical captions. This investigation also included delving into unprocessed holdings where original prints with Csasznik’s name stamp, were clearly taken at the exact time and location as one of the uncredited prints being researched.
Close study of Csasznik’s images revealed a strong stylistic consistency in much of his work. His method of making contact sheets (showing a roll of negatives shot at one time) with identifiable hand-written numbers below the images enabled staff to correctly identify more of his photographs. Research in the JDC Archives text collections revealed additional clues. For example, a February 1949 letter between JDC offices in Paris and New York uncovered that Csasznik was sent to cover the historic liquidation of British internment camps in Cyprus and the release of detainees. That shed light on some of the important photographs being researched for the exhibit.
To clarify copyrights for Csasznik’s work, Archives staff reached out to his son who explained that his family donated his work to the Israel Defense Forces archive after his death. JDC requested permission from this repository to use Csasznik photos in the centennial projects.
Based on this research into Csasznik’s work, Archives staff is now able to identify over 800 Csasznik images in the JDC Archives photo collections, which span 37 years.
Please visit our new Fred Csasznik gallery which highlights his work for JDC and includes a few of the newly credited photographs!
Scholars’ Conference in New York Marks JDC’s Centennial
Thirty scholars from across the globe gathered in New York on September 7-8, 2014 for a two-day conference, “The Joint Distribution Committee: 100 Years of Jewish History.” The event, organized by a Steering Committee including Atina Grossman of The Cooper Union, Linda Levi, Director of JDC’s Global Archives, Maud Mandel of Brown University, Avinoam Patt of the University of Hartford, and Judy Seigel of the Center for Jewish History, was a forum for scholars from a variety of disciplines to share their research on JDC’s legacy from its first 100 years.
Reflecting on the conference’s objectives, Professor Patt said: “As one of the most important American Jewish organizations ever created, the JDC's humanitarian reach has been unparalleled. As a group of scholars who have conducted research on various aspects of the global reach of the JDC, we thought it fitting to mark its 100th anniversary with new scholarship highlighting its work since 1914.”
The scope of the presentations highlighted JDC’s global reach. Organized thematically, the conference showcased research on JDC relief work in the interwar period; its postwar reconstruction of Jewish communities; its assistance to refugees; JDC in the Soviet Union, and the organization’s work in Israel. Presentations highlighted JDC’s activity in a broad range of countries and time periods including humanitarian activities in interwar and postwar Germany, Poland and the Soviet Union; its comprehensive assistance to refugees and Holocaust survivors across Europe and in Australia, Belgium, China, France, Greece, Germany Hungary, Iran, Israel, and elsewhere in the aftermath of World War II; its extensive support for hundreds of thousands of Soviet Jewish émigrés during glasnost; and more.
Participating scholars came from the U.S., Israel, Australia, Belgium, France, Hungary, and Switzerland.
The conference concluded with a public screening, “Rare Archival Footage from a Century of JDC,” attended by over 200 guests, which featured rare film footage and audio elements from the JDC Archives.
To view one of the clips screened at the public event—an excerpt from “Fighting for Health,” a 1938 film about JDC’s relief work in Poland, produced in cooperation with TOZ (Society for Safeguarding Health)—click here!
New Book Published on the American Jewish Presence in Post-World War II France
Laura Hobson Faure’s new book, Un “Plan Marshall Juif”: La présence juive américaine en France après la Shoah, 1944-1954 (A “Jewish Marshall Plan”: The American Jewish Presence in Postwar France, 1944-1945) sheds light on a “largely neglected” chapter of research into French Jewish reconstruction efforts in the aftermath of World War II. Her book, which was published in French last year by Armand Colin, focuses on the encounters between representatives of American Jewish relief organizations and French Jewry in postwar France.
Hobson Faure began researching Un “Plan Marshall Juif,” in 2003, for her doctoral dissertation in Modern history at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales (Paris), including three weeks at the JDC Archives. She conducted over 60 interviews, both with French Jews and with American Jewish aid workers who had been present in France after WWII. Her book situates the post-WWII encounters between American Jewish relief institutions and French Jewry in what she terms “a transnational context,” to demonstrate that these communities exercised a reciprocal and lasting influence on one another in many spheres, including initiatives relating to reconstruction, religious pluralism, and the professionalization of social welfare institutions.
Through its extensive support of a wide range of diverse educational initiatives and Jewish welfare organizations in France, JDC “participated in French Jewish organizations in an organizational capacity.” As the most prominent American Jewish relief organization in France at this juncture and the first to re-establish its France office after the war, JDC was directly engaged in these cross-cultural encounters. In December 1944, Arthur Greenleigh was sent to France to oversee JDC’s refugee operations.
A distinct example of these encounters which Hobson Faure explores in her book is the 1949 founding of the Paul Baerwald School of Social Work, named after one of JDC’s founders, in Versailles. Hobson Faure explores how JDC’s establishment of the Paul Baerwald School, launched to train Jewish social workers from abroad to work in French Jewish social welfare institutions, stands as one of many initiatives modeled on practices and standards imported from the American Jewish community which significantly impacted the relationships between French Jews and American Jewish welfare organizations in postwar France.
Hobson Faure also has a version of her book in English and is actively looking for an academic publisher for the English-language edition.
A Symbol for the Continuity of Jewish Life
In the aftermath of World War II (WWII) and the Holocaust, JDC’s far-reaching efforts to rebuild and sustain European Jewry touched upon every aspect of Jewish religious, communal, and cultural life. This commitment to revitalizing Jewish life included the production and dispatch of over 100 chuppot (Jewish wedding canopies), along with numerous other religious and ritual materials such as matzot, haggadot, and tallitot (prayer shawls), to Displaced Persons camps in the U.S. Zone. These canopies remained in production from the end of WWII in 1945 through late 1949.
This chuppah is blue and white with gold fringe and features a large Star of David surrounded by the Hebrew word “Zion” at the center. Excerpts from Jewish wedding blessings enclose the Star of David, and the words “Joint – Product of the Land of Israel” in Hebrew and “AJJDC” in English appear in the lower left-hand corner.
One of these chuppot was discovered at a country auction in New York State by Jane Weitzman, a JDC Board Member, who purchased it as a gift for JDC. The chuppah is now on loan to the Yad Vashem Museum in Israel, where it stands as a testament to JDC’s extensive commitment to reestablishing Jewish life across Europe and to enabling Holocaust survivors to rebuild their lives with dignity.
BBC Publishes Two Major Features on the Survivors of the St. Louis
The BBC published two major features on survivors of the S.S. St. Louis, the ship carrying German Jewish refugees that was turned away from Cuba and the U.S. in 1939. The print and audio features highlight JDC's role in aiding the refugees to find safe haven. The 75th anniversary of the beginning of the voyage was on May 15, 2014.
When the 907 refugees fleeing Nazi Germany were denied permission to land in Havana, Cuba in May 1939 despite having accredited landing documents, JDC became involved in negotiations with the Cuban government. These discussions unfortunately failed, as did efforts by JDC to find a haven for the desperate refugees elsewhere in the Americas. After 12 days of waiting in the harbor, the St. Louis sadly headed back to Hamburg with all of its passengers.
While the St. Louis was on the high seas, JDC, in close cooperation with other groups, negotiated with the governments of Holland, Belgium, England, and France to accept the refugees until homes in other countries could be found. JDC posted a cash guarantee of $500,000, or $8 million in today’s money, in order to make the arrangement feasible and to cover upkeep costs wherever necessary.
The audio recording incorporates footage from the 1939 JDC- produced film, Bound for Nowhere: The St. Louis Episode, ending poignantly with the line, “…goodbye St. Louis. Welcome to the beginning of a new and better life.“ This sentiment is bittersweet, as just over half of those who returned to Europe on this fateful ship were ultimately murdered in the Holocaust.
Learn more about the voyage of the St. Louis through documents and photographs in our special S.S. St. Louis topic guide.
Records from JDC 1955-1964 Collection Now Available Online
The JDC Archives’ New York 1955-1964 Collection, documenting JDC’s global relief work in this period in Israel, North Africa, Latin America, and across Europe, is now available online.
This collection, comprising over 120,000 pages, describes, among other relief initiatives. the far-reaching assistance JDC provided to Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia, including support to Jewish schools and medical care for over 90,000 children; and its ongoing support and technical assistance to the State of Israel in the development of MALBEN, an extensive network of institutions to help absorb elderly and disabled immigrants.
These records testify to JDC’s continuing assistance to Jewish communities in Europe and to survivors still residing in Displaced Persons (DP) camps in Europe.
The files reflect JDC’s significant involvement in helping to rebuild Jewish life in Western Europe through its partnership with the Conference on Jewish Material Claims Against Germany, the agency that negotiated with the West German Government for compensation for victims of Nazi persecution and for funds to rebuild European Jewish communal institutions.
Other highlights of this collection include:
• JDC’s efforts to maintain a presence in the Eastern bloc, with its officially-sanctioned welfare activities limited in the cold-war period to Yugoslavia and to Poland, from 1958 until JDC's expulsion from the country in 1967 by the Communist government after the Six-Day War;
• Significant correspondence on conditions in Foehrenwald, the last and largest of the Jewish DP camps, which remained open in Germany until 1957;
• JDC’s social service operations in Iran, which included a substantial network of kindergartens and day care services, and educational and social development programs, particularly for children from needy families;
• Documentation of Eleanor Roosevelt’s address to a plenary session at JDC’s December 1955 Annual Meeting on her visit to Israel.
Visit here to see images of JDC’s MALBEN work through the 1950s and 1960s!
JDC Marks 100th Anniversary with Commemorative Volume Showcasing Archival Treasures
To celebrate the 100th anniversary of its 1914 founding, JDC has produced a richly illustrated, full-color, hardcover volume which uses documents, images, and artifacts from the Archives to depict the interconnected history of JDC and the Jewish people through pivotal moments in Jewish and world history throughout the past century. Order here!
Uncovering Jewish History in Bolivia
For León Bieber, researching the history of Jewish emigration to Bolivia against the backdrop of World War II is particularly resonant: he was born in Bolivia, to German Jewish parents. A professor of political science who has taught in Ecuador, Germany, and Mexico, in 2010, Bieber published Presencia judía en Bolivia: la ola inmigratoria de 1938-1940 (The Jewish Presence in Bolivia: The Immigration Wave of 1938-1940), where he examines the WWII-era wave of Jewish immigration to Bolivia and analyzes the factors which impacted their economic and sociocultural integration at that juncture.
The Jewish refugee experience in Bolivia was indelibly influenced by Maurice Hochschild, a wealthy German Jewish mine owner in Bolivia who had a good relationship with the Bolivian president. When the Bolivian government encouraged immigration in the mid-1930s to spur the economy, Hochschild facilitated visas for German and Austrian Jewish refugees to arrive in Bolivia. He also founded the Sociedad de Proteccion a los Immigrantes Israelitas (SOPRO), or “The Society for Protection of Migrants Israelites.” The majority of Jews settled in La Paz, the capital, and JDC supported SOPRO children’s homes and other communal institutions in La Paz. View images of JDC relief in Bolivia here.
In 1940, to counter rising anti-Semitic propaganda that Jewish immigrants were not contributing to the welfare of the state and to ensure that Bolivia would not close its doors to future Jewish immigration, Hochschild partnered with the Sociedad Colonizadora de Bolivia (SOCOBO) to develop agricultural projects in rural areas to demonstrate these Jewish refugees’ self-sufficiency.
Unfortunately, the new farmers encountered a host of challenges in their agricultural enterprises: the mountainous topography, which meant that they could not use tractors; the dearth of roads to appropriate markets for the crops such as pineapple coffee, and cacao; and the sub-tropical climate. None of the farms ever become entirely self-sufficient; they were all subsidized by SOCOBO and Hochschild.
Even as Bieber was aware of JDC’s role as he researched this fascinating history, he was not aware of the extent of JDC’s role until he began to grapple with additional questions which emerged during the course of writing his first book.
“This book [Presencia judía en Bolivia] was full of questions I couldn’t answer,” he recounted.
And these questions led him to the records at JDC: “It became clear to me that I could only find the answers—if they exist—in the archives of the Joint.”
In the archives, Bieber discovered that Hochschild contacted JDC and Agro-Joint for funds to relocate Jews as peasant farmers and train them to cultivate the fields. From 1939-1942, JDC, along with SOCOBO and Hochschild, contributed $160,000 to sustain the agricultural settlements.
As Bieber uncovers additional information about the complex history of Bolivian Jews, including these agricultural enterprises, he intends to write another book: one which deals with the Joint, Hochschild, and the first wave of Jewish immigration to Bolivia. “It is impossible to understand,” he says, “the documentation of the waves of Jewish immigration without the archives of the Joint.”
JDC Stockholm Collection 1941-1967 Now Online
JDC's Stockholm Collection, which documents its World War II-era relief work in Sweden, is now available online. Browse highlights from our photo holdings on Sweden here.
This collection, housed in the Jerusalem office of the JDC Archives, comprises approximately 50,000 pages and chronicles JDC’s extensive activity in Sweden from 1941-1967. Given its strategic location in neutral Sweden, JDC’s office was well-positioned to purchase, receive, and send supplies to needy communities in Europe, provide support for war-time rescue operations, and care for, forward mail to, and search for survivors after World War II.
Materials in this collection include: reports from concentration camps; an eyewitness account of the arrival in Sweden of the first survivors rescued by the Swedish Red Cross’s “White Buses” scheme; extensive documentation of the ad hoc convoys developed to move goods from market sources into the Displaced Persons (DP) camps; employment, housing and medical assistance afforded both to DPs settling in Sweden and for refugees traveling to other countries; JDC Location Service forms and cards; and correspondence with Jewish communities in South America seeking to send aid to European refugees.
• An October 1944 report on a visit to Theresienstadt by two Danish government officials, released with permission of the German authorities;
• A report on August 1945 convoy of refugees from Copenhagen to Prague;
• Correspondence with the novelist Ilona Karmel and her family members, who received aid from JDC after they survived Buchenwald. Karmel's writing includes fictionalized accounts of her time convalescing in Sweden;
• An application for financial support to the Conference on Jewish Material Claims Against Germany from Stockholm’s Adass Jeschurun synagogue, which describes the wartime history of the Swedish Jewish community and how it welcomed Danish and Norwegian refugees during WWII and absorbed DPs from Ravensbrück and other concentration camps after the war’s end.
Access these and other fascinating records from the Stockholm Collection here!
New Jewish Museums in Russia and Poland Showcase JDC Archival Photos
The Jewish Museum and Tolerance Center in Moscow and the Museum of the History of the Polish Jews in Warsaw, both exciting new institutions which have opened in the past two years, collectively feature over 40 images from the JDC Archives in their core exhibits to effectively tell the history and culture of their Jewish communities.
The Center in Moscow, which opened in November 2012, showcases historic JDC images to convey the scope of such diverse topics as Jewish life in the pre-World War II Soviet Union and the Agro-Joint agricultural collective program, which operated from 1924 to 1938 in Ukraine and the Crimea. The Museum in Warsaw, which officially opened in April 2013 on the site of the Warsaw Ghetto, will be using more than 15 historic images of post-World War II Poland to describe the saga of rebuilding Jewish communities in Poland after the Holocaust.
Oral History Collection Sheds New Light on JDC's Past
JDC’s Oral History Collection offers new perspectives on JDC history from the people who helped to shape the organization.
In August 1946, Jacob (Jack) Joslow, JDC’s Director of Education for the U.S. Zone in Germany, was asked to procure 35,000 prayer books for Rosh Hashanah. The New Year was just weeks away, and JDC wanted desperately to supply the prayer books to Jews in German DP camps. In his oral history, Joslow recalls how against all odds, 35,000 prayer books were printed, assembled and finally delivered on Erev Rosh Hashanah.
Joslow’s story, along with other dramatic narratives, has been uncovered in JDC's Oral History Collection. JDC has partnered with the Mémorial de la Shoah to digitize and catalogue more than 100 interviews with the organization's leaders and staff members. The oral histories were recorded between 1966 and 2003, and include stories about JDC’s humanitarian work across the globe. The collection includes interviews with long-time JDC staff members (a.k.a. Jointniks), such as Paulette Fink (1911-2005), who organized housing for 1,500 child survivors of the Holocaust; Samuel Haber (1903-1984), JDC Director in the U.S. Zone in Germany from 1947 to 1953; and Monroe Goldwater (1885-1980), a prominent attorney and a member of JDC's Board of Directors.
The Oral History Collection offers new and unique perspectives on the history of JDC from the people who helped to shape the organization. In addition to more than 300 audio recordings, the collection also contains paper documents, e.g. transcripts, correspondence and newspaper articles. All of the audio recordings and documents have been digitized. A finding aid is being prepared and will be available to the public online.
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