New Book Published on the American Jewish Presence in Post-World War II France
Laura Hobson Faure’s new book, Un “Plan Marshall Juif”: La présence juive américaine en France après la Shoah, 1944-1954 (A “Jewish Marshall Plan”: The American Jewish Presence in Postwar France, 1944-1945) sheds light on a “largely neglected” chapter of research into French Jewish reconstruction efforts in the aftermath of World War II. Her book, which was published in French last year by Armand Colin, focuses on the encounters between representatives of American Jewish relief organizations and French Jewry in postwar France.
Hobson Faure began researching Un “Plan Marshall Juif,” in 2003, for her doctoral dissertation in Modern history at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales (Paris), including three weeks at the JDC Archives. She conducted over 60 interviews, both with French Jews and with American Jewish aid workers who had been present in France after WWII. Her book situates the post-WWII encounters between American Jewish relief institutions and French Jewry in what she terms “a transnational context,” to demonstrate that these communities exercised a reciprocal and lasting influence on one another in many spheres, including initiatives relating to reconstruction, religious pluralism, and the professionalization of social welfare institutions.
Through its extensive support of a wide range of diverse educational initiatives and Jewish welfare organizations in France, JDC “participated in French Jewish organizations in an organizational capacity.” As the most prominent American Jewish relief organization in France at this juncture and the first to re-establish its France office after the war, JDC was directly engaged in these cross-cultural encounters. In December 1944, Arthur Greenleigh was sent to France to oversee JDC’s refugee operations.
A distinct example of these encounters which Hobson Faure explores in her book is the 1949 founding of the Paul Baerwald School of Social Work, named after one of JDC’s founders, in Versailles. Hobson Faure explores how JDC’s establishment of the Paul Baerwald School, launched to train Jewish social workers from abroad to work in French Jewish social welfare institutions, stands as one of many initiatives modeled on practices and standards imported from the American Jewish community which significantly impacted the relationships between French Jews and American Jewish welfare organizations in postwar France.
Hobson Faure also has a version of her book in English and is actively looking for an academic publisher for the English-language edition.
A Symbol for the Continuity of Jewish Life
In the aftermath of World War II (WWII) and the Holocaust, JDC’s far-reaching efforts to rebuild and sustain European Jewry touched upon every aspect of Jewish religious, communal, and cultural life. This commitment to revitalizing Jewish life included the production and dispatch of over 100 chuppot (Jewish wedding canopies), along with numerous other religious and ritual materials such as matzot, haggadot, and tallitot (prayer shawls), to Displaced Persons camps in the U.S. Zone. These canopies remained in production from the end of WWII in 1945 through late 1949.
This chuppah is blue and white with gold fringe and features a large Star of David surrounded by the Hebrew word “Zion” at the center. Excerpts from Jewish wedding blessings enclose the Star of David, and the words “Joint – Product of the Land of Israel” in Hebrew and “AJJDC” in English appear in the lower left-hand corner.
One of these chuppot was discovered at a country auction in New York State by Jane Weitzman, a JDC Board Member, who purchased it as a gift for JDC. The chuppah is now on loan to the Yad Vashem Museum in Israel, where it stands as a testament to JDC’s extensive commitment to reestablishing Jewish life across Europe and to enabling Holocaust survivors to rebuild their lives with dignity.
BBC Publishes Two Major Features on the Survivors of the St. Louis
The BBC published two major features on survivors of the S.S. St. Louis, the ship carrying German Jewish refugees that was turned away from Cuba and the U.S. in 1939. The print and audio features highlight JDC's role in aiding the refugees to find safe haven. The 75th anniversary of the beginning of the voyage was on May 15, 2014.
When the 907 refugees fleeing Nazi Germany were denied permission to land in Havana, Cuba in May 1939 despite having accredited landing documents, JDC became involved in negotiations with the Cuban government. These discussions unfortunately failed, as did efforts by JDC to find a haven for the desperate refugees elsewhere in the Americas. After 12 days of waiting in the harbor, the St. Louis sadly headed back to Hamburg with all of its passengers.
While the St. Louis was on the high seas, JDC, in close cooperation with other groups, negotiated with the governments of Holland, Belgium, England, and France to accept the refugees until homes in other countries could be found. JDC posted a cash guarantee of $500,000, or $8 million in today’s money, in order to make the arrangement feasible and to cover upkeep costs wherever necessary.
The audio recording incorporates footage from the 1939 JDC- produced film, Bound for Nowhere: The St. Louis Episode, ending poignantly with the line, “…goodbye St. Louis. Welcome to the beginning of a new and better life.“ This sentiment is bittersweet, as just over half of those who returned to Europe on this fateful ship were ultimately murdered in the Holocaust.
Learn more about the voyage of the St. Louis through documents and photographs in our special S.S. St. Louis topic guide.
Records from JDC 1955-1964 Collection Now Available Online
The JDC Archives’ New York 1955-1964 Collection, documenting JDC’s global relief work in this period in Israel, North Africa, Latin America, and across Europe, is now available online.
This collection, comprising over 120,000 pages, describes, among other relief initiatives. the far-reaching assistance JDC provided to Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia, including support to Jewish schools and medical care for over 90,000 children; and its ongoing support and technical assistance to the State of Israel in the development of MALBEN, an extensive network of institutions to help absorb elderly and disabled immigrants.
These records testify to JDC’s continuing assistance to Jewish communities in Europe and to survivors still residing in Displaced Persons (DP) camps in Europe.
The files reflect JDC’s significant involvement in helping to rebuild Jewish life in Western Europe through its partnership with the Conference on Jewish Material Claims Against Germany, the agency that negotiated with the West German Government for compensation for victims of Nazi persecution and for funds to rebuild European Jewish communal institutions.
Other highlights of this collection include:
• JDC’s efforts to maintain a presence in the Eastern bloc, with its officially-sanctioned welfare activities limited in the cold-war period to Yugoslavia and to Poland, from 1958 until JDC's expulsion from the country in 1967 by the Communist government after the Six-Day War;
• Significant correspondence on conditions in Foehrenwald, the last and largest of the Jewish DP camps, which remained open in Germany until 1957;
• JDC’s social service operations in Iran, which included a substantial network of kindergartens and day care services, and educational and social development programs, particularly for children from needy families;
• Documentation of Eleanor Roosevelt’s address to a plenary session at JDC’s December 1955 Annual Meeting on her visit to Israel.
Visit here to see images of JDC’s MALBEN work through the 1950s and 1960s!
JDC Marks 100th Anniversary with Commemorative Volume Showcasing Archival Treasures
To celebrate the 100th anniversary of its 1914 founding, JDC has produced a richly illustrated, full-color, hardcover volume which uses documents, images, and artifacts from the Archives to depict the interconnected history of JDC and the Jewish people through pivotal moments in Jewish and world history throughout the past century. Order here!
Uncovering Jewish History in Bolivia
For León Bieber, researching the history of Jewish emigration to Bolivia against the backdrop of World War II is particularly resonant: he was born in Bolivia, to German Jewish parents. A professor of political science who has taught in Ecuador, Germany, and Mexico, in 2010, Bieber published Presencia judía en Bolivia: la ola inmigratoria de 1938-1940 (The Jewish Presence in Bolivia: The Immigration Wave of 1938-1940), where he examines the WWII-era wave of Jewish immigration to Bolivia and analyzes the factors which impacted their economic and sociocultural integration at that juncture.
The Jewish refugee experience in Bolivia was indelibly influenced by Maurice Hochschild, a wealthy German Jewish mine owner in Bolivia who had a good relationship with the Bolivian president. When the Bolivian government encouraged immigration in the mid-1930s to spur the economy, Hochschild facilitated visas for German and Austrian Jewish refugees to arrive in Bolivia. He also founded the Sociedad de Proteccion a los Immigrantes Israelitas (SOPRO), or “The Society for Protection of Migrants Israelites.” The majority of Jews settled in La Paz, the capital, and JDC supported SOPRO children’s homes and other communal institutions in La Paz. View images of JDC relief in Bolivia here.
In 1940, to counter rising anti-Semitic propaganda that Jewish immigrants were not contributing to the welfare of the state and to ensure that Bolivia would not close its doors to future Jewish immigration, Hochschild partnered with the Sociedad Colonizadora de Bolivia (SOCOBO) to develop agricultural projects in rural areas to demonstrate these Jewish refugees’ self-sufficiency.
Unfortunately, the new farmers encountered a host of challenges in their agricultural enterprises: the mountainous topography, which meant that they could not use tractors; the dearth of roads to appropriate markets for the crops such as pineapple coffee, and cacao; and the sub-tropical climate. None of the farms ever become entirely self-sufficient; they were all subsidized by SOCOBO and Hochschild.
Even as Bieber was aware of JDC’s role as he researched this fascinating history, he was not aware of the extent of JDC’s role until he began to grapple with additional questions which emerged during the course of writing his first book.
“This book [Presencia judía en Bolivia] was full of questions I couldn’t answer,” he recounted.
And these questions led him to the records at JDC: “It became clear to me that I could only find the answers—if they exist—in the archives of the Joint.”
In the archives, Bieber discovered that Hochschild contacted JDC and Agro-Joint for funds to relocate Jews as peasant farmers and train them to cultivate the fields. From 1939-1942, JDC, along with SOCOBO and Hochschild, contributed $160,000 to sustain the agricultural settlements.
As Bieber uncovers additional information about the complex history of Bolivian Jews, including these agricultural enterprises, he intends to write another book: one which deals with the Joint, Hochschild, and the first wave of Jewish immigration to Bolivia. “It is impossible to understand,” he says, “the documentation of the waves of Jewish immigration without the archives of the Joint.”
JDC Stockholm Collection 1941-1967 Now Online
JDC's Stockholm Collection, which documents its World War II-era relief work in Sweden, is now available online. Browse highlights from our photo holdings on Sweden here.
This collection, housed in the Jerusalem office of the JDC Archives, comprises approximately 50,000 pages and chronicles JDC’s extensive activity in Sweden from 1941-1967. Given its strategic location in neutral Sweden, JDC’s office was well-positioned to purchase, receive, and send supplies to needy communities in Europe, provide support for war-time rescue operations, and care for, forward mail to, and search for survivors after World War II.
Materials in this collection include: reports from concentration camps; an eyewitness account of the arrival in Sweden of the first survivors rescued by the Swedish Red Cross’s “White Buses” scheme; extensive documentation of the ad hoc convoys developed to move goods from market sources into the Displaced Persons (DP) camps; employment, housing and medical assistance afforded both to DPs settling in Sweden and for refugees traveling to other countries; JDC Location Service forms and cards; and correspondence with Jewish communities in South America seeking to send aid to European refugees.
• An October 1944 report on a visit to Theresienstadt by two Danish government officials, released with permission of the German authorities;
• A report on August 1945 convoy of refugees from Copenhagen to Prague;
• Correspondence with the novelist Ilona Karmel and her family members, who received aid from JDC after they survived Buchenwald. Karmel's writing includes fictionalized accounts of her time convalescing in Sweden;
• An application for financial support to the Conference on Jewish Material Claims Against Germany from Stockholm’s Adass Jeschurun synagogue, which describes the wartime history of the Swedish Jewish community and how it welcomed Danish and Norwegian refugees during WWII and absorbed DPs from Ravensbrück and other concentration camps after the war’s end.
Access these and other fascinating records from the Stockholm Collection here!
New Jewish Museums in Russia and Poland Showcase JDC Archival Photos
The Jewish Museum and Tolerance Center in Moscow and the Museum of the History of the Polish Jews in Warsaw, both exciting new institutions which have opened in the past two years, collectively feature over 40 images from the JDC Archives in their core exhibits to effectively tell the history and culture of their Jewish communities.
The Center in Moscow, which opened in November 2012, showcases historic JDC images to convey the scope of such diverse topics as Jewish life in the pre-World War II Soviet Union and the Agro-Joint agricultural collective program, which operated from 1924 to 1938 in Ukraine and the Crimea. The Museum in Warsaw, which officially opened in April 2013 on the site of the Warsaw Ghetto, will be using more than 15 historic images of post-World War II Poland to describe the saga of rebuilding Jewish communities in Poland after the Holocaust.
Oral History Collection Sheds New Light on JDC's Past
JDC’s Oral History Collection offers new perspectives on JDC history from the people who helped to shape the organization.
In August 1946, Jacob (Jack) Joslow, JDC’s Director of Education for the U.S. Zone in Germany, was asked to procure 35,000 prayer books for Rosh Hashanah. The New Year was just weeks away, and JDC wanted desperately to supply the prayer books to Jews in German DP camps. In his oral history, Joslow recalls how against all odds, 35,000 prayer books were printed, assembled and finally delivered on Erev Rosh Hashanah.
Joslow’s story, along with other dramatic narratives, has been uncovered in JDC's Oral History Collection. JDC has partnered with the Mémorial de la Shoah to digitize and catalogue more than 100 interviews with the organization's leaders and staff members. The oral histories were recorded between 1966 and 2003, and include stories about JDC’s humanitarian work across the globe. The collection includes interviews with long-time JDC staff members (a.k.a. Jointniks), such as Paulette Fink (1911-2005), who organized housing for 1,500 child survivors of the Holocaust; Samuel Haber (1903-1984), JDC Director in the U.S. Zone in Germany from 1947 to 1953; and Monroe Goldwater (1885-1980), a prominent attorney and a member of JDC's Board of Directors.
The Oral History Collection offers new and unique perspectives on the history of JDC from the people who helped to shape the organization. In addition to more than 300 audio recordings, the collection also contains paper documents, e.g. transcripts, correspondence and newspaper articles. All of the audio recordings and documents have been digitized. A finding aid is being prepared and will be available to the public online.
Through the Curator’s Lens: Leslie Fried Identifies JDC Materials for Opening Exhibit at the Alaska Jewish Museum
When Leslie Fried began her research on Operation Magic Carpet, the airlift of some 48,000 Yemenite Jews from Aden to Israel from December 1948 to September 1950, material from the JDC Archives was instrumental in shaping her research. From the start she knew that Alaska Airlines participated in the airlift. She began with photographs from the airlines, a news clip of an interview with pilot Capt. Warren Metzger, and an audiotape of James R. Wooten, president of the airline company in 1948.
Following the 1947 UN Partition Plan to establish independent Arab and Jewish states in Palestine, the Yemenite Jewish community was attacked by their Muslim neighbors, with at least 82 people killed and many stores and businesses destroyed. The opening exhibit of the Alaska Jewish Museum was initially planned to focus on the pilots’ heroic efforts under extreme conditions to rescue the community from oppression and lead them toward redemption.
When Fried visited to the JDC Archives, a broader picture of the airlift emerged. She discovered correspondence among the various groups involved: the JDC in New York, Paris and Tel Aviv, Alaska Airlines, Near East Air Transport, Radio Israel, the American Jewish Congress and the Jewish Agency. Through newspaper articles and pamphlets found in the Archives, Fried was able to situate the airlift within the culture and history of the Yemenite Jews, and within the context of Israeli history.
She began to see similarities between the feisty Alaskan bush pilots and the Machal pilots —her father served as one — who fought on behalf of the fledgling Jewish state in the War of Independence in 1948. JDC played a central role in organizing and funding Operation Magic Carpet, and the JDC Archives has maintained documentation of the correspondence between all the groups and individuals involved. One exciting discovery Fried made was finding a request for additional pilots directed to Al Schwimmer, one of the founders of the Israel Air Force and Leslie’s father’s employer. Additional clues from her family indicated that her father, Captain Norman Moonitz, flew some of the Magic Carpet flights.
The exhibit On the Wings of Eagles: Alaska’s Contribution to Operation Magic Carpet opened in July 2013 in Anchorage, Alaska. The exhibit includes many items from the JDC Archives including 28 photographs, numerous documents and pamphlets, written testimonies from two of the pilots, Buddy Epstein and Edward Trueblood Martin, and the historic 1949 James Wooten sound recording. As Leslie comments, “The JDC archival material helped me achieve the exhibit’s purpose to tell the story of how various political and social entities came together to facilitate the historic and miraculous airlift of 48,000 Yemenite Jewish refugees from Aden to Israel from December 1948 to September 1950.”
Masters Thesis Highlights Four JDC Heroines
A recent article in Touro Links, a magazine published by Touro College’s Division of Graduate Studies, recounts one woman’s investigation into the lives of four unsung Jewish heroines. Passi Rosen-Bayewitz came to the JDC Archives to research her fourth master’s thesis, which focused on Jewish women engaging in relief work abroad. A former executive director for the UJA-Federation of New York, Rosen-Bayewitz is herself no stranger to dangerous work overseas, having been arrested in 1970 by the KGB on a trip to Soviet Russia to meet with refuseniks, Jews who had been denied permission to emigrate from the Soviet Union.
Rosen-Bayewitz focused on the work of four women; Harriet Lowenstein, Hetty Goldman, Amelia Greenwald, and Laura Margolis. These pioneering women provided critical aid to needy Jews overseas through their work with JDC. Harriet Lowenstein was an accountant and a lawyer who served as JDC’s first comptroller; she played a key role in establishing JDC's relief effort to reach millions of starving Jews in Eastern Europe following World War I. Hetty Goldman, a prominent archaeologist, interrupted her groundbreaking work as the first woman to direct an excavation on mainland Greece to serve as JDC's Representative in Greece and the Balkans. Amelia Greenwald, a prominent nurse and public health pioneer, founded the Jewish Nurses’ Training School in Poland in the 1920s. Laura Margolis, a lifelong JDC staffer, implemented JDC’s World War II-era relief efforts assisting some 15,000 Jews in Shanghai.
Read the Touro Links article here.
Records from JDC Istanbul Office Collection 1937-1949 Now Available Online
The JDC Archives Istanbul Collection, documenting JDC’s life-saving work from Turkey during and after World War II, is now available online. Browse Collection Highlights here.
This collection, housed in the Jerusalem office of the JDC Archives, comprises over 47,000 pages on 14 microfilm reels and chronicles JDC work in Turkey from 1937-1949. The records testify to JDC’s efforts to move the planning of rescue and relief operations to neutral countries such as Turkey. Turkey was strategically located at the crossroads of war-torn Europe and the nascent Jewish state in Palestine. In addition, these records highlight the Istanbul office’s partnership with other relief organizations, such as the Jewish Agency, the U.S. War Refugee Board, and the International Red Cross, in rescue operations and in large-scale enterprises to identify and locate survivors during and after the war.
The digitized records include: correspondence with Jewish communities throughout Turkey, Romania, and Palestine; extensive documentation regarding shipments of food packages and other supplies to concentration camps such as Theresienstadt and Bergen-Belsen; cables and news releases; lists of survivors, including thousands of files from the Central Location Index; and eyewitness accounts, including an account of the sinking of the SS Mefkure, a rescue ship traveling from Romania to Palestine, by torpedoes in the Black Sea on August 5, 1944.
Other items and topics of interest include:
• A postcard sent by Rabbi Leo Baeck, the renowned German scholar, from Theresienstadt acknowledging receipt of a JDC care package;
• The preparation of 10,000 food parcels sent to Transnistria and Bucharest;
• The extensive support for refugees passing through Turkey en route to Palestine and to passengers on the SS Drottingholm, a rescue ship used for repatriation of civilians and prisoners of war;
• Wartime testimonies;
• Correspondence regarding Joel Brand’s and Rudolf Kasztner’s negotiations with Nazi officials in an attempt to save Hungarian Jews from deportation to Auschwitz.
Access the Istanbul Collection here!
JDC Materials Featured in New Documentary on Jewish Refugees in Manila during WWII
The incredible and previously untold story of how over 1,000 German and Austrian Jewish refugees were assisted by five Jewish businessmen from Cincinnati to flee Nazi Europe and immigrate to the Philippines is now vividly brought forth in a new documentary, “Rescue in the Philippines.”
Employing archival documents, historic images, and primary source interviews, “Rescue in the Philippines” details how the five Frieder brothers, cigar manufacturers whose factories were located in Manila, the capital of the Philippines, decided to do something to help rescue Jews from Nazi Europe. They used their personal and social connections to collaborate with Manuel Quezon, the first President of the Philippines; Paul McNutt, U.S. High Commissioner to the Philippines, former governor of Indiana, and former Democratic presidential candidate; and Dwight Eisenhower, then an Army Colonel, to secure passports and visas for Jewish refugees from Europe to enter the Philippines as “skilled laborers.”
Barbara Sasser, Alex Frieder’s granddaughter and senior consultant to the film, notes that the idea to do the film was prompted by a 2005 event at Cincinnati’s Center for Holocaust and Humanity Education to mark the publication of Escape to Manila: From Nazi Tyranny to Japanese Terror, a collection of testimonies from refugees who spent time in Manila. Guests included Susan Eisenhower, President Eisenhower’s granddaughter.
The documentary team conducted research in the Philippines, where they interviewed President Quezon’s grandchildren and visited the National Archives, and at the Eisenhower Library in Kansas, where archivists located a folder containing correspondence between Alex Frieder and Eisenhower. “We knew that the relationship continued past the time in the Philippines, but we didn't have any letters from the Frieder side,” Sasser says.
Their research at the JDC Archives, where Executive and Budget Committee meeting minutes, memos, and correspondence testify to JDC’s support for the Frieders’ enterprise, was “essential to our being able to present the history in an accurate way in the documentary,” Sasser notes. [Click here to read a fascinating May 1940 report by Alex Frieder about his tenure as president of the Jewish Refugee Committee in Manila!]
When asked for the most surprising fact she had learned over the course of the documentary’s production, Sasser highlights President Quezon’s actions, including the donation of his own personal estate as a haven for the refugees, and his “moral courage." She hopes that the documentary will have a lasting impact. “When people see the film, [the] circumstance of ordinary people doing extraordinary things, we hope that it will inspire everyone to act when they see an injustice.”
“Rescue in the Philippines” has been screened in New York, San Francisco, Cincinnati, Houston, Maryland, and Austin. A half-hour version of the documentary accompanied by educational materials is in development, and is scheduled to be available by spring 2014.
Please visit the Rescue in the Philippines website to learn more about the research conducted for the film, schedule a screening, and more!
JDC Archives Featured in Judaica Europeana Newsletter
The recent Judaica Europeana (JE) e-newsletter highlights the JDC Archives, a partner agency of Judaica Europeana. JE was established, with funding from the European Commission and the Rothschild Foundation, to provide online access to digital content documenting European Jewish life and culture. A sub-project of the larger Europeana portal which includes over 23 million digital objects from over 2,200 institutions, JE will help researchers access material around the world relating to European Jewish life. This partnership enables the JDC Archives to reach a wider audience of European scholars.
Four interactive online exhibits about JDC’s history are already available on the Judaica Europeana website and a broader selection of materials will be added to the portal for public use. JE currently hosts almost 4 million digitized items from leading Jewish cultural institutions, including the Jewish Historical Museum in Amsterdam and the Jewish Historical Institute in Warsaw.
Read the Judaica Europeana newsletter here.
JTA’s "Seeking Kin" column features JDC Records
Rose Goteiner, an 88-year-old survivor, recently came across a photo (right) of 21 people standing before a truck marked “American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee.” This July 1946 photo from Amsterdam, The Netherlands depicts 16 children for whom the JDC arranged visas and transportation to the U.S. on the SS Marine Flasher.
Rose believes that one of the girls in the forefront of the photo is her sister Ruth, whom Rose last saw in 1943. Always assuming Ruth had perished, seeing this photo 60 years later gives Rose fresh hope that her baby sister survived the war and is still alive. Read more about it in the JTA Article.
ICP's New Roman Vishniac Exhibit Features Treasures from the JDC Archives
The International Center of Photography (ICP) in New York has mounted a milestone exhibit, "Roman Vishniac Rediscovered" that takes a new, more comprehensive look at the scope and avant-garde bent of this legendary photographer, best known for his iconic pre-World War II images of Eastern European Jewry, which were created on assignment from JDC.
The exhibit, scheduled to run through May 5, 2013, is the culmination of a decade of work by ICP Curator Maya Benton, who oversees the photographer's vast archives at the Center.
A recent feature in ARTnews explains how Benton, using recently discovered and diverse bodies of work, is reformulating and solidifying Vishniac's reputation as a multifaceted artist whose "well-honed Modernist sensibility" colored a wide range of subjects recorded throughout a long and accomplished career that spanned six decades, from his Berlin street photography of the 1920s and 30s through his pioneering scientific color photomicroscopy of the 1950s-70s.
JDC figured prominently in various stages of that career. In the 1930's, it commissioned Vishniac to photograph Jewish communities and JDC's work in Central and Eastern Europe, images that later became part of the renowned volume, A Vanished World.
According to Benton, even in his unpublished Eastern European images, Vishniac employed "an avant-garde sense of composition not often associated with his work."
In 1940, JDC helped Vishniac (newly released from an internment camp in Nazi-occupied France) make his way from Portugal to the U.S., giving him a letter of recommendation that helped him establish professional connections here. Vishniac was commissioned by what was then the United Jewish Appeal, the JDC, and The Forward to photograph people and programs in the postwar European Displaced Persons camps, and JDC assisted him with his plans.
The JDC Archives includes a large collection of Roman Vishniac photographs, including the maquette (mock-up) of an unpublished book with over 80 images. The exhibition features this maquette, along with documents, pamphlets, and an artifact borrowed from the Archives.
Roman Vishniac [Boy with kindling in a basement dwelling, Krochmalna Street, Warsaw], ca.1935-38
© Mara Vishniac Kohn, courtesy International Center of Photography
Roman Vishniac [Children playing in the Jewish quarter, Bratislava], ca. 1935-38
© Mara Vishniac Kohn, courtesy International Center of Photography
JDC Records from Post- WWII Period Now Accessible Online
One of the JDC Archives’ most significant and frequently researched collections, its New York 1945-1954 Collection, is now available online! This collection chronicles the vital rescue, relief, and rehabilitation programs that JDC developed in the face of a crisis of staggering proportions for world Jewry in the immediate aftermath of the Holocaust and World War II. View 1945-1954 Collection Highlights here.
This digitized collection can now serve as an outstanding primary source resource for members of the public, authors, curators, family historians, and scholars researching the post-World War II era, refugee resettlement, American humanitarian intervention and partnerships, and early Israeli history, among others.
This collection contains over 2,800 files, including policy memos, telegrams, correspondence generated by JDC’s New York Headquarters, and compelling eyewitness reports from JDC field staff working in Displaced Persons and refugee camps in Germany, Austria and Italy. The numerous topics covered in this collection include:
• JDC’s vital efforts, in partnership with other humanitarian organizations, to provide supplementary food, clothing, vocational training, educational and religious materials, legal representation, and emigration assistance to hundreds of thousands of Holocaust survivors and refugees in Displaced Persons (DP) camps. It is estimated that by 1947, about 250,000 Jewish refugees passed through the DP camps and received assistance from JDC;
• JDC’s partnerships with U.S. government and military offices and personnel, including Earl Harrison, President Truman’s Special Envoy, who made an official tour of DP camps. Harrison's resultant report eventually persuaded the U.S. and the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA) to create and administer separate camps for Jewish displaced persons within the U.S. Zone in postwar Germany;
• JDC’s extensive support for the first waves of emigration to Israel;
• JDC’s unique collaboration with the newly formed State of Israel to develop a social service infrastructure capable of meeting the needs of thousands of new immigrants;
• Its organization and funding of Operation Magic Carpet, termed “the largest human airlift in history,” in 1949 to bring over 48,000 Yemenite Jews to Israel. Listen here to a fascinating excerpt from an interview with the president of Alaska Airlines, who piloted some of these daring airlifts;
• JDC’s program of comprehensive relief for Jewish children in North Africa, which included the opening of summer camps and Jewish schools; and its partnership with OSE, a French Jewish humanitarian organization, in supporting medical clinics to combat diseases such as tuberculosis, trachoma, and tine, and to promote wellness
New Collaboration between JDC Archives and Memorial de la Shoah
The JDC Archives and Memorial de la Shoah, the Holocaust museum in Paris, France, have entered into a partnership to catalogue and digitize the JDC Oral History Collection. The collection documents the work of JDC through interviews with staff and lay leaders who served across the globe between the 1930s and 1980s, as well as interviews with staff of related organizations.
Long-time JDC staff member and executive Herbert Katzki, who began his career with JDC in Paris in the 1940s, initiated the JDC oral history program after his retirement in 1979. Through dozens of interviews, Katzki captured the memories and inside stories of those who, like him, had travelled the globe in order to carry out the JDC mission of rescue, relief and rehabilitation. The collection includes stirring recollections of work to provide critical aid to those in need during the Holocaust and its aftermath, dramatic rescue operations bringing immigrants to Israel, the establishment of essential social services in the nascent State of Israel, and more.
During the year-long project, JDC will digitize audio cassettes and transcripts of interviews, create a finding aid and launch an online portal for exploring collection excerpts. The digitized materials will be available to researchers as part of the research collections of both the JDC Archives and the Memorial de la Shoah.
Memorial de la Shoah is a museum and documentation center serving over 200,000 visitors a year, presenting exhibitions, public programs, teacher trainings and film screenings. The Memorial holds extensive and wide-ranging archival collections, including the records of the Center for Contemporary Jewish Documentation.
The JDC Archives is delighted to partner with Memorial de la Shoah in preserving and providing access to this important archival collection.
New Book Published on JDC's Pioneering Social Service Work in Israel
"In my research, I found that the JDC's MALBEN program has offered the weak and needy in Israel a helping hand and a warm and understanding heart for more than 25 years. This project should be used as a local and international example of providing short and long term health care in times of crisis.”
These are the words that Dr. Pnina Romem, head of the nursing studies program at Beersheba’s Ben Gurion University and author of the recently published book MALBEN: Mosadot Letipul Beolim Nichshalim (Eng: Malben: Institutions for the Treatement of Aged, Sick, and Handicapped Immigrants), chose to summarize her findings on one of JDC's most influential social service initiatives. After Israel became a state in 1948, it still lacked a national welfare infrastructure. To address this need and to alleviate the burden placed on the Israeli government to care for these needy populations, MALBEN was established in 1949 in partnership among JDC, the Jewish Agency, and the Government of Israel as a network of institutions and services for handicapped, elderly, and chronically ill immigrants.
In 1951, JDC took on full financial responsibility of MALBEN, and by 1957, JDC had invested close to $200 million in the program, assisting more than a quarter of a million people. During that pivotal year, JDC operated 23 facilities in Israel, such as geriatric hospitals and mental health institutes, as well as housing units for immigrant families and individuals who could not afford to rent their own homes. MALBEN’s social welfare work subsequently evolved to emphasize community services rather than institutional care whenever possible. This shift was in line with dominant professional thinking at the time, and encouraged independent living.
By the early 1960's MALBEN had begun attending to the social welfare needs of Israel's general population by providing special education programs and by caring for at-risk youth. Furthermore, MALBEN supported voluntary organizations, such as Ilan, a group which worked with handicapped children suffering from polio and cerebral palsy and Micha, which worked with hearing-impaired children. By 1976, Israel had built the infrastructure to care for the needy, and JDC handed off the group homes, hospitals and other programs to the Israeli government. After 27 years of activity, MALBEN was officially disbanded in 1976, having met its social service goals.
This Hebrew-language history is an adaptation of Dr. Romem's doctoral research, for which she culled the JDC Archives in both New York and Jerusalem. Dr. Romem has supplemented archival material with interviews of former MALBEN personnel and clients. She has visited many of the former MALBEN facilities, which were central to her research. While in the field, she found that many historical MALBEN buildings were completely destroyed, while others bore no sign or plaque commemorating the history of medical aid and service that had been distributed within their walls. In conclusion, Dr. Rotem says, "I hope that my book serves as a reminder, even a small one, to this wonderful program that is now almost completely forgotten."
See 1950-1960s MALBEN photos here.
JDC Haggadah: Occasions of Rescue, Relief and Renewal
As you look forward to Passover, enhance your seder with the beautifully illustrated JDC Haggadah, featuring a host of rare images and compelling documents from the JDC Archives.
“While the Exodus story in the Passover Haggadah took place in Biblical times, its themes of rescue, relief and renewal are as fresh as they are ancient”, says renowned journalist and author Ari Goldman in his commentary to In Every Generation: The JDC Haggadah.
The JDC Haggadah retells the ancient Passover story through the modern-day efforts of the JDC. The photos used represent Jewish life in different lands and show not only the deep reach of JDC but the rich tapestry of contemporary Judaism.
Call 212-687-6200 to order copies of the JDC Haggadah for you and your family today!
Paperback: $19.95 Hardcover: $24.95
Plus shipping and handling. Discounted rates are available for bulk orders.
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