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Records of the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee: New York office | 1933 – 1944 Countries and Regions

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Subcollection 4: Countries and Regions
Record Group 4.1: Abyssinia
Series 1: Abyssinia: Cultural and Religious
File 433: Abyssinia
The American Pro-Falasha Committee was first organized in the U.S. in 1922 to help in providing Falasha Jews in Abyssinia with Cult. and Rel. aid extended under the direction of Dr. Jacques Faitlovitch. Between 1921 - 1930, the JDC granted $13,150 in cultural funds. See: Archives 1921 - 1932, File 165. Between 1934 - 1938, JDC grants came to $3,600. Report: The American Pro-Falasha Committee, by the CJFWF, December 1936. Correspondence: C. Adler, D.M. Bressler, H.K. Buchman, J. Faitlovitch, J.C. Hyman, E.M. Morrissey, W.F. Rosenblum, E.L. Solomon.
Index Terms:
Abyssinia
Adler, C.
American Pro-Falasha Committee
Bressler, D.M.
Buchman, H.K.
Council of Jewish Federation and Welfare Funds (CJFWF)
Cultural and Religious
Faitlovitch, Jacques
Hyman, J.C.
Morrissey, E.M.
Reports
Rosenblum, W.F.
Solomon, E.L.
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Record Group 4.2: Africa, North
Series 1: Africa, North: Administration
Correspondence, memos, reports, addenda. Also see below: The files of Algiers, Lybia, Morocco, Tangiers, Tunis.
File 434: Africa, North: General, 1939; 1942 - 1944
JDC reports: General status reports on the Jews in North Africa, 11/13/42, 4/3/44, 10/23/44; Internees and Releases in North Africa, 6/22/43. Inspection trips to N. Africa by J.J. Schwartz, 7/19/43, D.B. Hurwitz, 11/29/43. Visit to UNRRA Refugee Centre by M. Kessler, 6/28/44 - 7/5/44. The JDC sent Kurt Peiser to assist J.J. Schwartz in organizing relief and rehabilitation program in the liberated territories, 5/12/43, 9/22/43, 11/5/43. The JDC contributed $25,000 to OFRRO, (U.S. Gov't) Office of Foreign Relief and Rehabilitation Operations, 3/17/43, 3/23/44, 4/20/44, 5/12/44, 9/2/44, 10/13/44. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, D.B. Hurwitz, J.C. Hyman, H. Katzki, M. Kessler, M.A. Leavitt, J.L. Magnes, J.J. Schwartz.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, P.
Hurwitz, D.B.
Hyman, J.C.
Katzki, H.
Kessler, M.
Leavitt, M.A.
Magnes, J.L.
North Africa
Office of Foreign Relief and Rehabilitation Operations (OFRRO)
Peiser, K.
Rehabilitation
Relief
Reports
Schwartz, J.J.
United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA)
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File 435: Africa, North: Internment Camps
Reports on Internment Camps in North Africa by: L.O. Heath, 1/6/43, 1/18/43 attachment to 2/12/43, 4/5/43 attachment to 4/23/43; Mme. H. Benatar, 4/23/43 attachment to 5/24/43. The JDC cautioned Mme. Benatar against adopting the JDC name without previous authorization, 2/1/43, 2/3/43, 3/20/43. Mme. Benatar opened a refugee center with JDC aid at Ain Sebaa, Morocco, 8/2/43, Jan. 1944. The JDC allocated $3,000 to UNRRA North African Refugee Center at Fedhala, Morocco, to improve the camp diet and camp programs, 4/20/44, 8/1/44, 9/2/44 and 10/13/44. Correspondence: H. Benatar, L.O. Heath, H. Katzki, M. Kessler, J. Ottinger, R. Pilpel.
Index Terms:
Benatar, H.
Heath, L.O.
Internment Camps
Katzki, H.
Kessler, M.
Morocco
North Africa
Ottinger, J.
Pilpel, R.
Reports
United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA)
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File 436: Africa, North: Financial, 1943 - 1944
The materials deal only with the transfer of funds to North Africa by the JDC. For a considerable stretch, the JDC obtained favorable exchange rates through the use of blocked funds in North Africa held by U.S. motion picture companies. Additional materials will also be found in the files of other countries in N. Africa.
Index Terms:
Financial
North Africa
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Record Group 4.3: Albania
File 436a: Albania, 1939 - 1941
In 1939, the JDC allocated $1,000 in aid of a handful of German refugees in Albania. For additional materials, see: Files 189-191. Correspondence: M. Ardeti, H. Grant, L.V. Valobra.
Index Terms:
Albania
Ardeti, M.
Grant, H.
Refugees
Valobra, L.V.
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Record Group 4.4: Algeria
File 437: Algeria, 1940 - 1944
The Jews of Algeria met their own emergency needs until October 1940, when the Vichy Gov't abrogated all Jewish safeguards in North Africa (Cremieux Law). Thereupon, foreign refugees in those lands were incarcerated in concentration and labor camps, while the natives Jews were exposed to legal and economic restrictions. The Jewish Refugee Committee, Association d'Etude, d'Aide et d'Assistance (Chairm: Elie Gozlan), appealed to the JDC for aid. JDC grants reached some $8,000 in 1941, $28,000 in 1942, $83,860 in 1943 and $21,000 in 1944. When JDC aid was extended to Tunis, in 1943, the funds were transmitted via E. Gozlan. The JDC extended allocations to North Africa via local aid committees, and did not open offices of its own as long as it could not place an American citizen in charge. (See below: 10/5/42). Reports: General Situation of the Jews in N. Africa, 11/13/42. Situation of Refugees in N. Africa, M. Leavitt, 12/24/42. Situation in Algeria, J.J. Schwartz, 7/18/43. Report on N. Africa November 1943, D.B. Hurwitz, 11/29/43. Fin. and Statis. Reports: 1/1/43 - 6/30/43, 12/22/43, 1/1/43 - 12/31/43, 3/14/44. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, M.W. Beckelman, E. Gozlan, D.B. Hurwitz, J.C. Hyman, H. Katzki, M.A. Leavitt, E.M. Morrissey, R. Pilpel, J.J. Schwartz.
Index Terms:
Algeria
Association d'Etude, d'Aide, d'Assistance
Baerwald, P.
Beckelman, M.W.
Cremieux Law
Financial
Gozlan, E.
Hurwitz, D.B.
Hyman, J.C.
Jewish Refugee Committee
Katzki, H.
Leavitt, M.A.
Morrissey, E.M.
North Africa
Pilpel, R.
Refugees
Reports
Schwartz, J.J.
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Record Group 4.5: Australia
Series 1: Australia: Administration
File 438: Australia: General, 1936 - 1940
JDC allocations for Australia vie the ECF, 6/2/39, 6/14/39. The REC allocated $40,000 in aid of refugee settlement in Australia, 1/6/38, 3/14/38, 5/26/38, 7/5/38, 8/25/38, 11/21/38, and 7/30/39 for a summary of communications. In 1939-1940, the REC appropriated additional sums, 6/13/39, 3/30/40, and 5/1/40 for a fiscal summary. Reports: Refugee Migration to Australia by Norman Bentwich, 10/10/38, and by Gerald de V. Davis, undated, attachment to 9/18/39. Annual Rep. by Managing Directors of the Mutual Farms, 12/28/39. Fin. Statements: Mutual Farms 10/31/39 attachment to 1/15/40; 10/31/40 attachment to 12/12/40. Correspondence: N. Bentwich, R.G. Casey, P.A. Cohen, G. Davis, I.E. Goldwasser, H. Ittleson, E.H. Komlos, C.J. Liebman, J.N. Rosenberg, B. Schachner.
Index Terms:
Australia
Bentwich, N.
Casey, R.G.
Cohen, P.A.
Davis, G.
Emigre Charitable Fund (ECF)
Financial
Goldwasser, I.E.
Ittleson, H.
Komlos, E.H.
Liebman, C.J.
Mutual Farms Pty. Ltd.
Refugee Economic Corporation (REC)
Refugees
Reports
Rosenberg, J.N.
Schachner, B.
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File 438a: Australia: General, 1941
Annual Reports by Managing Directors of Mutual Enterprises, 12/17/40 attachment to 2/5/41, and of Mutual Farms, 7/3/41 attachment to 8/8/41. Fin. Statements: Mutual Farms 6/30/41. Other data on the operation of Mutual Farms: 4/17/41, 4/21/41, 5/26/41, 9/5/41, 9/19/41, 12/22/41. Number of beneficiaries of Mutual Farms and Mutual Enterprises, 1/9/41, 3/28/41, 8/19/41; also see: File 438, 3/14/40. The JDC granted $3,500 towards the maintenance in Australia of 50 Polish-Jewish refugees who were newly arrived from Japan, 8/20/41, 9/4/41, 11/27/41; also see: File 438b, 1/9/42. For other materials on Polish refugees in Australia, see: Poland, File 880-a. Correspondence: G. Davis, E.H. Komlos, M.A. Leavitt, C.J. Liebman.
Index Terms:
Australia
Davis, G.
Financial
Komlos, E.H.
Leavitt, M.A.
Liebman, C.J.
Mutual Enterprises Pty. Ltd
Mutual Farms Pty. Ltd.
Poland
Refugees
Reports
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File 438b: Australia: General, 1942 - 1943
Annual Reports by Managing Directors of Mutual Enterprises, 8/27/42, 9/27/43 attach. 10/26/43, and of Mutual Farms, 9/23/43 attach. 9/27/43. Fin. Statements: Mutual Farms, 4/30/42, 7/28/42, 12/15/42, 7/14/43. Other data on: Mutual Enterprises, 10/7/42, 11/25/42; Mutual Farms, 1/8/43, 2/10/43. Sydney and Melbourne communities organized the United Jewish Relief Fund (UJRF) to aid in relief and rehab. of European Jews overseas, 6/10/43-6/30/43, 7/16/43, 8/10/43, 9/15/43, 9/27/43, 10/5/43, 10/31/43. Correspondence: G. Davis, L. Fink, F. Freeman, J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt, H. Lesnie, C.J. Liebman.
Index Terms:
Australia
Davis, G.
Financial
Fink, L.
Freeman, F.
Hyman, J.C.
Leavitt, M.A.
Lesnie, H.
Liebman, C.J.
Melbourne
Mutual Enterprises Pty. Ltd
Mutual Farms Pty. Ltd.
Rehabilitation
Relief
Reports
Sydney
United Jewish Relief Fund (UJRF)
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File 438c: Australia: General, 1944
The UJRF contributed AL 3,000 towards JDC relief activities for refugees in Sweden, Switzerland, Spain and Portugal, 2/3/44; a second AL 3,000 for refugee relief followed for use at the JDC's discretion, 5/24/44. The UJRF raised $200,000 in Sydney and Melbourne, and contributed AL 25,000 for JDC refugee programs 10/5/44, 10/26/44 Ripps to JDC, 10/28/44, 11/27/44. The JDC loaned AL 7,500 to the Welfare Guardian Society, Melbourne, to aid in bringing Jewish refugee children to Australia from England, 5/17/44, 9/20/44, 10/23/44, 11/2/44. Annual Reports by Managing Directors of Mutual Farms, 7/27/44 attach. 8/29/44, and of Mutual Enterprises, 9/14/44 attach. 10/11/44. Fin. Statements: Mutual Farms, 4/30/44 attach. 6/28/44. Printed annual report of the UJRF Melbourne 1943-1944, in English and Yiddish copies. Correspondence: F. Freeman, J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt, C.J. Liebman, I. Ripps, L.H. Sobel, H.V. Vidor.
Index Terms:
Australia
Children
Financial
Freeman, F.
Hyman, J.C.
Leavitt, M.A.
Liebman, C.J.
Melbourne
Mutual Enterprises Pty. Ltd
Mutual Farms Pty. Ltd.
Portugal
Refugees
Relief
Reports
Ripps, I.
Sobel, L.H.
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Sydney
United Jewish Relief Fund (UJRF)
Vidor, H.V.
Welfare Guardian Society
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File 438d: Australia: General, 1945 - 1947
Annual Reports by Managing Directors of Mutual Farms, 9/18/46 attach. 11/27/46, and of Mutual Enterprises 9/14/46 - March 1947, undated. Fin. Statements: Mutual Farms 4/30/46 attach. 7/17/46, 4/30/47 attach. 7/12/47; Mutual Enterprises, 4/30/46 attach. 3/29/47, 12/10/47. Narrative data: Mutual Farms, 4/17/47; Mutual Enterprises, 10/31/46, 2/17/47, 2/26/47, 3/4/47, 8/4/47, 10/10/47, 10/20/47. Correspondence: W.L Brand, A.A. Calwell, P.A. Cullen, E.H. Komlos, H. Lesnie, C.J. Liebman.
Index Terms:
Australia
Brand, W.L.
Calwell, A.A.
Cullen, P.A.
Financial
Komlos, E.H.
Lesnie, H.
Liebman, C.J.
Mutual Enterprises Pty. Ltd
Mutual Farms Pty. Ltd.
Reports
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File 438e: Australia: General, 1948 - 1949 (June)
Annual Report by Managing Director of Mutual Farms, 5/1/47-4/30/48, 7/22/48 attach. 8/6/48. Fin. Rep.: Mutual Enterprises, 3/16/49. The RAF forwarded to Mutual Enterprises $50,000 for the opening of hostels to care for newly arrived immigrants and $12,500 for making industrial loans to immigrants, 12/1/48, 12/17/48, 12/22/48, 1/12/49, 1/18/49, 3/16/49, 4/5/49. Correspondence: W. Brand, P.A. Cullen, C.H. Jordan, E.H. Komlos, M.A. Leavitt, C.J. Liebman, S. Symonds.
Index Terms:
Australia
Brand, W.
Cullen, P.A.
Financial
Immigrants
Jordan, C.H.
Komlos, E.H.
Leavitt, M.A.
Liebman, C.J.
Mutual Enterprises Pty. Ltd
Mutual Farms Pty. Ltd.
Reports
Symonds, S.
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File 438f: Australia: General, 1949 (July) - 1950
The REC sent out a representative to Australia, Emery H. Komlos, to review the refugee situation and to work out a plan of action in re. fin. assistance, 8/11/49, 8/17/49, 8/22/49, 8/23/49 Liebman to Fink. Komlos met with Jewish leaders in Australia, 9/23/49-9/27/49. [Note: on the return flight home from Australia, Komlos was killed on 10/27/49 when his plane crashed in the Azores] Fin. Statement: Mutual Enterprises, 3/21/50, 3/30/50. Correspondence: W.L. Brand, C.H. Jordan, E.H. Komlos, M.A. Leavitt, C.J. Liebman.
Index Terms:
Australia
Brand, W.L.
Financial
Jordan, C.H.
Komlos, E.H.
Leavitt, M.A.
Liebman, C.J.
Mutual Enterprises Pty. Ltd
Refugee Economic Corporation (REC)
Refugees
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File 438g: Australia: General, Kimberley Project
The Freeland League for Jewish Territorial Colonization, London (Secy: Dr. I.N. Steinberg) proposed a plan for a large scale refugee settlement in the Kimberley District in northern Australia. In 1940 Dr. Steinberg began to propagandize heavily on its behalf in government circles in Australia and in Jewish circles everywhere. Early in 1941, the Australian Gov't. declared that to undertake the project in wartime was inopportune, while agricultural specialists labeled the tropical climate as utterly unsuited to European settlement. Dr. Steinberg's efforts at promotion continued for several years but led to no result. Correspondence: G. Davis, E.H. Komlos, C.J. Liebman, A. Siegel, I.N. Steinberg.
Index Terms:
Australia
Davis, G.
Freeland League for Jewish Territorial Colonization
Kimberley Project
Komlos, E.H.
Liebman, C.J.
London
Siegel, A.
Steinberg, I.N.
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Series 2: Australia: Subject Matter
File 438h: Australia: Immigration (from Shanghai), 1946 - 1947 (June)
High hopes were held that Shanghai refugees in large numbers would be admitted to Australia in the post-war years. In the main, those hopes were dashed by a mixture of interlocking causes: shipping shortages in the Far East, domestic Australian political considerations and unsympathetic Australian immigration officials sent to Shanghai. Shanghai emigration to Australia began well along in 1946. In August, a group of 286 Shanghai refugees bearing valid immigration visas for Australia, found themselves unexpectedly stranded in Hong-Kong by the shipping shortage. The Australian Government offered no aid in providing the transportation needed. It was the end of December before the JDC succeeded in getting the last group of stranded refugees moving en route to Australia. In all, some 1,400 Shanghai refugees were admitted to the country, and over one-half arrived in 1946. Thereafter, the going was uphill, as slow-down tactics took their toll. Arrivals: 1946: 763; 1947: 140; 1948: 105; 1949 (May): 292; (June) 1949-1951: 100 (approximately); Total: 1,400. The JDC sent three representatives to Australia from Shanghai to study the prospects: Gertrude van Tijn, Nov. 1946. For her reports, see: 12/20/46, 1/3/47, 1/6/47, 3/22/47. Charles H. Jordan, 8/20/47-9/20/47. For his report, see: 10/4/47 and his summary report on Australian meetings, 9/23/47. Cook Glassgold, July, 1951. see:7/31/51-9/20/51. The Australian Gov't in its turn sent representatives to Shanghai to canvass candidates for immigration: Alec Masel, Vice-President of the Executive Council of Australian Jewry. He arrived in Feb. 1947 and took back with him some 1,500 applications which the Australian Gov't accepted in principle. Major Fuhrman arrived in July 1947 as Australian Consul-General along with an immigration official, Mr. Taylor. Both were described as anti-semites. They effectively sabotaged emigration activities, and all but undid Masel's favorable recommendations. Consul-General Penhalluriack replaced Fuhrman in the autumn of 1948. He was a man of good will, but his approval of visas proceeded in slow motion. By mid-1949, only those refugees who had given up hope of ever gaining admission to the U.S. or Canada were interested in migrating to Australia. In its turn, the Australian Government showed an ever-diminishing interest in accepting the refugees remaining in Shanghai. For data on refugee immigration to Australia from other countries, see: Central Files.
Index Terms:
Australia
Executive Council of Australian Jewry
Fuhrman, Major
Glassgold, Cook
Hong-Kong
Immigration
Jordan, Charles H.
Masel, Alec
Penhalluriack, Consul-General
Refugees
Shanghai
van Tijn, Gertrude
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File 438i: Australia: Immigration (from Shanghai), 1947 (July) - 1952
High hopes were held that Shanghai refugees in large numbers would be admitted to Australia in the post-war years. In the main, those hopes were dashed by a mixture of interlocking causes: shipping shortages in the Far East, domestic Australian political considerations and unsympathetic Australian immigration officials sent to Shanghai. Shanghai emigration to Australia began well along in 1946. In August, a group of 286 Shanghai refugees bearing valid immigration visas for Australia, found themselves unexpectedly stranded in Hong-Kong by the shipping shortage. The Australian Government offered no aid in providing the transportation needed. It was the end of December before the JDC succeeded in getting the last group of stranded refugees moving en route to Australia. In all, some 1,400 Shanghai refugees were admitted to the country, and over one-half arrived in 1946. Thereafter, the going was uphill, as slow-down tactics took their toll. Arrivals: 1946: 763; 1947: 140; 1948: 105; 1949 (May): 292; (June) 1949-1951: 100 (approximately); Total: 1,400. The JDC sent three representatives to Australia from Shanghai to study the prospects: Gertrude van Tijn, Nov. 1946. For her reports, see: 12/20/46, 1/3/47, 1/6/47, 3/22/47. Charles H. Jordan, 8/20/47-9/20/47. For his report, see: 10/4/47 and his summary report on Australian meetings, 9/23/47. Cook Glassgold, July, 1951. see:7/31/51-9/20/51. The Australian Gov't in its turn sent representatives to Shanghai to canvass candidates for immigration: Alec Masel, Vice-President of the Executive Council of Australian Jewry. He arrived in Feb. 1947 and took back with him some 1,500 applications which the Australian Gov't accepted in principle. Major Fuhrman arrived in July 1947 as Australian Consul-General along with an immigration official, Mr. Taylor. Both were described as anti-semites. They effectively sabotaged emigration activities, and all but undid Masel's favorable recommendations. Consul-General Penhalluriack replaced Fuhrman in the autumn of 1948. He was a man of good will, but his approval of visas proceeded in slow motion. By mid-1949, only those refugees who had given up hope of ever gaining admission to the U.S. or Canada were interested in migrating to Australia. In its turn, the Australian Government showed an ever-diminishing interest in accepting the refugees remaining in Shanghai. For data on refugee immigration to Australia from other countries, see: Central Files.
Index Terms:
Australia
Executive Council of Australian Jewry
Fuhrman, Major
Glassgold, Cook
Hong-Kong
Immigration
Jordan, Charles H.
Masel, Alec
Penhalluriack, Consul-General
Refugees
Shanghai
van Tijn, Gertrude
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Record Group 4.6: Austria
Series 1: Austria: Administration
Correspondence, memos, reports, addenda.
File 439: Austria: Administration, General, 1934 - 1938
The JDC allocated $250,000 to meet emergency needs in Austria, 5/13/38, 5/31/38. Reports: "Situation of the Jews in Austria", B. Kahn, 2/18/34, and April 1936. For report "Visit to Austria" by Neville Laski 9/24/34, see: Poland, File 788, "The Jews in Austria", March 1938. "Data on the Jews in Austria", 4/11/38. Visits to Vienna by: A.A. Landesco and D.J. Schweitzer, 6/10/38; A. Jaretsky Jr., 7/5/38; D.J. Schweitzer and W. Bein; 8/16/38; C.M. Levy, 12/1/38 - 12/8/38. On Nazi Persecutions in Austria 1938 - 1944, rep. by J. Loewenberg, see: SM Archives, File 28, attachment to 8/31/45. For the Evian Conference and the IGCR, see: Files 255-256. For the Council for German Jewry (CGJ), see: Files 571-585. Correspondence: C. Adler, P. Baerwald, H.A. Guinzburg, J.C. Hyman, A. Jaretski Jr., B. Kahn, N. Katz, C.M. Levy, J. Rosen, B.J. Schweitzer.
Index Terms:
Adler, C.
Administration
Austria
Baerwald, P.
Guinzburg, H.A.
Hyman, J.C.
Jaretski Jr., A.
Kahn, B.
Katz, N.
Levy, C.M.
Reports
Rosen, J.
Schweitzer, B.J.
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File 440: Austria: Administration, General, 1939 - 1941; 1943 - 1945
The IKW application for funds to the CGJ, 6/22/39. Reports-IKW: 1/14/39, Jan. 1939, Nov. 1939, Jan. 1940, the Activity of Emigration and the Budget of the Jewish Community for 1940, undated. For other IKW reports, see below: Files 442-443. Other Reports: On Austria, March 1938; the Martyrdom of Austrian Jewry Mar. 1938 - Mar. 1939 by M. Wischnitzer, March 1939; Report on a visit to Vienna by N. Bentwich, 8/17/39; Mass Deportations of Viennese Jews by the JDC Budapest, 3/12/41. On Nazi Deportations from Austria 1938 - 1944 by J.I. Loewenberg, see: SM Archives, File 28, attachment to 8/31/45. Correspondence: M.A. Leavitt, J. Loewenberg, I. Rosen, M.C. Troper.
Index Terms:
Administration
Austria
Council for German Jewry (CGJ)
Israelitische Kultusgemeinde Wien (IKW)
Leavitt, M.A.
Lowenberg, J.
Reports
Rosen, I.
Troper, M.C.
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Series 2: Austria: Organizations
File 441: Austria: Organizations, Miscellaneous
David and Adler Engineers School, Stadlau bei Wien, subsequently Montevideo. Harand Bewegung, Wien. Israelitische Kultusgemeinde, Wien, in separate folders, Files 442-443. Also see: Files 439-440, 445-447. Jewish Commercial Training School, Vienna. Juedisches Waisenhaus, Baden bei Wien. New Zionist Organization, Vienna. Schutzverband fuer Auslaender, Wien. Verein Mittelstands Fuersorge, Wien.
Index Terms:
Schutzverband fuer Auslaender
Austria
David and Adler Engineers School
Harand Bewegung
Israelitische Kultusgemeinde
Jewish Commercial Training School
Juedisches Waisenhaus
New Zionist Organization
Verein Mittelstands Fuersorge
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File 442: Austria: Organizations, Israelitische Kultusgemeinde Wien (IKW), 1933 - 1939
The file contains IKW activity reports covering the years 1933 - 1940. For IKW correspondence and other IKW reports, see: Files 439-440, 445. Narrative and statistical reports: 1933 - 1936; 5/2/38 - 12/31/39.
Index Terms:
Austria
Israelitische Kultusgemeinde Wein (IKW)
Reports
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File 443: Austria: Organizations, Israelitische Kultusgemeinde Wien (IKW), 1939 - 1940
The file contains IKW activity reports covering the years 1933 - 1940. For IKW correspondence and other IKW reports, see: Files 439-440, 445. May-June, 7/1/39 - 10/31/39, Activity during twelve months of war 9/1/39 - 8/31/40, Survey on 1940.
Index Terms:
Austria
Israelitische Kultusgemeinde Wein (IKW)
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Series 3: Austria: Subject Matter
File 444: Austria: Subject Matter, Cultural and Religious, 1933 - 1940
Between 1933 - 1938 small JDC grants contributed to the support of three Vienna schools of higher learning, in continuation of grants dating back into the 1920's: Hebraisches Pedagagium, Theologisches Lehranstalt, and Chajes Realgymnasium. The first two closed early in 1939.
Index Terms:
Austria
Chajes Realgymnasium
Cultural and Religious
Hebraisches Pedagagium
Schools
Theologisches Lehranstalt
Vienna
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File 445: Austria: Subject Matter, Emigration, General, 1938 - 1940
In pre-Anschluss days, Jewish emigration from Austria was negligible. But the Anschluss made emigration the goal of every Jew in Austria and emigration aid became the dominant activity of the IKW. Over 60% of the Jewish population emigrated in 1938 - 1939. The frantic pace slowed down once war broke out in Sept. 1939, more so when Italy joined the Axis, and came to a standstill following Pearl Harbor. Between 1938 - 1941, JDC appropriations in aid of emigration from Austria ranged well beyond $2,000,000, although actual expenditures came to $1,849,000. The discrepancy arose because, in some instances, the funds appropriated could not be applied in the manner designated, and especially so following the outbreak of W.W. II. The financial clearing arrangement for emigration worked in this wise. Prospective emigrants deposited with the IKW in local currency the costs of their travel abroad. These funds the IKW then used locally to provide welfare aid to the needy, schooling for children, vocational training in some degree, and support for homes and institutions. In turn, the JDC paid the necessary travel costs, in dollars to non-German steamship lines or travel agencies, and also provided the necessary landing fees, landing deposits and related charges demanded by the countries of destination. The JDC appropriations for emigration may give off an impressive ring at first hearing. Yet they were sufficient to cope but in part with the staggering needs. In June 1940, following the fall of France, Holland and Belgium, the JDC called upon relatives and friends of prospective emigrants from Greater Germany and the occupied countries to contribute the travel costs of those persons, and thereby enlarge the circles of beneficiaries. To administer the activity, the JDC opened the Transmigration Bureau (TB) in June 1940, see above: File 368. By 10/22/41, the TB had accepted trust deposits of $4,600,000, the major part of it earmarked for Jews from Austria. The IKW application for aid to the Council for German Jewry, 6/22/39, 7/6/39, 7/28/39. Overland migration routes from Vienna bound for the Americas and Palestine, 9/23/40; also see below: File 446, 1/4/41. Reports by the IKW: Emigration, Retraining, Social Care 5/2/38 - 7/31/39, May-June 1939; Activity During Twelve Months 9/1/39 - 8/31/40; Twelve Questions About Emigration from Vienna 1/1/40 - 4/30/40; Survey on 1940, The Activity of Emigration and the Budget of the Jewish Community for 1940; also see above: File 442, Report 5/2/38 - 12/31/39. Correspondence: H.K. Buchman, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, M.A. Leavitt, J. Loewenberg, I. Rosen, M.C. Troper.
Index Terms:
Austria
Buchman, H.K.
Council for German Jewry (CGJ)
Emigration
Hyman, J.C.
Israelitische Kultusgemeinde Wein (IKW)
Kahn, B.
Leavitt, M.A.
Loewenberg, J.
Rosen, I.
Troper, M.C.
Vienna
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File 446: Austria: Subject Matter, Emigration, General, 1941 - 1942
In pre-Anschluss days, Jewish emigration from Austria was negligible. But the Anschluss made emigration the goal of every Jew in Austria and emigration aid became the dominant activity of the IKW. Over 60% of the Jewish population emigrated in 1938 - 1939. The frantic pace slowed down once war broke out in Sept. 1939, more so when Italy joined the Axis, and came to a standstill following Pearl Harbor. Between 1938 - 1941, JDC appropriations in aid of emigration from Austria ranged well beyond $2,000,000, although actual expenditures came to $1,849,000. The discrepancy arose because, in some instances, the funds appropriated could not be applied in the manner designated, and especially so following the outbreak of W.W. II. The financial clearing arrangement for emigration worked in this wise. Prospective emigrants deposited with the IKW in local currency the costs of their travel abroad. These funds the IKW then used locally to provide welfare aid to the needy, schooling for children, vocational training in some degree, and support for homes and institutions. In turn, the JDC paid the necessary travel costs, in dollars to non-German steamship lines or travel agencies, and also provided the necessary landing fees, landing deposits and related charges demanded by the countries of destination. The JDC appropriations for emigration may give off an impressive ring at first hearing. Yet they were sufficient to cope but in part with the staggering needs. In June 1940, following the fall of France, Holland and Belgium, the JDC called upon relatives and friends of prospective emigrants from Greater Germany and the occupied countries to contribute the travel costs of those persons, and thereby enlarge the circles of beneficiaries. To administer the activity, the JDC opened the Transmigration Bureau (TB) in June 1940, see above: File 368. By 10/22/41, the TB had accepted trust deposits of $4,600,000, the major part of it earmarked for Jews from Austria. Emigration procedures at the IKW, 1/4/41 attachment to 1/7/41. Selected letters on emigration problems by the IKW, 6/14/41 (Reply by M.A. Leavitt 9/27/41), 7/2/41, 11/24(?)/41. Emigration statistics 3/15/38 - 11/7/41, 11/19/42. Correspondence: J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt, J. Loewenberg, E.M. Morrissey, R. Pilpel, I. Rosen, M. Segal.
Index Terms:
Austria
Emigration
Hyman, J.C.
Israelitische Kultusgemeinde Wein (IKW)
Leavitt, M.A.
Loewenberg, J.
Morrissey, E.M.
Pilpel, R.
Rosen, I.
Segal, M.
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File 447: Austria: Subject Matter, Emigration, Other Activities
1. Children, 1937 - 1939: In July 1939, Austrian Gov't officials demanded the liquidation of the Vienna loan kassa which had been in existence since 1922 when the JDC established it. The officials released the funds ($15,000) on condition that it be applied in full to the costs of transporting Jewish children to other countries from Austria, 8/9/38 - 1/26/39. Statement by the IKW "The Question of the Jewish Children and Juveniles of Vienna", 1939, issued in five languages. 2. Youth Aliyah, 1933 - 1944: In the 1930's, the Youth Aliyah movement busied itself with bringing children to Israel from Germany, Austria, Poland and other lands. In 1938, the Hadassah conducted a fund-raising drive in the U.S. on behalf of youth aliyah. The JDC informed the Hadassah that it could make it known that the movement enjoyed the support of many elements in the JDC, but that the organ. itself could not publicly endorse the activities of other organs., 4/12/38 - 5/6/38, 6/17/38. The JDC appropriated $3,000 - 4,000 to cover transportation costs of Youth Aliyah candidates from Germany, Austria and Poland to Palestine, 6/11/38 - 6/20/38. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, M.B. Hexter, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn. Loan Kassa: For the Kreditkassa fuer Kleingewerbe u. Kleinhandel in Wien (loan kassa), see above: File 447(1).
Index Terms:
Austria
Baerwald, P.
Children
Emigration
Germany
Hadassah
Hexter, M.B.
Hyman, J.C.
Israelitische Kultusgemeinde Wein (IKW)
Kahn, B.
Loan Kassa
Palestine
Poland
Reconstruction
Youth Aliyah
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File 448: Austria: Subject Matter, Refugees, General, 1938 - 1943
The data deals with special problems in other countries encountered by Austrian refugees, and of Austrian Jews who were deported.
Index Terms:
Austria
Refugees
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File 449: Austria: Subject Matter, Students
The JDC made grants to Prof. A. Durig of the University of Vienna, a non-Jew, who out of his own means, aided foreign Jewish students at the medical school who had fallen into dire need. Correspondence: A. Durig, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, B. Samuel, Dr. Bela Schick.
Index Terms:
Austria
Durig, A.
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, B.
Samuel, B.
Schick, Dr. Bela
Schools
Students
University of Vienna
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Record Group 4.7: Belgium
Series 1: Belgium: Administration
Correspondence, memos, reports, addenda.
File 450: Belgium: Administration, General, 1933 - 1940 (Sept.)
On the status of refugees in Belgium: 1/27/39, 1/31/39, 7/5/39. The JDC contributed $1,500 to the U.S. Ambassador in Belgium for distribution to needy Jews, 6/26/40 - 7/2/40; report of the distribution, 8/1/40 attachment to 12/20/40. Reports-Comite d'Assistance: General, 2/10/40, 5/19/40 attachment to 5/23/40; Antwerp, 8/22/39, 2/5/40, 2/6/40, 2/26/40, 4/3/40, 5/19/40 attachment to 5/23/40; Brussels, 8/4/39, 3/18/40, 4/20/40, 5/19/40 attachment to 5/23/40; Other reports: Situation of Jewish Refugees from Belgium in France, 5/19/40, attachment to 5/23/40, 9/8/40 attachment to 9/19/40; The Events from 5/10/40 - 7/30/40, by E.L. Kowarsky, 9/26/40. Correspondence: M. Aranowitz, P. Baerwald, A.R. Emanuel, M.Gottschalk, J.C. Hyman, H. Katzki, E.L. Kowarsky, M.A. Leavitt, R.T. Pell, I. Rosen, J.J. Schwartz, M.C. Troper.
Index Terms:
Administration
Antwerp
Aranowitz, M.
Baerwald, P.
Belgium
Brussels
Comite National de Defense des Juifs en Belgique, Brussels
Comite d'Assistance aux Refugies Juifs
Emanuel, A.R.
France
Gottschalk, M.
Hyman, J.C.
Katzki, H.
Kowarsky, E.L.
Leavitt, M.A.
Nazi invasion
Pell, R.T.
Refugee Aid
Refugees
Reports
Rosen, I.
Schwartz, J.J.
Troper, M.C.
#Return to Top
File 451: Belgium: Administration, General, 1940 (Oct.) - 1944
Reports: On the Belgian Jews, 11/20/43; Comite National de Defense des Juifs, 9/27/44; Situation of the Jews in Belgium, 10/22/44, 11/9/44 attachment to 11/20/44; Situation of Jewish Children (when the liberation came), attachment to 11/22/44; My Experiences during the Persecution of the Jews in Berlin and Brussels 1939 - 1944, by Paula Littauer, Oct. 1945. Correspondence: E. Allard, P. Baerwald, G. Coulon, M. Gottschalk, J. Jefroykin, M.A. Leavitt, J.J. Schwartz, M. Stephany, M.C. Troper, P. van Zeeland.
Index Terms:
Administration
Allard, E.
Baerwald, P.
Belgium
Berlin
Brussels
Children
Comite National de Defense des Juifs
Comite National de Defense des Juifs en Belgique, Brussels
Comite de'Assistance aux Refugies Juifs
Coulon, G.
Gottschalk, M.
Jefroykin, J.
Leavitt, M.A.
Littauer, P.
Reports
Schwartz, J.J.
Stephany, M.
Troper, M.C.
van Zeeland, P.
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Series 2: Belgium: Organizations
Comite de' Assistance aux Refugies Juifs, Brussels, see: Files 450-451. Comite National de Defense des Juifs en Beligique, Brussels, see: File 451. For additional materials, see: SM Archives, File 29.
Index Terms:
Belgium
Brussels
Comite National de Defense des Juifs en Belgique, Brussels
Comite de'Assistance aux Refugies Juifs
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Record Group 4.8: British Honduras
File 451a: British Honduras, General, 1939 - 1940 (Sept)
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File 451b: British Honduras, General, 1940 (Oct) - 1948
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Record Group 4.9: Bulgaria
File 452: Bulgaria, General
Between 1937 - 1939, the JDC appropriated token sums in aid of a handful of refugees who reached Bulgaria, For materials, see: EUREXCO, Files 189-190. In W.W. II, the Bulgarian Gov't, acting under Nazi pressure, enacted a series of anti-Jewish laws, and in May 1943 it deported most of the Jewish inhabitants of Sofia to provincial towns where food and lodging were in scanty supply. The JDC arranged a credit for the purchase of food in Bulgaria in 1943-1944. For details, see: SM Archives, File 30. In Sept. 1944, a new gov't abolished the anti-Jewish laws, and the JDC forwarded credits and supplies to the value of $50,000, in the months that followed; see: File 452 and SM Archives, File 30. The JDC appropriated $150,000 for the transportation to Palestine and the maintenance of some 4,000 - 5,000 Jewish children, and agreed to provide additional sums once the project got under way, 9/3/43, 9/22/43, 9/29/43, 10/28/43. Only a handful of Jews managed to leave Bulgaria in the course of the next year, 6/28/44, 8/10/44, 10/12/44. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, H.K. Buchman, M.A. Leavitt, R. Pilpel.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, P.
Buchman, H.K.
Bulgaria
Children
Food
Leavitt, M.A.
Palestine
Pilpel, R.
Refugees
Relief Supplies
War
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Record Group 4.10: Canada
Series 1: Canada: Subject Matter
File 453: Canada: Subject Matter, Immigration, 1938 - 1942
The JDC allocated $2,500 to cover out-of-pocket expenses incurred by refugees who were in transit through Canada en route from Europe to Australia, 1/10/39, 1/13/39(2). Report by the Canadian Jewish Committee for Refugees (organized early in 1939), 8/18/39. Reports of visits to refugee internment camps by S. Hayes, 8/16/40 and attachments, 8/21/40, 9/9/40 and attachment. Status of 1,543 refugees in Canada as of 7/1/41, 4/30/42. Also see: File 881. Correspondence: H.K. Buchman, E.M. Goldsmith, S. Hayes, J.C. Hyman, H. Katzki, M.A. Leavitt, C. Razovsky, B. Sadowski.
Index Terms:
Buchman, H.K.
Canada
Canadian Jewish Committee for Refugees
Goldsmith, E.M.
Hayes, S.
Hyman, J.C.
Immigration
Katzki, H.
Leavitt, M.A.
Razovsky, C.
Refugees
Sadowski, B.
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File 454: Canada: Subject Matter, Immigration, 1943 - 1945
Report: Canadian Emigration Project Iberian Peninsula 1943 - 1944, by D.B. Hurwitz, attachment to 2/18/44 J.J. Schwartz to AJDC. The JDC appropriated $150,000 to cover the costs of maintenance in Spain and Portugal and of transportation to Canada of refugee holders of duration-of-the-war visas, 3/2/44. Lists of refugees sailing for Canada under the program: 280 from Spain and Portugal on the SS Serpa Pinto 3/23/44, 3/27/44, 4/3/44; 72 from Spain and Portugal on the SS Serpa Pinto 5/18/44, which was stopped on the high seas by a Nazi submarine and the passengers were transferred to life boats, 6/9/44, 7/12/44; 66 from Tangiers, 7/2/44, 7/18/44; 11 from Portugal on SS Laurenzo Marques, 7/26/44; 74 from Tangiers on SS Nyassa, 9/17/44, 9/26/44, 9/29/44; 9 from Portugal on SS Serpa Pinto, 11/2/44. Correspondence: O. Cormier, S. Hayes, J.C. Hyman, D.B. Hurwitz, A.L. Jolliffe, M.A. Leavitt, R. Pilpel, J.J. Schwartz, M.R. Springer, H.K. Travers.
Index Terms:
Canada
Cormier, O.
Hayes, S.
Hurwitz, D.B.
Hyman, J.C.
Jolliffee, A.L.
Leavitt, M.A.
List
Pilpel, R.
Portugal
Refugees
Reports
SS Laurenzo Marques
SS Nyassa
SS Serpa Pinto
Schwartz, J.J.
Spain
Springer, M.R.
Travers, H.K.
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File 455: Canada: Subject Matter, Immigration, 1948 - 1952
List of Shanghai refugees (1,578 persons) who registered for immigration to Canada, 5/15/48. The Canadian Gov't approved the admission of 300 DP's from Shanghai, 2/21/49, 4/22/49, 4/27/49, 5/7/49 Glassgold to Rice, 5/9/49(2) Cable 431 and Leavitt to Alaska Airlines, 5/10/49, 5/13/49(2), 5/16/49 Leavitt to Rice, 5/17/49, 5/21/49 - 5/27/49, 6/2/49, 6/8/49, 6/23/49, 7/13/49, 9/14/49, 9/16/49, 9/28/49, 10/6/49, 10/9/49, 2/10/50. The Canadian Gov't refused to grant temporary visas to a second group of Shanghai DP's, but it was willing to permit members of the first group to remain who were willing to settle in Canada, 4/11/50 Petluck to Stein, 4/14/50 and attachments, 10/2/50, 11/30/50. Correspondence: D.H. Clark, A.C. Glassgold, S. Hayes, C.H. Jordan, M.A. Leavitt, R. Pilpel, R.L. Stein, J. Wong.
Index Terms:
Canada
Clark, D.H.
Displaced Persons
Glassgold, A.C.
Hayes, S.
Jordan, C.H.
Leavitt, M.A.
List
Pilpel, R.
Refugees
Shanghai
Stein, R.L.
Wong, J.
#Return to Top
Record Group 4.11: China
Series 1: China: Administration
Correspondence, reports, memos, addenda.
File 456: China: Administration, General, 1934; 1937-1938
The JDC allocated $2,500 for refugee aid in Shanghai, 3/8/38 Hyman memo and 3/14/38 Hyman to Hollzer; for the background of the allocations, see: 9/9/37 summary of appeal for JDC aid, 9/10/37 Hyman to Kahn, 11/5/37 attachment to 11/24/37, 11/26/37(2) Hyman to Hollzer and Hyman to Bisgyer, 2/8/38, 2/16/38 Summary of Recent Correspondence, 2/18/38, 2/21/38 Hyman to Hollzer. The JDC allocated $2,500 to the CAEJF for refugee relief, the first JDC allocation for the purpose in Shanghai, 3/5/38-3/14/38 and 6/7/38 and a second $2,500 allocation followed, 12/8/38, Statement of JDC subsidies to Shanghai 1924-1938 (March), 3/31/38. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, A. Frieder, H.A. Hollzer, J. Hollzer, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, Neville Laski, C.E. Pickett, W.J. Schroder, E.J. Swift, M.C. Troper.
Index Terms:
Administration
Baerwald, P.
China
Committee for the Assistance of European Jewish Refugees in Shanghai (CAEJF)
Frieder, A.
Hollzer, H.A.
Hollzer, J.
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, B.
Laski, Neville
Pickett, C.E.
Refugee Aid
Schroder, W.J.
Shanghai
Swift, E.J.
Troper, M.C.
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File 457: China: Administration, General, 1939 Jan.-June
The JDC allocated $25,000 for refugee aid in Shanghai, and the Council for German Jewry of Great Britain (Council) made a matching grant, 1/13/39-1/17/39. The Hilfsverein der Juden in Deutschland declared itself powerless to stem the tide of German-Jewish refugees moving to Shanghai, 2/10/39 attachment to 2/22/39. The Council sent $5,000 for May to match the JDC grant, and agreed to send $10,000 per month for a span of months, 4/26/39 Hayim to Council. The list of contributors to refugee relief in Shanghai Aug. 1938, 4/6/39 attachment to 5/12/39. The JDC allocations for 1939 reached $60,000, 6/27/39. Reports and memos on the status of refugees in Shanghai: U.S. Consul General in Shanghai, attachment to 2/23/39; CAEJF, 2/10/39, 3/24/39; Leon Friedman, 2/14/39 attachment to 2/25/39; Unidentified, 3/2/39 attachment to 3/29/39; J.C. Hyman, 3/14/39; H. Katzki, 6/6/39 attachment to 6/7/39; M. Speelman, 6/13/39 attachment to memo by A. Cantor 6/21/39; Council for German Jewry, 6/30/39. For additional materials, see: EUREXCO, Reports, File 190. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, H.A. Hollzer, E. Hayim, J.C. Hyman, H. Katzki, V. Sassoon, M. Speelman, M.C. Troper, G.L. Warren.
Index Terms:
Administration
Baerwald, P.
China
Committee for the Assistance of European Jewish Refugees in Shanghai (CAEJF)
Council for German Jewry of Great Britain (Council)
Hayim, E.
Hilfsverein der Juden
Hollzer, H.A.
Hyman, J.C.
Katzki, H.
Refugee Aid
Refugees
Reports
Sassoon, V.
Shanghai
Speelman, M.
Troper, M.C.
Warren, G.L.
#Return to Top
File 458: China: Administration, General, 1939 July-Dec.
The JDC rejected as visionary the Berglas Plan for settling 100,000 refugees in Hunnan Province, 6/15/39-8/5/39, 8/23/39, 8/31/39, 9/11/31, 11/15/39. Also see: File 459, 1/26/40. The Shanghai Municipal Council restricted refugee immigration except for persons already en route on the high seas, 8/14/39, 8/15/39, 8/18/39(2) cable and letter Troper to JDC. Reports and memos on the status of refugees in Shanghai: CAEJF, 7/1/39, 10/17/39, 11/11/39, 11/16/39 attachment to 11/21/39; J.C. Hyman, 7/13/39 Hyman to Hollzer, 10/2/39(2); J.J. Schwartz, 8/24/39, 10/31/39; L. Kadoorie, 8/2/39 attachment to 9/1/39; H. Katzki, 9/11/39. Correspondence: E. Hayim, J.C. Hyman, L. Kadoorie, B. Kahn, H. Katzki, R. Pilpel, V. Sassoon, J.J. Schwartz, M. Speelman, M.C. Troper.
Index Terms:
Administration
China
Committee for the Assistance of European Jewish Refugees in Shanghai (CAEJF)
Hayim, E.
Hyman, J.C.
Kadoorie, L.
Kahn, B.
Katzki, H.
Pilpel, R.
Refugees
Reports
Sassoon, V.
Schwartz, J.J.
Shanghai Municipal Council
Speelman, M.
Troper, M.C.
#Return to Top
File 459: China: Administration, General, 1940 Jan.-June
The CAESF was reorganized following the withdrawal of Sir Victor Sassoon, 1/12/40 Speelman to Troper, 1/15/40, 1/19/40, 1/25/40, 2/3/40(2) Troper to Speelman and Troper to the JDC. Restrictions on the admission of refugees to Shanghai were modified in some degree, 1/8/40 attachment to 2/1/40, 4/25/40, 5/1/40, 5/6/40 Speelman to Troper and attachment, 6/17/40. Refugees began arriving again in numbers, 1/18/40, 3/11/40, 4/15/40, 4/26/40, 5/6/40, 5/18/40, 6/4/40, 6/14/40, 6/20/40. JDC allocations increased to $18,000 per month, 3/6/40, but were later reduced to $14,000 per month owing to world-wide financial pressures, 5/2/40 CAEJF Minutes. Minutes of the CAEJF meetings: 2/6/40 and summary, 5/1/40. Reports and memos on the status of refugees in Shanghai: Central Council for Jewish Refugees, 1/29/40; J.C. Hyman, 3/6/40 attached to 3/8/40, Hyman to Nathan; CAEJF, 4/25/40, 5/9/40, and Annual Report of the CAEJF Medical Board 1939/40. Correspondence: J.C. Hyman, S. Ishiguro, B. Kahn, E. Kann, R. Pilpel, J.J. Schwartz, M. Speelman, M.C. Troper.
Index Terms:
Administration
Central Council for Jewish Refugees
China
Committee for the Assistance of European Jewish Refugees in Shanghai (CAEJF)
Hyman, J.C.
Ishiguro, S.
Kahn, B.
Kahn, E.
Pilpel, R.
Refugees
Reports
Schwartz, J.J.
Shanghai
Speelman, M.
Troper, M.C.
#Return to Top
File 460: China: Administration, General, 1940 July-Dec.
The CAEJF refused to forward to the JDC a Japanese request for expressions of cooperation, 9/9/40(2), but two other local Jewish organizations did so, 10/10/40, 10/21/40. The JDC agreed to increase its allocation to $16,000 per month in an attempt to reduce cuts in food rations, an aftermath to a galloping inflation, 10/24/40, 11/6/40, 11/13/40, 11/28/40. Reports and memos on the status of refugees in Shanghai: JDC memo, 8/26/40; CAEJF, 9/27/40, Summary of semi-annual report Jan.-June 1940, 11/5/40, and Annual Report 1940. Correspondence: M. Berman, J.C. Hyman, Capt. K. Inuzuka, M.A. Leavitt, R. Pilpel, M. Speelman.
Index Terms:
Administration
Berman, M.
China
Committee for the Assistance of European Jewish Refugees in Shanghai (CAEJF)
Hyman, J.C.
Inuzuka, Capt. K.
Leavitt, M.A.
Pilpel, R.
Reports
Speelman, M.
#Return to Top
File 461: China: Administration, General, 1941 (Jan.-July)
The JDC increased its monthly allocation to $18,000, 4/1/41, and to $22,000, 5/2/41, in light of the ever growing immigration and of the Shanghai inflation. The JDC provided some 8,000 refugees per month with full support and 5,000 others with supplementary aid, 5/21/41, 7/2/41. Reports on the status of refugees in Shanghai - LL. Margolis: #4 (5/28/41), #5 (6/4/41), #7 (6/9/41), #8 (6/11/41), #10 (6/18/41), #11 (7/2/41), #12 (7/3/41), #13 (7/7/41), #16 (7/17/41), #17 (7/26/41), #18 (7/29/41), #23 (7/29/41). Other reports: 2/7/41, 2/13/41, 4/12/41 attachment to 5/1/41, 5/2/41 Leavitt to Baerwald, 5/21/41, 6/17/41. Correspondence: M. Beckelman, J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt, L.L. Margolis, M. Speelman, E.J. Swift, M.C. Troper.
Index Terms:
Administration
Beckelman, M.
China
Hyman, J.C.
Leavitt, M.A.
Margolis, L.L.
Refugees
Reports
Shanghai
Speelman, M.
Swift, E.J.
Troper, M.C.
#Return to Top
File 462: China: Administration, General, 1941 (Aug.-Dec.)
The JDC authorized Laura Margolis to reorganize the Shanghai aid program, 8/8/41 Minutes of Meeting, 8/8/41 cable JDC to Margolis, 8/11/41 attachment to 8/23/41, 9/10/41, 10/4/41. About 1,000 Polish refugees from Vilna were transferred to Shanghai from Japan, 9/11/41 JDC Exec. Committee The JDC increased to $26,000 its October 1941 allocation to Shanghai, 10/4/41, 10/13/41, 10/22/41. After Pearl Harbor, the JDC authorized its representative to make emergency loans locally to cover a six months budget for refugee relief at the rate of $30,000 per month, 12/13/41, 12/15/41, 12/20/41, and File 463, 5/14/42. Margolis requested the JDC to find means for transmitting funds to Shanghai via neutral countries, 12/20/41, 12/29/41. Reports on the status of refugees in Shanghai: CAEJF, 6/17/41, 10/4/41; L.L. Margolis, Numbered letters #19 (8/2/41), #20 (8/11/41), #21 (9/10/41), #22 9/14/41, #24 (10/17/41), #27 (10/26/41), #28 (10/27/41), #29 (11/5/41), #30 (11/9/41), #31 (11/11/41), #32 (11/12/41), #33 (11/14/41). For lists of refugees coming from Japan in April-May 1941, see: File 726. Correspondence: M. Beckelman, H.K. Buchman, J.C. Hyman, L.L. Margolis, R. Pilpel, M. Speelman, A. Tartakower.
Index Terms:
Administration
Beckelman, M.
Buchman, H.K.
China
Hyman, J.C.
Margolis, L.L.
Margolis, Laura
Pilpel, R.
Refugees
Relief
Reports
Shanghai
Speelman, M.
Tartakower, A.
#Return to Top
File 463: China: Administration, General, 1942 - 1944
Margolis succeeded in borrowing locally the $180,000 that the JDC had authorized, 7/6/42, 9/18/42 attachments, 10/28/42, 12/22/42. Margolis pressed for a second guarantee to cover the next six months, 4/15/42, 5/14/42, and 6/27/42, but the U.S. Gov't refused permission to complete the arrangement as a violation of the Trading With the Enemy Act, 7/20/42, 8/24/42, 12/22/42, 9/7/43. The JDC repaid $138,500 of the local $180,000 loan, under a U.S. Treasury license, 10/3/43. Report of Activities in Shanghai 12/8/41-Sept. 1943, by L.L. Margolis, 1943 undated. Margolis borrowed locally Sfr 405,000 in Feb. 1943, to meet urgent relief needs, at a time when communications with the JDC were cut, 1/12/44. The JDC authorized the Shanghai Jewish Committee to borrow locally $25,000 per month (Sfr 110,000) for 12 months, 12/24/43. Articles on Shanghai by L.L. Margolis, Survey Graphic, March 1944, and Judisk Tidskrift, Dec. 1944. For additional materials, see: SM Archives, File 59 Correspondence: P. Baerwald, M. Beckelman, J. Bitker, C. Brahn, H.K. Buchman, J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt, L.L. Margolis, E.M. Morrissey, M. Peter, M. Siegel, A.M. Warren.
Index Terms:
Administration
Baerwald, P.
Beckelman, M.
Bitker, J.
Brahn, C.
Buchman, H.K.
China
Hyman, J.C.
Leavitt, M.A.
Margolis, L.L.
Margolis, Laura
Morrissey, E.M.
Peter, M.
Shanghai
Shanghai Jewish Committee
Siegel, M.
Warren, A.M.
#Return to Top
File 464: China: Administration, General, 1945
The Chinese Gov't issued a restrictive proclamation covering German and Austrian residents of China, including Nazi refugees, 12/19/45 Siegel to Leavitt. Siegel urged that the UNRRA (or its Chinese affiliate CNRRA) be pressed to shoulder responsibility for the basic relief program for Shanghai refugees, so that JDC funds could be used for rehabilitation and resettlement, 10/22/45, 11/10/45, 11/15/45, 11/20/45, 12/4/45. The JDC forwarded $100,000 per month for Shanghai relief throughout 1945, 12/13/45. Reports on events and developments in Shanghai: 8/26/45, 9/25/45, 10/22/45, 11/4/45. For additional materials, see: SM Archives, File 59. Correspondence: H.K. Buchman, A.I Fine, M.A. Leavitt, J.M. Machover, R. Pilpel, S. Mayer, M. Siegel, L.H. Sobel.
Index Terms:
Administration
Buchman, H.K.
China
Chinese Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (CNRRA)
Fine, A.I.
Leavitt, M.A.
Machover, J.M.
Mayer, S.
Pilpel, R.
Refugees
Rehabilitation
Relief
Reports
Resettlement
Siegel, M.
Sobel, L.H.
United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA)
#Return to Top
File 465: China: Administration, General, 1946 Jan.-June
The Chinese Gov't eased restrictive regulations governing Nazi refugees from Germany and Austria, 1/21/46 Jordan to Leavitt, 1/27/46, 1/28/46, 3/4/46 attachment to 3/25/46, 3/16/46, 4/4/46. The UNRRA agreed to deal with foreign DPs in China and to provide a running supply of food rations, 2/1/46(3), 2/11/46; also 1/3/46, 1/29/46, 1/31/46. The JDC increased its monthly allocation for refugee aid from $100,000 to $130,000 in response to the runaway inflation, 6/12/46. For allocations in 1946, see: File 467, 2/8/47. Statistical analysis of Shanghai refugees, 3/31/46. Reports and memos on events and developments: J. Bitker, 1/9/46; M. Siegel, 1/24/46(2), 1/31/46, 2/1/46; C. Jordan, 1/21/46, 2/16/46, 4/12/46, 4/23/46, 5/4/46, 5/28/46; G.V. Tijn, 2/4/46-3/4/46; A.I. Fine, 3/15/46. List of rabbinical groups and their families in Shanghai numbering 506 persons, 4/23/46. For additional materials, see: SM Archives, Files 59-63. Correspondence: M.W. Beckelman, M. Biehle, A.I. Fine, C.H. Jordan, M.A. Leavitt, R. Pilpel, M. Siegel, G.V. Tijn.
Index Terms:
Administration
Austria
Beckelman, M.W.
Biehle, M.
China
Displaced Persons
Fine, A.I.
Food
Germany
Jordan, C.H.
Leavitt, M.A.
List
Pilpel, R.
Refugee Aid
Refugees
Reports
Shanghai
Siegel, M.
Tijn, G.
United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA)
#Return to Top
File 466: China: Administration, General, 1946 July-Dec.
Statistical Analysis of 13,475 Refugees in Shanghai 1/1/46-3/31/46, 8/1/46; Statistical Summary, 12/8/46. Status of Jewish refugees in Mukden and Harbin, 12/12/46 Reports and memos on the status of refugees in Shanghai: C. Jordan, 7/12/46, 7/27/46, 8/1/46, 8/6/46, 11/18/46, 12/30/46; R. Pilpel, 10/11/46 memo on Shanghai. Correspondence: M.W. Beckelman, T.P. Cope, J.C. Hyman, C. Jordan, H. Kadoorie, M.A. Leavitt, R. Pilpel, J. Saper, Wu Kuo-Tsung.
Index Terms:
Administration
Beckelman, M.W.
China
Cope, T.P.
Harbin
Hyman, J.C.
Jordan, C.H.
Kadoorie, H.
Kuo-Tsung, Wu
Leavitt, M.A.
Mukden
Pilpel, R.
Refugees
Reports
Saper, J.
Shanghai
#Return to Top
File 467: China: Administration, General, 1947
Reports and memos on events and developments: C. Jordan: 1/31/47, 2/5/47, 2/25/47, 3/11/47, 3/12/47, 6/3/47, 7/17/47, 8/13/47, 8/15/47, 11/2/47, 11/13/47; A. Grodsky: 2/17/47, 4/9/47 attachment to 4/9/47. Correspondence: H.K. Buchman, A. Grodsky, C.H. Jordan, M.A. Leavitt, R. Pilpel, L.H. Sobel.
Index Terms:
Administration
Buchman, H.K.
China
Grodsky, A.
Jordan, C.H.
Leavitt, M.A.
Pilpel, R.
Reports
Sobel, L.H.
#Return to Top
File 468: China: Administration, General, 1948
The JDC reduced its allocations to $100,000 per month, following cuts in JDC beneficiaries to 6,300 persons, 3/1/48, and then to $75,000 per month, 7/8/48. Reports and memos on events and developments: C. Jordan, 2/17/48, 2/24/48, 3/1/48 Notes on N.Y. Staff Meeting, 4/10/48; A.C. Glassgold, 7/12/48 April-June 1948. Proposals for the mass evacuation of refugees from Shanghai, in the event it fell to the Communists: 11/9/48 Glassgold to JDC N.Y. (Note: Shanghai fell 5/25/49), 11/12/48 Notes of Tel. Conversation, 11/15/48 Notes of Staff Meeting, 11/16/48(2), 11/17/48(3), 11/20/48 Notes of Tel. Conversation, 11/22/48 Notes of Staff Meeting, 11/29/48 Notes of Tel. Conversation, 11/30/48, 12/6/48(2) Cable and Notes of Staff Meeting, 12/10/48(2), 12/14/48(2), 12/20/48 JTA News, 12/21/48 Minutes. Report of Activities in Shanghai, by A.C. Glassgold, 12/10/48. Correspondence: E. Celler, E. Egle, J.H. Fisher, A.C. Glassgold, C.H. Jordan, E. Landau, M.A. Leavitt, R. Pilpel, R.B. Resnick, J.P. Rice.
Index Terms:
Administration
Celler, E.
China
Egle, E.
Fisher, J.H.
Glassgold, A.C.
Jordan, C.H.
Landau, E.
Leavitt, M.A.
Pilpel, R.
Refugees
Reports
Resnick, R.B.
Rice, J.P.
Shanghai
#Return to Top
File 469: China: Administration, General, 1949
Glassgold proposed that the JDC Shanghai should close its doors, since the refugee population had dwindled, and that the IRO Shanghai should take over the rest of the migration program, 8/10/49, 8/17/49 cable. The JDC approved, 8/25/49; the IRO declined at first, 9/15/49, but later accepted 12/1/49(2). The U.S. State Dept. announced the closing of its Shanghai consulate, 10/14/49. Reports on events and developments: C. Glassgold: 1/12/49, 2/21/49, 2/25/49, 6/9/49, 9/23/49, 10/7/49, 11/7/49. Statistical tables of refugees still remaining in Shanghai, 8/29/49, 9/5/49(2) Pilpel to Kadoorie and Rice to Leavitt. Correspondence: A.C. Glassgold, C.H. Jordan, M.A. Leavitt, R. Pilpel, J. Rice.
Index Terms:
Administration
China
Glassgold, A.C.
International Refugee Organization (IRO)
Jordan, C.H.
Leavitt, M.A.
Pilpel, R.
Refugees
Reports
Rice, J.
Shanghai
#Return to Top
File 470: China: Administration, General, 1950
The JDC agreed to close its Shanghai office and to transfer its residual responsibilities to the Council of the Jewish Community, Shanghai, 2/17/50 Glassgold to JDC N.Y., 3/8/50 Pilpel to Glassgold, 3/30/50, 4/4/50, 4/13/50, 4/17/50, 4/25/50 Minutes, 5/12/50, 5/23/50, 6/8/50, 7/2/50, 8/25/50, 8/29/50; also see below: File 471, 5/2/51 attachment to 5/3/51, and File 472, 6/4/51, and 7/6/51. Analysis of the Jewish population of China Oct/Nov 1950, 10/23/50 Glassgold to Pilpel, 11/29/50. Reports on events and developments: A.C. Glassgold, 1/18/50, 2/6/50, 2/17/50, 7/5/50, 8/25/50, 9/14/50, 11/29/50. Correspondence: C.F. Andrew, M.W. Beckelman, A.C. Glassgold, C.H. Jordan, H. Kadoorie, R. Pilpel, J.P. Rice.
Index Terms:
Administration
Andrew, C.F.
Beckelman, M.W.
China
Council of the Jewish Community
Glassgold, A.C.
Jordan, C.H.
Kadoorie, H.
Pilpel, R.
Reports
Rice, J.P.
Shanghai
#Return to Top
File 471: China: Administration, General, 1951 Jan.-May
The U.S. Treasury Dept. issued an order freezing all Chinese assets in the U.S. and forbidding the transfer of U.S. funds to China, except by special license, 1/15/51. Responsibility for the aliyah emigration from Shanghai was transferred by the JDC to the Palestine Office Far East of the Jewish Agency (Palampt); the supervision of activities was entrusted to W.J. Citron and a $30,000 ceiling was fixed on total expenditures in China chargeable to the JDC, 1/25/51 Grubel to Kadoorie, 2/13/51, 2/15/51. The JDC set up a reserve of $50,000 to enable 250 long-time residents of China, who were otherwise ineligible for aid, to emigrate, 4/3/51 Admin. Committee Minutes, 4/4/51, 4/25/51, 5/2/51 attachment to 5/3/51, 5/18/51 Glassgold to Goldberg. Glassgold received a Chinese exit permit following a 15 month delay, 5/3/51. From Hong Kong, Glassgold informed the JDC of the G.B. Shaw Memorial Fund (gold bars), which he could not communicate from Shanghai, 5/18/51 Glassgold to Pilpel; also see: File 472, 6/1/51(2), 11/26/51, File 474, 1/17/57 and attachment 7/3/56, File 475, 12/29/61 attachment to 1/2/62, 7/30/62, JDC Personnel, C. Glassgold, File 124. Correspondence: W.J. Citrin, A.C. Glassgold, H. Kadoorie, M.A. Leavitt, R. Pilpel.
Index Terms:
Administration
China
Citrin, W.J.
Emigration
G.B. Shaw Memorial Fund
Glassgold, A.C.
Hong Kong
Kadoorie, H.
Leavitt, M.A.
Palestine Office Far East of the Jewish Agency (Palampt)
Personnel
Pilpel, R.
Shanghai
#Return to Top
File 472: China: Administration, General, 1951 June-Dec.
Final report by Glassgold on the status of refugees in China, 7/8/51. Correspondence: E. Abraham, W.J. Citrin, A.C. Glassgold, C.H. Jordan, L. Kadoorie, A.S. Petluck, R. Pilpel, J.P. Rice, A. Stoessler.
Index Terms:
Abraham, E.
Administration
China
Citrin, W.J.
Glassgold, A.C.
Jordan, C.H.
Kadoorie, L.
Petluck, A.S.
Pilpel, R.
Refugees
Reports
Rice, J.P.
Stoessler, A.
#Return to Top
File 473: China: Administration, General, 1952
The JDC N.Y. transferred responsibility for China operations to Paris Office, 6/23/51, 7/3/52, 7/15/52, 7/22/52(2). On events and happenings in China: 1/4/52 Jordan to Kadoorie, 1/5/52, 2/7/52, 2/14/52, 2/19/52, 2/20/52 Zerkowitz to JDC, 2/29/52, 3/10/52, 3/26/52 Citrin to Pilpel, 4/17/52, 4/17/52 attachment to 4/28/52, 5/22/52 attachment to 5/24/52, 6/5/52, 6/23/52, 7/2/52 Citrin to Jordan, 7/24/52 Rice to Jordan, 8/4/52 Rice to Jordan, 9/12/52, 9/18/52, 11/4/52. Also see: File 26, Council Reports, 1952/53. Correspondence: R.D. Abraham, N.W. Beckelman, C.J. Citrin, C.H. Jordan, H. Kadoorie, L. Kadoorie, R. Pillpel, E. Potok, J.P. Rice, D.L. Speiser, W. Tag.
Index Terms:
Abraham, R.D.
Administration
Beckelman, N.W.
China
Citrin, C.J.
Jordan, C.H.
Kadoorie, H.
Kadoorie, L.
Paris
Pilpel, R.
Potok, E.
Rice, J.P.
Speiser, D.L.
Tag, W.
#Return to Top
File 474: China: Administration, General, 1953 - 1957
Some 250 refugees left China in 1952 with JDC aid, 5/27/53. On events and happenings in China: 8/24/53 Leavitt to Seligson, 12/22/53, 8/17/54, 1/20/55, 3/1/55, 8/10/55, 10/19/55, 11/2/55, 12/9/55, 1/17/56, 6/30/56, 7/3/56 attachment to 7/17/56, 10/2/56, 10/30/56, 1/28/57 and attachments, 9/25/57, 12/10/57. Also see: File 484, Council Reports 1952/53-1957/58. Correspondence: R.D. Abraham, A.H. Fuks, C.H. Jordan, M.A. Leavitt, I.I. Schwartzbart, P.I. Yudalevich.
Index Terms:
Abraham, R.D.
Administration
China
Fuks, A.H.
Jordan, C.H.
Leavitt, M.A.
Refugees
Schwartzbart, I.I.
Yudalevich, P.I.
#Return to Top
File 475: China: Administration, General, 1958-1964; 1979-1983
On events and happenings in China, 10/15/58. Table of refugees in China aided by the JDC 1956-1958, 1/9/59. H. Kadoorie ended his nine-year service as the JDC representative in Hong Kong, 1/27/59-3/5/59, 3/14/59. The roll of Jewish residents in Shanghai and Tientsin, Jan. 1960. In March 1961, the Chinese authorities ordered the Council to discontinue its welfare activities and to transfer its beneficiaries to the China Relief Society, 11/21/61, 12/6/61, 12/29/61. The JDC called upon the Council to cut its expenditures in light of the shrinkage in the scope of its activities, 7/30/62, 8/23/62, 11/5/62, 11/16/62, 12/27/62. Also see: File 484, Council Reports 1957/58-1959/60. Correspondence: J. Breen, D. Lack, H. Elfenbein, C.H. Jordan, H. Kadoorie, M.A. Leavitt, G. Raymond, J.P. Rice, V.J. Zirinsky.
Index Terms:
Administration
Breen, J.
China
China Relief Society
Council for German Jewry of Great Britain (Council)
Elfenbein, H.
Jordan, C.H.
Kadoorie, H.
Lack, D.
Leavitt, M.A.
Raymond, G.
Refugees
Rice, J.P.
Shanghai
Tientsin
Zirinsky, V.J.
#Return to Top
File 478: China: Administration, CAEJF, Financial and Statistical Reports, 1939-1940
Monthly, 1939: May 1940: May-Dec. Semi-Annual, 1/1/40-6/30/40 (attached to letter 8/7/40)
Index Terms:
Administration
China
Financial
#Return to Top
File 479: China: Administration, CAEJF, Financial and Statistical Reports, 1941
Monthly: Jan.-Oct.
Index Terms:
Administration
China
Financial
#Return to Top
File 480: China: Administration, JDC Financial Reports, Statements, and Transfers of Funds
1. Financial and Statistical Reports, JDC Shanghai, 1946 - 1947: Monthly, 1946:, April-July, Nov.; Monthly, 1947:, Feb., March. 2. Financial Statements, JDC Shanghai, 1947 - 1949: Monthly, 1947:, March, April, June, Dec.; Monthly, 1948:, Jan.-Aug., Dec.; Monthly, 1949:, Jan., March, June; Semi-Annual: 1947:, 7/1/47-12/31/47, 5/5/48; Semi-Annual: 1948:, 7/1/48-12/31/48, 3/22/49; Semi-Annual: 1949:, 1/1/49-6/30/49, 12/2/49. 3. Financial Statements and Accounting Letters, Various, 1950-1955.
Index Terms:
Administration
China
Financial
Shanghai
#Return to Top
File 481: China: Administration, Transfer of Funds, 1945-1951
From 1937 onward, the Chinese currency grew ever more unstable as the inflation accelerated. In the post-war years, matters worsened as the spread widened between official and unofficial exchange rates. To avoid crushing losses in official rates, the JDC sought legally to obtain local currency from holders of large accounts which could not be transferred abroad. The file also contains materials on settlements of Shanghai claims for funds advanced during the war years to the CAEJF and to the Shanghai Jewish Committee. Correspondence: A.C. Glassgold, C. Jordan, H. Kadoorie, M.A. Leavitt, R. Pilpel, M. Siegel.
Index Terms:
Administration
China
Committee for the Assistance of European Jewish Refugees in Shanghai (CAEJF)
Shanghai
Shanghai Jewish Committee
Transfer of Funds
#Return to Top
File 482: China: Administration, Publicity, 1940-1941; 1946-1950; 1966
Correspondence and publications pertaining to JDC Shanghai and to Jewish refugees there. Correspondence: A.C. Glassgold, C.H. Jordan, R. Pilpel, M. Siegel, E.E. Simke, M. Speelman.
Index Terms:
Administration
China
Glassgold, A.C.
Jordan, C.H.
Pilpel, R.
Publicity
Refugees
Shanghai
Siegel, M.
Simke, E.E.
Speelman, M.
#Return to Top
File 483: China: Administration, Publicity, JDC Shanghai Publicity Report, 1946
#Return to Top
File 484: China: Administration, Reports, 1952 - 1960
Council of the Jewish Communities of Shanghai. Annual Reports: 1952/53-1959/60 and several duplicates.
Index Terms:
Administration
China
Council of the Jewish Communities of Shanghai
Reports
#Return to Top
Series 2: China: Subject Matter
File 476: China: Subject Matter, Christian Refugees
Of the more than 25,000 Shanghai refugees aided by the JDC at the end of 1945, over 1,000 were Christians, mostly converted Jews or Christians married to Jews. Christians and Jews were aided on an equal basis and JDC financial aid to Christians took the following pattern per month, on the average (Year/Persons): 1946/800; 1947/550; 1948/350; 1949/70; 1950/50. For the Christian refugees, the JDC sought the support of U.S. Christian organizations - the Church World Service for Protestants and the National Catholic Welfare Conference for Catholics. The JDC continued to grant Christian refugees supplementary aid of various kinds, even after it began to receive reimbursement for its cash grants from the above mentioned organizations. Correspondence: W.J. Citrin, A.C. Glassgold, C.H. Jordan, M.A. Leavitt, R. Pilpel, J.P. Rice, A.L. Warnshuis.
Index Terms:
China
Christian Refugees
Church World Service for Protestants
Citrin, W.J.
Glassgold, A.C.
Jordan, C.H.
Leavitt, M.A.
National Catholic Welfare Conference for Catholics
Pilpel, R.
Refugees
Rice, J.P.
Shanghai
Warnshuis, A.L.
#Return to Top
File 477: China: Subject Matter, Hard Core Refugees
Individual Records, 1950, 1955
Index Terms:
China
Refugees
#Return to Top
File 485: China: Subject Matter, Care of the Aged
In 1946, the JDC leased a home for the aged in Shanghai accommodating some 125 persons. The price was $110,000, and the agreement called for the refund of the principal sum in 1948, upon the evacuation of the building by the JDC. The JDC took over the building when the owner proved unable to meet the payments, upon the understanding he would repay $25,000 by March 1951. By then, the Communists were in possession of Shanghai and the owner defaulted again. In 1953, the property was taken over by the Shanghai City Gov't together with other foreign owned properties. Correspondence: E. Abraham, A.C. Glassgold, C.H. Jordan, R. Pilpel.
Index Terms:
Abraham, E.
China
Elderly care
Glassgold, A.C.
Jordan, C.H.
Pilpel, R.
Shanghai
#Return to Top
File 486: China: Subject Matter, Community and Youth Center
Correspondence: A.C. Glassgold, A. Grodsky, E. Philips, L.H. Sobel.
Index Terms:
China
Community and Youth Center
Glassgold, A.C.
Grodsky, A.
Philips, E.
Sobel, L.H.
#Return to Top
File 487: China: Subject Matter, Cultural and Religious
Passover Supplies: see File 503.1. Rabbinical Groups: Following the Nazi invasion of Poland, teachers and students at a number of Polish Yeshivot (about 1,000 persons in all) fled to Lithuania where they received JDC support. Months later, the Lithuanian authorities decreed that refugees must file their intention to accept Soviet citizenship or be declared stateless. The rabbinical groups along with thousands of other refugees rushed to secure exit visas and the JDC expended some $175,000 on transportation costs via Siberia and Japan. The rabbinical groups arrived in Japan in the summer of 1941 and most were shipped to Shanghai by the authorities in the wake of Pearl Harbor. The JDC covered the costs of their support during their entire sojourn in the Far East. They were in the vanguard of the refugees who emigrated from Shanghai in 1946 with JDC aid. For additional materials on the rabbinical groups, see: File 406 and the citations listed there. 1944 - 1947: The Vaad Hahatzala pressed the JDC to support evacuation to neutral countries of rabbis and yeshiva students in Shanghai, 10/21/44-2/27/45. The JDC defrayed the overwhelming share of the transportation costs to the U.S., Canada and South American lands of members of rabbinical groups in Shanghai, 6/21/46, 7/8/46-8/12/46, 9/4/46, 9/12/46, 10/24/46, 11/8/46, 1/30/47. Lists of rabbinical groups in Shanghai: 506 yeshiva students, rabbis and their families; students of the College Tomche-Tmimim, 1/22/46 attachment to 4/15/46; rabbinical students traveling to the U.S. to attend yeshivot, 3/12/47 attachment to 3/25/47. Also see: SM Archives, File 63. Correspondence: H.K. Buchman, S. Gourary, I. Herzog, C.H. Jordan, A. Kalmanowitz, M.A. Leavitt, L. Margolis, R. Pilpel, J.J. Schwartz. Cemeteries, 1949 - 1960: In the late 1950's the Chinese authorities served notice on Jewish leaders in Shanghai, Harbin, and Tientsin, of their intention to take over ground occupied by Jewish cemeteries in those cities, and to provide new grounds for the graves. In Shanghai, the Chinese authorities paid the costs of the removal and the re-erection of the monuments; in Harbin relatives in the U.S. were called upon to pay, while in Tientsin the Council of the Jewish Community of Shanghai advanced the necessary funds. Schools, 1947 - 1952: In the post-war years, refugee children attended three Jewish schools which the JDC supported. By 1949, following the great refugee emigrations, only the Shanghai Jewish School remained open. By the end of 1950, a mere ten children between the age of 10-15 remained in the city. Yiddish Writers, 1946: Early in 1946, several Jewish writers from Poland opened a Yiddish newspaper in Shanghai, "Unzer Welt", with the aid of contributions for upkeep by N.Y. colleagues and of JDC support. The newspaper folded near the close of the year when the writer-entrepreneurs emigrated.
Index Terms:
Buchman, H.K.
Cemeteries
Children
China
Council of the Jewish Community of Shanghai
Cultural and Religious
Gourary, S.
Harbin
Herzog, I.
Japan
Jordan, C.H.
Kalmanowitz, A.
Leavitt, M.A.
List
Lithuania
Margolis, L.
Pilpel, R.
Poland
Rabbinical Groups
Refugees
Schools
Schwartz, J.J.
Shanghai
Students
Tientsin
Unzer Weit
Vaad Hahatzala
Yiddish Writers
#Return to Top
File 488: China: Subject Matter, Emigration, 1941 (May-Dec.)
In March 1941, the U.S. Gov't indicated a readiness to include Shanghai refugees in its immigration quotas. To expedite matters, the JDC transferred Laura Margolis, its representative in Cuba to Shanghai. She arrived in April 1941, but the Consulate issued visas at a snail's pace owing to staff shortages. Quota restrictions and the scarcity of ships in the Far East compounded the difficulties. By Pearl Harbor, some 300 Shanghai refugees had migrated to Palestine, Australia, Canada and Burma with JDC aid. The war cut off all further emigration and it resumed again only in 1946. Between 1946-1953, the JDC aided in the emigration to overseas lands of some 16,000 DP's from China, and they came from Shanghai predominantly. Some 6,700 DP's were admitted to the U.S., and included several hundred persons who were in transit to third countries. The remaining DP's went to Israel, Europe, Australia, Latin America, and Canada. 1946/1,400; 1947/6,700; 1948/3,300; 1949/3,000; 1950/750; 1951/640; 1952/235; Total/16,025. Shipping shortages in the Far East restricted emigration in 1946, but among the first to go were members of the rabbinical groups. In the following year, emigration soared to its post-war peak when the restriction eased, and emigration to the U.S. increased notably. In mid-1947, the U.S. State Dept. agreed to extend to German and Austrian DP's in Shanghai the use of the corporate affidavit which theretofore had been restricted to Europe. That step permitted the immigration of DP's who were otherwise eligible but who lacked relatives or friends in the U.S. who could submit acceptable individual affidavits on their behalf. The arrangement remained in effect until the U.S. closed its Consulate in Shanghai in February 1950, in the aftermath of the Communist takeover. The closing brought emigration to the U.S. from Shanghai to a virtual end. The International Refugee Organization (IRO) reimbursed the JDC, in whole or in part, for transportation costs incurred by it on behalf of many refugees. The IRO was created by the UN in 1946, to aid in the repatriation and resettlement of refugees and DPs left in the wake of W.W. II. In time, the IRO replaced existing refugee organizations such as UNRRA and the Intergovernmental Committee for Refugees (IGCR). It was dissolved in Feb. 1952. IRO reimbursements to the JDC covered only a part of the overall emigration expenditures which that agency had incurred. For emigration to Australia, see: Australia, Files 438a-438b. For emigration to Canada, see: Canada, File 455. Letters by L.L. Margolis touching on emigration problems, #4 (5/28/41), #10 (6/18/41), #18 (7/29/41), #20 (8/11/41), #27 (10/26/41), #29 (11/5/41), #31 (11/11/41). Correspondence: M. Berman, H.K. Buchman, L.L. Margolis.
Index Terms:
Berman, M.
Buchman, H.K.
China
Emigration
Margolis, Laura
Refugees
Shanghai
#Return to Top
File 489: China: Subject Matter, Emigration, 1946
In March 1941, the U.S. Gov't indicated a readiness to include Shanghai refugees in its immigration quotas. To expedite matters, the JDC transferred Laura Margolis, its representative in Cuba to Shanghai. She arrived in April 1941, but the Consulate issued visas at a snail's pace owing to staff shortages. Quota restrictions and the scarcity of ships in the Far East compounded the difficulties. By Pearl Harbor, some 300 Shanghai refugees had migrated to Palestine, Australia, Canada and Burma with JDC aid. The war cut off all further emigration and it resumed again only in 1946. Between 1946-1953, the JDC aided in the emigration to overseas lands of some 16,000 DP's from China, and they came from Shanghai predominantly. Some 6,700 DP's were admitted to the U.S., and included several hundred persons who were in transit to third countries. The remaining DP's went to Israel, Europe, Australia, Latin America, and Canada. 1946/1,400; 1947/6,700; 1948/3,300; 1949/3,000; 1950/750; 1951/640; 1952/235; Total/16,025. Shipping shortages in the Far East restricted emigration in 1946, but among the first to go were members of the rabbinical groups. In the following year, emigration soared to its post-war peak when the restriction eased, and emigration to the U.S. increased notably. In mid-1947, the U.S. State Dept. agreed to extend to German and Austrian DP's in Shanghai the use of the corporate affidavit which theretofore had been restricted to Europe. That step permitted the immigration of DP's who were otherwise eligible but who lacked relatives or friends in the U.S. who could submit acceptable individual affidavits on their behalf. The arrangement remained in effect until the U.S. closed its Consulate in Shanghai in February 1950, in the aftermath of the Communist takeover. The closing brought emigration to the U.S. from Shanghai to a virtual end. The International Refugee Organization (IRO) reimbursed the JDC, in whole or in part, for transportation costs incurred by it on behalf of many refugees. The IRO was created by the UN in 1946, to aid in the repatriation and resettlement of refugees and DPs left in the wake of W.W. II. In time, the IRO replaced existing refugee organizations such as UNRRA and the Intergovernmental Committee for Refugees (IGCR). It was dissolved in Feb. 1952. IRO reimbursements to the JDC covered only a part of the overall emigration expenditures which that agency had incurred. For emigration to Australia, see: Australia, Files 438a-438b. For emigration to Canada, see: Canada, File 455. On the status of emigration from Shanghai, by C. Jordan: 3/16/46, 4/23/46, 7/10/46, 7/27/46, 8/1/46, 9/12/46, 10/29/46, 11/8/46, 11/14/46. Also see: Australia, Files 438a-438b. Correspondence: M.W. Beckelman, W.L. Brand, C.H. Jordan, M.A. Leavitt, R.F. Moses, R. Pilpel, D. Stern, O.E. Stone.
Index Terms:
Beckelman, M.W.
Brand, W.L.
China
Emigration
Jordan, C.H.
Leavitt, M.A.
Moses, R.F.
Pilpel, R.
Refugees
Shanghai
Stern, D.
Stone, O.E.
#Return to Top
File 490: China: Subject Matter, Emigration, 1947
In March 1941, the U.S. Gov't indicated a readiness to include Shanghai refugees in its immigration quotas. To expedite matters, the JDC transferred Laura Margolis, its representative in Cuba to Shanghai. She arrived in April 1941, but the Consulate issued visas at a snail's pace owing to staff shortages. Quota restrictions and the scarcity of ships in the Far East compounded the difficulties. By Pearl Harbor, some 300 Shanghai refugees had migrated to Palestine, Australia, Canada and Burma with JDC aid. The war cut off all further emigration and it resumed again only in 1946. Between 1946-1953, the JDC aided in the emigration to overseas lands of some 16,000 DP's from China, and they came from Shanghai predominantly. Some 6,700 DP's were admitted to the U.S., and included several hundred persons who were in transit to third countries. The remaining DP's went to Israel, Europe, Australia, Latin America, and Canada. 1946/1,400; 1947/6,700; 1948/3,300; 1949/3,000; 1950/750; 1951/640; 1952/235; Total/16,025. Shipping shortages in the Far East restricted emigration in 1946, but among the first to go were members of the rabbinical groups. In the following year, emigration soared to its post-war peak when the restriction eased, and emigration to the U.S. increased notably. In mid-1947, the U.S. State Dept. agreed to extend to German and Austrian DP's in Shanghai the use of the corporate affidavit which theretofore had been restricted to Europe. That step permitted the immigration of DP's who were otherwise eligible but who lacked relatives or friends in the U.S. who could submit acceptable individual affidavits on their behalf. The arrangement remained in effect until the U.S. closed its Consulate in Shanghai in February 1950, in the aftermath of the Communist takeover. The closing brought emigration to the U.S. from Shanghai to a virtual end. The International Refugee Organization (IRO) reimbursed the JDC, in whole or in part, for transportation costs incurred by it on behalf of many refugees. The IRO was created by the UN in 1946, to aid in the repatriation and resettlement of refugees and DPs left in the wake of W.W. II. In time, the IRO replaced existing refugee organizations such as UNRRA and the Intergovernmental Committee for Refugees (IGCR). It was dissolved in Feb. 1952. IRO reimbursements to the JDC covered only a part of the overall emigration expenditures which that agency had incurred. For emigration to Australia, see: Australia, Files 438a-438b. For emigration to Canada, see: Canada, File 455. The U.S. State Dept. approved the extension of the corporate affidavit principle to German refugees in Shanghai, 3/6/47, 3/13/47, 4/29/47, 4/28/47 attachment to 5/1/47 Resnick to Warburg, 4/30/47, 5/12/47, 5/26/47, 5/27/47, 7/12/47, 8/11/47. Relations between the JDC Shanghai and the HIAS Shanghai, 2/28/47, 3/10/47, 3/25/47, 5/27/47, 8/13/47, 8/14/47, 8/26/47 Petluck to Jordan, 11/13/47, 12/31/47. On the status of emigration from Shanghai: 1/21/47(2), 1/31/47, 7/17/47, 7/28/47, 8/13/47, 10/6/47 attachment to 10/7/47. JDC expenditures for the transportation of Shanghai emigrants to the U.S., 6/15/46-8/31/47, 9/23/47. Reports: Departure of Refugees from Shanghai 3/1/46-10/31/47 attachment to 11/3/47. Status of Refugees in Shanghai, by Quotas, as of Oct. 14, 1947, undated. Also see: Australia, File 438a. Correspondence: M.W. Beckelman, H.K. Buchman, H.M. Emerson, E.H. Jordan, M.A. Leavitt, R. Pilpel, E. Rosenberg.
Index Terms:
Beckelman, M.W.
Buchman, H.K.
China
Emerson, H.M.
Emigration
Hebrew Sheltering and Immigrant Aid Society (HIAS)
Jordan, E.H.
Leavitt, M.A.
Pilpel, R.
Refugees
Reports
Rosenberg, E.
Shanghai
Transportation
#Return to Top
File 491: China: Subject Matter, Emigration, 1948
In March 1941, the U.S. Gov't indicated a readiness to include Shanghai refugees in its immigration quotas. To expedite matters, the JDC transferred Laura Margolis, its representative in Cuba to Shanghai. She arrived in April 1941, but the Consulate issued visas at a snail's pace owing to staff shortages. Quota restrictions and the scarcity of ships in the Far East compounded the difficulties. By Pearl Harbor, some 300 Shanghai refugees had migrated to Palestine, Australia, Canada and Burma with JDC aid. The war cut off all further emigration and it resumed again only in 1946. Between 1946-1953, the JDC aided in the emigration to overseas lands of some 16,000 DP's from China, and they came from Shanghai predominantly. Some 6,700 DP's were admitted to the U.S., and included several hundred persons who were in transit to third countries. The remaining DP's went to Israel, Europe, Australia, Latin America, and Canada. 1946/1,400; 1947/6,700; 1948/3,300; 1949/3,000; 1950/750; 1951/640; 1952/235; Total/16,025. Shipping shortages in the Far East restricted emigration in 1946, but among the first to go were members of the rabbinical groups. In the following year, emigration soared to its post-war peak when the restriction eased, and emigration to the U.S. increased notably. In mid-1947, the U.S. State Dept. agreed to extend to German and Austrian DP's in Shanghai the use of the corporate affidavit which theretofore had been restricted to Europe. That step permitted the immigration of DP's who were otherwise eligible but who lacked relatives or friends in the U.S. who could submit acceptable individual affidavits on their behalf. The arrangement remained in effect until the U.S. closed its Consulate in Shanghai in February 1950, in the aftermath of the Communist takeover. The closing brought emigration to the U.S. from Shanghai to a virtual end. The International Refugee Organization (IRO) reimbursed the JDC, in whole or in part, for transportation costs incurred by it on behalf of many refugees. The IRO was created by the UN in 1946, to aid in the repatriation and resettlement of refugees and DPs left in the wake of W.W. II. In time, the IRO replaced existing refugee organizations such as UNRRA and the Intergovernmental Committee for Refugees (IGCR). It was dissolved in Feb. 1952. IRO reimbursements to the JDC covered only a part of the overall emigration expenditures which that agency had incurred. For emigration to Australia, see: Australia, Files 438a-438b. For emigration to Canada, see: Canada, File 455. On the status of emigration from Shanghai: 2/24/48, 3/1/48, 4/21/48. Summary of Shanghai Situation, 4/29/48, 7/12/48, 10/14/48, 11/1/48, 11/9/48-11/16/48, 11/23/48, 11/27/48-12/1/48 JDC N.Y. to Shanghai, 12/3/48 JDC N.Y. to Shanghai, 12/7/48-12/10/48, 12/14/48, 12/21/48-12/22/48, 12/27/48(2) Shanghai Status Report, 12/28/48 Minutes, 12/30/48 Jordan to Glassgold. Also see: Australia, File 438a Canada, Files 453-455 Correspondence: A.C. Glassgold, C.H. Jordan, M.A. Leavitt, A.S. Petluck, R. Pilpel, R.B. Resnick, P. Skorneck.
Index Terms:
China
Emigration
Glassgold, A.C.
Jordan, C.H.
Leavitt, M.A.
Petluck, A.S.
Pilpel, R.
Refugees
Reports
Resnick, R.B.
Shanghai
Skorneck, P.
#Return to Top
File 492: China: Subject Matter, Emigration, 1949 Jan.-May
In March 1941, the U.S. Gov't indicated a readiness to include Shanghai refugees in its immigration quotas. To expedite matters, the JDC transferred Laura Margolis, its representative in Cuba to Shanghai. She arrived in April 1941, but the Consulate issued visas at a snail's pace owing to staff shortages. Quota restrictions and the scarcity of ships in the Far East compounded the difficulties. By Pearl Harbor, some 300 Shanghai refugees had migrated to Palestine, Australia, Canada and Burma with JDC aid. The war cut off all further emigration and it resumed again only in 1946. Between 1946-1953, the JDC aided in the emigration to overseas lands of some 16,000 DP's from China, and they came from Shanghai predominantly. Some 6,700 DP's were admitted to the U.S., and included several hundred persons who were in transit to third countries. The remaining DP's went to Israel, Europe, Australia, Latin America, and Canada. 1946/1,400; 1947/6,700; 1948/3,300; 1949/3,000; 1950/750; 1951/640; 1952/235; Total/16,025. Shipping shortages in the Far East restricted emigration in 1946, but among the first to go were members of the rabbinical groups. In the following year, emigration soared to its post-war peak when the restriction eased, and emigration to the U.S. increased notably. In mid-1947, the U.S. State Dept. agreed to extend to German and Austrian DP's in Shanghai the use of the corporate affidavit which theretofore had been restricted to Europe. That step permitted the immigration of DP's who were otherwise eligible but who lacked relatives or friends in the U.S. who could submit acceptable individual affidavits on their behalf. The arrangement remained in effect until the U.S. closed its Consulate in Shanghai in February 1950, in the aftermath of the Communist takeover. The closing brought emigration to the U.S. from Shanghai to a virtual end. The International Refugee Organization (IRO) reimbursed the JDC, in whole or in part, for transportation costs incurred by it on behalf of many refugees. The IRO was created by the UN in 1946, to aid in the repatriation and resettlement of refugees and DPs left in the wake of W.W. II. In time, the IRO replaced existing refugee organizations such as UNRRA and the Intergovernmental Committee for Refugees (IGCR). It was dissolved in Feb. 1952. IRO reimbursements to the JDC covered only a part of the overall emigration expenditures which that agency had incurred. For emigration to Australia, see: Australia, Files 438a-438b. For emigration to Canada, see: Canada, File 455. On the status of emigration from Shanghai: 1/4/49, 1/5/49, Pilpel to Epstein, 1/11/49-1/14/49, 1/18/49, 2/21/49(2) Letter #392 and Minutes, 2/28/49 Meeting #7-49, 3/2/49 Leavitt to Wood, 3/11/49, 3/31/49, 4/9/49, 4/15/49, 4/29/49 Press Release, 5/5/49 Leavitt memo, 5/10/49(3), 5/11/49(4), 5/17/49, 5/21/49. JDC relations with IRO, 1/19/49 Letter #365, 1/24/49-1/28/49, 2/11/49 Rice to Beckelman. Voyage of the overcrowded SS Captain Marcos Shanghai to Naples, 1/21/49(2) Letter #368 and Cable 550, 2/3/49 Wood to Leavitt, 2/7/49 Letter #385, 3/15/49, 4/21/49 attachment to 5/9/49 Pilpel to Jordan. Statements of the numbers of refugees who left Shanghai: 3/1/46-12/31/48 attachment to 2/11/49, 3/1/46-2/28/49 undated, 3/1/46-5/31/49 undated. Also see: Australia, File 438a. Correspondence: A.C. Glassgold, C.H. Jordan, M.A. Leavitt, R. Pilpel, J.P. Rice.
Index Terms:
China
Emigration
Glassgold, A.C.
International Refugee Organization (IRO)
Jordan, C.H.
Leavitt, M.A.
Pilpel, R.
Refugees
Rice, J.P.
SS Captain Marcos
Shanghai
#Return to Top
File 493: China: Subject Matter, Emigration, 1949 June-Dec.
In March 1941, the U.S. Gov't indicated a readiness to include Shanghai refugees in its immigration quotas. To expedite matters, the JDC transferred Laura Margolis, its representative in Cuba to Shanghai. She arrived in April 1941, but the Consulate issued visas at a snail's pace owing to staff shortages. Quota restrictions and the scarcity of ships in the Far East compounded the difficulties. By Pearl Harbor, some 300 Shanghai refugees had migrated to Palestine, Australia, Canada and Burma with JDC aid. The war cut off all further emigration and it resumed again only in 1946. Between 1946-1953, the JDC aided in the emigration to overseas lands of some 16,000 DP's from China, and they came from Shanghai predominantly. Some 6,700 DP's were admitted to the U.S., and included several hundred persons who were in transit to third countries. The remaining DP's went to Israel, Europe, Australia, Latin America, and Canada. 1946/1,400; 1947/6,700; 1948/3,300; 1949/3,000; 1950/750; 1951/640; 1952/235; Total/16,025. Shipping shortages in the Far East restricted emigration in 1946, but among the first to go were members of the rabbinical groups. In the following year, emigration soared to its post-war peak when the restriction eased, and emigration to the U.S. increased notably. In mid-1947, the U.S. State Dept. agreed to extend to German and Austrian DP's in Shanghai the use of the corporate affidavit which theretofore had been restricted to Europe. That step permitted the immigration of DP's who were otherwise eligible but who lacked relatives or friends in the U.S. who could submit acceptable individual affidavits on their behalf. The arrangement remained in effect until the U.S. closed its Consulate in Shanghai in February 1950, in the aftermath of the Communist takeover. The closing brought emigration to the U.S. from Shanghai to a virtual end. The International Refugee Organization (IRO) reimbursed the JDC, in whole or in part, for transportation costs incurred by it on behalf of many refugees. The IRO was created by the UN in 1946, to aid in the repatriation and resettlement of refugees and DPs left in the wake of W.W. II. In time, the IRO replaced existing refugee organizations such as UNRRA and the Intergovernmental Committee for Refugees (IGCR). It was dissolved in Feb. 1952. IRO reimbursements to the JDC covered only a part of the overall emigration expenditures which that agency had incurred. For emigration to Australia, see: Australia, Files 438a-438b. For emigration to Canada, see: Canada, File 455. Emigration to Israel by Tientsin Jews: 6/2/49, 6/6/49-6/9/49 and attachments, 6/16/49(3), 6/21/49, 6/28/49-7/25/49, 8/5/49-8/8/49, 8/11/49-8/15/49, 9/22/49, 9/27/49-9/29/49, 10/7/49, 10/21/49, 11/3/49, 11/18/49, 11/22/49 Pilpel to Epstein, 11/23/49 Rice to Stein, 12/1/49, 12/5/49, 12/9/49, 12/12/49, 12/20/49(2). Passenger lists: SS Gordon arriving in San Francisco 10/13/49, 10/12/49 Stein to Rice; SS Christobol bearing Tientsin passengers headed for Israel, 6/5/49 attachment to 10/12/49 Acc. Letter #810. Correspondence: A.C. Glassgold, C.H. Jordan, M.A. Leavitt, R. Pilpel, J.P. Rice.
Index Terms:
China
Emigration
Glassgold, A.C.
Israel
Jordan, C.H.
Leavitt, M.A.
List
Pilpel, R.
Refugees
Rice, J.P.
SS Christobol
SS Gordon
Shanghai
#Return to Top
File 494: China: Subject Matter, Emigration, 1950 Jan.-May
In March 1941, the U.S. Gov't indicated a readiness to include Shanghai refugees in its immigration quotas. To expedite matters, the JDC transferred Laura Margolis, its representative in Cuba to Shanghai. She arrived in April 1941, but the Consulate issued visas at a snail's pace owing to staff shortages. Quota restrictions and the scarcity of ships in the Far East compounded the difficulties. By Pearl Harbor, some 300 Shanghai refugees had migrated to Palestine, Australia, Canada and Burma with JDC aid. The war cut off all further emigration and it resumed again only in 1946. Between 1946-1953, the JDC aided in the emigration to overseas lands of some 16,000 DP's from China, and they came from Shanghai predominantly. Some 6,700 DP's were admitted to the U.S., and included several hundred persons who were in transit to third countries. The remaining DP's went to Israel, Europe, Australia, Latin America, and Canada. 1946/1,400; 1947/6,700; 1948/3,300; 1949/3,000; 1950/750; 1951/640; 1952/235; Total/16,025. Shipping shortages in the Far East restricted emigration in 1946, but among the first to go were members of the rabbinical groups. In the following year, emigration soared to its post-war peak when the restriction eased, and emigration to the U.S. increased notably. In mid-1947, the U.S. State Dept. agreed to extend to German and Austrian DP's in Shanghai the use of the corporate affidavit which theretofore had been restricted to Europe. That step permitted the immigration of DP's who were otherwise eligible but who lacked relatives or friends in the U.S. who could submit acceptable individual affidavits on their behalf. The arrangement remained in effect until the U.S. closed its Consulate in Shanghai in February 1950, in the aftermath of the Communist takeover. The closing brought emigration to the U.S. from Shanghai to a virtual end. The International Refugee Organization (IRO) reimbursed the JDC, in whole or in part, for transportation costs incurred by it on behalf of many refugees. The IRO was created by the UN in 1946, to aid in the repatriation and resettlement of refugees and DPs left in the wake of W.W. II. In time, the IRO replaced existing refugee organizations such as UNRRA and the Intergovernmental Committee for Refugees (IGCR). It was dissolved in Feb. 1952. IRO reimbursements to the JDC covered only a part of the overall emigration expenditures which that agency had incurred. For emigration to Australia, see: Australia, Files 438a-438b. For emigration to Canada, see: Canada, File 455. On the status of emigration from China: 3/14/50, 3/21/50 Minutes, 4/18/50, 4/24/50, 4/28/50(3), 5/12/50; also see: File 470. Reports on events and developments 1/18/50-11/29/50, Refugee flights in 1949, Shanghai to Canada and Israel, and Hong Kong to Israel, attachment to 5/18/50 Pilpel to Marshall. Passenger lists of refugees on Harbin and Tientsin flights to Israel - Flight #1: 57 passengers, 1/23/50 Glassgold to Liao; #2: 121 passengers, 3/9/50 Kadoorie to Pilpel, 3/13/50(3); #3: 68 passengers, 3/31/50 Pilpel to Kadoorie, 4/18/50 Pilpel to Kadoorie, 5/30/50 attachment; #4: 60 passengers, 5/1/50 Kadoorie to Glassgold, 5/2/50 cable, 5/4/50 attachment; #5: 62 passengers, 5/9/50 attachment Kadoorie to Glassgold, 5/2/50 cable, 5/4/50 attachment, 5/11/50, 5/18/50, 5/19/50 Pilpel to Rubenfeld, 5/20/50. For materials on Flight #6, see: File 495. Correspondence: A.C. Glassgold, C.H. Jordan, H. Kadoorie, J. Liao, R. Pilpel, J.P. Rice.
Index Terms:
Canada
China
Emigration
Glassgold, A.C.
Hong Kong
Israel
Jordan, C.H.
Kadoorie, H.
Liao, J.
List
Pilpel, R.
Refugees
Rice, J.P.
Shanghai
#Return to Top
File 495: China: Subject Matter, Emigration, 1950 June-Sept.
In March 1941, the U.S. Gov't indicated a readiness to include Shanghai refugees in its immigration quotas. To expedite matters, the JDC transferred Laura Margolis, its representative in Cuba to Shanghai. She arrived in April 1941, but the Consulate issued visas at a snail's pace owing to staff shortages. Quota restrictions and the scarcity of ships in the Far East compounded the difficulties. By Pearl Harbor, some 300 Shanghai refugees had migrated to Palestine, Australia, Canada and Burma with JDC aid. The war cut off all further emigration and it resumed again only in 1946. Between 1946-1953, the JDC aided in the emigration to overseas lands of some 16,000 DP's from China, and they came from Shanghai predominantly. Some 6,700 DP's were admitted to the U.S., and included several hundred persons who were in transit to third countries. The remaining DP's went to Israel, Europe, Australia, Latin America, and Canada. 1946/1,400; 1947/6,700; 1948/3,300; 1949/3,000; 1950/750; 1951/640; 1952/235; Total/16,025. Shipping shortages in the Far East restricted emigration in 1946, but among the first to go were members of the rabbinical groups. In the following year, emigration soared to its post-war peak when the restriction eased, and emigration to the U.S. increased notably. In mid-1947, the U.S. State Dept. agreed to extend to German and Austrian DP's in Shanghai the use of the corporate affidavit which theretofore had been restricted to Europe. That step permitted the immigration of DP's who were otherwise eligible but who lacked relatives or friends in the U.S. who could submit acceptable individual affidavits on their behalf. The arrangement remained in effect until the U.S. closed its Consulate in Shanghai in February 1950, in the aftermath of the Communist takeover. The closing brought emigration to the U.S. from Shanghai to a virtual end. The International Refugee Organization (IRO) reimbursed the JDC, in whole or in part, for transportation costs incurred by it on behalf of many refugees. The IRO was created by the UN in 1946, to aid in the repatriation and resettlement of refugees and DPs left in the wake of W.W. II. In time, the IRO replaced existing refugee organizations such as UNRRA and the Intergovernmental Committee for Refugees (IGCR). It was dissolved in Feb. 1952. IRO reimbursements to the JDC covered only a part of the overall emigration expenditures which that agency had incurred. For emigration to Australia, see: Australia, Files 438a-438b. For emigration to Canada, see: Canada, File 455. Refugees on Harbin-Tientsin flights to Israel-#6: 121 passengers names unavailable, 6/5/50 Kadoorie to Pilpel, 6/16/50, 6/29/50. Shanghai refugees sail for Italy in hopes of obtaining U.S. visas, 6/12/50 Glassgold to Rice, 6/16/50 Glassgold to Petluck, 6/22/50, Report on the arrival of 106 refugees from Shanghai, attachment to 7/6/50 Jordan to Thomas, 7/7/50 Leavitt to Jordan. For earlier materials, see: File 494, 4/28/50 Glassgold to Pilpel, 5/4/50, 5/12/50 and 5/19/50 Glassgold to Rice. The 55-day voyage of the overcrowded SS Anna Salen, Hong Kong to Naples: 7/3/50, 7/12/50, 7/14/50 cable, 7/18/50-7/26/50, 8/2/50 Letters #552, 553, 8/3/50, 8/8/50-8/10/50, 8/16/50, 8/25/50-9/5/50, 9/14/50, 9/18/50 Pilpel to Witkin, 9/25/50-9/29/50. For additional materials on SS Anna Salen, see: File 496. Other materials on emigration from China: 6/18/50 Letter #539, 7/5/50 Letter #543, 9/14/50 Letter #567, 9/18/50 Letter #568. Statements of Persons Who Left Shanghai May/June and July/Aug. 1950, 9/7/50. Correspondence: M.W. Beckelman, A.C. Glassgold, C.H. Jordan, H. Kadoorie, M.A. Leavitt, R. Pilpel, J.P. Rice, J. Silverstein.
Index Terms:
Beckelman, M.W.
China
Emigration
Glassgold, A.C.
Harbin-Tientsin Flights
Hong Kong
Israel
Italy
Jordan, C.H.
Kadoorie, H.
Leavitt, M.A.
Pilpel, R.
Refugees
Reports
Rice, J.P.
SS Anna Salen
Shanghai
Silverstein, J.
#Return to Top
File 496: China: Subject Matter, Emigration, 1950 Oct.-Dec.
In March 1941, the U.S. Gov't indicated a readiness to include Shanghai refugees in its immigration quotas. To expedite matters, the JDC transferred Laura Margolis, its representative in Cuba to Shanghai. She arrived in April 1941, but the Consulate issued visas at a snail's pace owing to staff shortages. Quota restrictions and the scarcity of ships in the Far East compounded the difficulties. By Pearl Harbor, some 300 Shanghai refugees had migrated to Palestine, Australia, Canada and Burma with JDC aid. The war cut off all further emigration and it resumed again only in 1946. Between 1946-1953, the JDC aided in the emigration to overseas lands of some 16,000 DP's from China, and they came from Shanghai predominantly. Some 6,700 DP's were admitted to the U.S., and included several hundred persons who were in transit to third countries. The remaining DP's went to Israel, Europe, Australia, Latin America, and Canada. 1946/1,400; 1947/6,700; 1948/3,300; 1949/3,000; 1950/750; 1951/640; 1952/235; Total/16,025. Shipping shortages in the Far East restricted emigration in 1946, but among the first to go were members of the rabbinical groups. In the following year, emigration soared to its post-war peak when the restriction eased, and emigration to the U.S. increased notably. In mid-1947, the U.S. State Dept. agreed to extend to German and Austrian DP's in Shanghai the use of the corporate affidavit which theretofore had been restricted to Europe. That step permitted the immigration of DP's who were otherwise eligible but who lacked relatives or friends in the U.S. who could submit acceptable individual affidavits on their behalf. The arrangement remained in effect until the U.S. closed its Consulate in Shanghai in February 1950, in the aftermath of the Communist takeover. The closing brought emigration to the U.S. from Shanghai to a virtual end. The International Refugee Organization (IRO) reimbursed the JDC, in whole or in part, for transportation costs incurred by it on behalf of many refugees. The IRO was created by the UN in 1946, to aid in the repatriation and resettlement of refugees and DPs left in the wake of W.W. II. In time, the IRO replaced existing refugee organizations such as UNRRA and the Intergovernmental Committee for Refugees (IGCR). It was dissolved in Feb. 1952. IRO reimbursements to the JDC covered only a part of the overall emigration expenditures which that agency had incurred. For emigration to Australia, see: Australia, Files 438a-438b. For emigration to Canada, see: Canada, File 455. Voyage of SS Anna Salen, Hong Kong to Naples: 10/4/50, Report 9/26/50 attachment to 10/5/50 Glassgold to Pilpel, 10/13/50, 10/20/50(2); Reception Accorded SS Anna Salen at the Panama Canal-Report by N. Witkin, 10/17/50 attachment to 10/24/50 Pilpel to Rice, 10/25/50-11/7/50 Pilpel to Gurvitch, 11/9/50-11/10/50, 11/14/50, 11/29/50, 11/30/50 Rice to Pilpel; also see: File 497, List of DPs who sailed on the SS Anna Salen, attachment to 1/3/51; for earlier materials, see: File 495. Other materials on emigration from China: 10/19/50 aliyah from China 1950/51, 11/27/50 Agreement Palamt-JDC on the operation of the aliyah, 10/28/50(2), 11/17/50, 12/1/50. Passenger lists of refugees on renewed Harbin-Tientsin flights to Israel: #1: 66 passengers, 12/19/50, 12/30/50; also see: File 497, 1/8/51 Kadoorie to Pilpel, 3/12/51 Kadoorie to Pilpel. Correspondence: M.W. Beckelman, W.J. Citrin, A.C. Glassgold, C.H. Jordan, H. Kadoorie, R. Pilpel, J.P. Rice, M. Witkin.
Index Terms:
Aliyah
Beckelman, M.W.
China
Citrin, W.J.
Emigration
Glassgold, A.C.
Harbin-Tientsin Flights
Hong Kong
Italy
Jordan, C.H.
Kadoorie, H.
List
M. Witkin
Pilpel, R.
Refugees
Reports
Rice, J.P.
SS Anna Salen
#Return to Top
File 497: China: Subject Matter, Emigration, 1951 Jan.-June
In March 1941, the U.S. Gov't indicated a readiness to include Shanghai refugees in its immigration quotas. To expedite matters, the JDC transferred Laura Margolis, its representative in Cuba to Shanghai. She arrived in April 1941, but the Consulate issued visas at a snail's pace owing to staff shortages. Quota restrictions and the scarcity of ships in the Far East compounded the difficulties. By Pearl Harbor, some 300 Shanghai refugees had migrated to Palestine, Australia, Canada and Burma with JDC aid. The war cut off all further emigration and it resumed again only in 1946. Between 1946-1953, the JDC aided in the emigration to overseas lands of some 16,000 DP's from China, and they came from Shanghai predominantly. Some 6,700 DP's were admitted to the U.S., and included several hundred persons who were in transit to third countries. The remaining DP's went to Israel, Europe, Australia, Latin America, and Canada. 1946/1,400; 1947/6,700; 1948/3,300; 1949/3,000; 1950/750; 1951/640; 1952/235; Total/16,025. Shipping shortages in the Far East restricted emigration in 1946, but among the first to go were members of the rabbinical groups. In the following year, emigration soared to its post-war peak when the restriction eased, and emigration to the U.S. increased notably. In mid-1947, the U.S. State Dept. agreed to extend to German and Austrian DP's in Shanghai the use of the corporate affidavit which theretofore had been restricted to Europe. That step permitted the immigration of DP's who were otherwise eligible but who lacked relatives or friends in the U.S. who could submit acceptable individual affidavits on their behalf. The arrangement remained in effect until the U.S. closed its Consulate in Shanghai in February 1950, in the aftermath of the Communist takeover. The closing brought emigration to the U.S. from Shanghai to a virtual end. The International Refugee Organization (IRO) reimbursed the JDC, in whole or in part, for transportation costs incurred by it on behalf of many refugees. The IRO was created by the UN in 1946, to aid in the repatriation and resettlement of refugees and DPs left in the wake of W.W. II. In time, the IRO replaced existing refugee organizations such as UNRRA and the Intergovernmental Committee for Refugees (IGCR). It was dissolved in Feb. 1952. IRO reimbursements to the JDC covered only a part of the overall emigration expenditures which that agency had incurred. For emigration to Australia, see: Australia, Files 438a-438b. For emigration to Canada, see: Canada, File 455. Passenger lists of refugees on Harbin-Tientsin flights to Israel: #2: 56 passengers, 2/20/51, 3/2/51; #3a: 26 passengers, 3/27/51 Citrin to Pilpel; #3b: 17 passengers, attachment to 3/30/51 Grubel to Pilpel; #4: 31 passengers, 4/14/51, 4/19/51; #5: 31 passengers, 5/17/51; #6: 45 passengers, 6/1/51, 6/28/51. Other materials on emigration: 1/16/51 Kadoorie to Pilpel, Iraqi and Iranian Jews in Shanghai, 2/21/51 and attachments 6/11/51; also see: File 498, 8/10/51 attachment to 8/31/51 Pilpel to Council. JDC earmarked $50,000 to aid in emigration of some 250 long-time Jewish residents of China, 4/3/51-4/4/51 cable, 4/11/51, 5/17/51. Correspondence: W.J. Citrin, A.C. Glassgold, A.A. Goldberg, C.H. Jordan, H. Kadoorie, R. Pilpel.
Index Terms:
China
Citrin, W.J.
Emigration
Glassgold, A.C.
Goldberg, A.A.
Harbin-Tientsin Flights
Jordan, C.H.
Kadoorie, H.
List
Pilpel, R.
Refugees
Reports
#Return to Top
File 498: China: Subject Matter, Emigration, 1951 July-Dec.
In March 1941, the U.S. Gov't indicated a readiness to include Shanghai refugees in its immigration quotas. To expedite matters, the JDC transferred Laura Margolis, its representative in Cuba to Shanghai. She arrived in April 1941, but the Consulate issued visas at a snail's pace owing to staff shortages. Quota restrictions and the scarcity of ships in the Far East compounded the difficulties. By Pearl Harbor, some 300 Shanghai refugees had migrated to Palestine, Australia, Canada and Burma with JDC aid. The war cut off all further emigration and it resumed again only in 1946. Between 1946-1953, the JDC aided in the emigration to overseas lands of some 16,000 DP's from China, and they came from Shanghai predominantly. Some 6,700 DP's were admitted to the U.S., and included several hundred persons who were in transit to third countries. The remaining DP's went to Israel, Europe, Australia, Latin America, and Canada. 1946/1,400; 1947/6,700; 1948/3,300; 1949/3,000; 1950/750; 1951/640; 1952/235; Total/16,025. Shipping shortages in the Far East restricted emigration in 1946, but among the first to go were members of the rabbinical groups. In the following year, emigration soared to its post-war peak when the restriction eased, and emigration to the U.S. increased notably. In mid-1947, the U.S. State Dept. agreed to extend to German and Austrian DP's in Shanghai the use of the corporate affidavit which theretofore had been restricted to Europe. That step permitted the immigration of DP's who were otherwise eligible but who lacked relatives or friends in the U.S. who could submit acceptable individual affidavits on their behalf. The arrangement remained in effect until the U.S. closed its Consulate in Shanghai in February 1950, in the aftermath of the Communist takeover. The closing brought emigration to the U.S. from Shanghai to a virtual end. The International Refugee Organization (IRO) reimbursed the JDC, in whole or in part, for transportation costs incurred by it on behalf of many refugees. The IRO was created by the UN in 1946, to aid in the repatriation and resettlement of refugees and DPs left in the wake of W.W. II. In time, the IRO replaced existing refugee organizations such as UNRRA and the Intergovernmental Committee for Refugees (IGCR). It was dissolved in Feb. 1952. IRO reimbursements to the JDC covered only a part of the overall emigration expenditures which that agency had incurred. For emigration to Australia, see: Australia, Files 438a-438b. For emigration to Canada, see: Canada, File 455. Passenger lists of refugees on Harbin-Tientsin movement to Israel: 7/17/51(6), July 1951(15), July-Aug. 1951(36), Aug. 1951(35), Oct. 1951(7). Other materials on emigration: 7/1/51-7/3/51, 7/8/51, 7/12/51, 8/15/51 Rice to Beckelman, 9/22/51, 9/25/51, 10/5/51(2), 10/29/51, 11/6/51, 11/20/51, 11/30/51. Correspondence: R.D. Abraham, M.W. Beckelman, W.J. Citrin, A.C. Glassgold, A.A. Goldberg, C.H. Jordan, H. Kadoorie, L. Kadoorie, H.L. Levy, P. Meyer, R. Pilpel, J.P. Rice, A.A. Stoessler.
Index Terms:
Abraham, R.D.
Beckelman, M.W.
China
Citrin, W.J.
Emigration
Glassgold, A.C.
Goldberg, A.A.
Harbin-Tientsin Flights
Israel
Jordan, C.H.
Kadoorie, H.
Kadoorie, L.
Levy, H.L.
List
Meyer, P.
Pilpel, R.
Refugees
Rice, J.P.
Stoessler, A.A.
#Return to Top
File 499: China: Subject Matter, Emigration, 1952 - 1964
In March 1941, the U.S. Gov't indicated a readiness to include Shanghai refugees in its immigration quotas. To expedite matters, the JDC transferred Laura Margolis, its representative in Cuba to Shanghai. She arrived in April 1941, but the Consulate issued visas at a snail's pace owing to staff shortages. Quota restrictions and the scarcity of ships in the Far East compounded the difficulties. By Pearl Harbor, some 300 Shanghai refugees had migrated to Palestine, Australia, Canada and Burma with JDC aid. The war cut off all further emigration and it resumed again only in 1946. Between 1946-1953, the JDC aided in the emigration to overseas lands of some 16,000 DP's from China, and they came from Shanghai predominantly. Some 6,700 DP's were admitted to the U.S., and included several hundred persons who were in transit to third countries. The remaining DP's went to Israel, Europe, Australia, Latin America, and Canada. 1946/1,400; 1947/6,700; 1948/3,300; 1949/3,000; 1950/750; 1951/640; 1952/235; Total/16,025. Shipping shortages in the Far East restricted emigration in 1946, but among the first to go were members of the rabbinical groups. In the following year, emigration soared to its post-war peak when the restriction eased, and emigration to the U.S. increased notably. In mid-1947, the U.S. State Dept. agreed to extend to German and Austrian DP's in Shanghai the use of the corporate affidavit which theretofore had been restricted to Europe. That step permitted the immigration of DP's who were otherwise eligible but who lacked relatives or friends in the U.S. who could submit acceptable individual affidavits on their behalf. The arrangement remained in effect until the U.S. closed its Consulate in Shanghai in February 1950, in the aftermath of the Communist takeover. The closing brought emigration to the U.S. from Shanghai to a virtual end. The International Refugee Organization (IRO) reimbursed the JDC, in whole or in part, for transportation costs incurred by it on behalf of many refugees. The IRO was created by the UN in 1946, to aid in the repatriation and resettlement of refugees and DPs left in the wake of W.W. II. In time, the IRO replaced existing refugee organizations such as UNRRA and the Intergovernmental Committee for Refugees (IGCR). It was dissolved in Feb. 1952. IRO reimbursements to the JDC covered only a part of the overall emigration expenditures which that agency had incurred. For emigration to Australia, see: Australia, Files 438a-438b. For emigration to Canada, see: Canada, File 455. Status report on emigration by W.J. Citrin, 4/17/52 attachment to 4/28/52. Emigration lists for various countries, 1952: Nov. 12/31/52, Dec. 2/5/53; 1953: Jan.-March, 4/15/53, May-June, 7/20/53, July, 8/10/53, August, 9/2/53, Sept., 10/6/53, Oct., 11/5/53, Nov., 12/8/53, Dec., undated; 1954: Jan., 2/1/54, Feb., 3/1/54, March, 4/1/54, April, 5/6/54, May, 6/2/54, June, 7/2/54, July, 8/4/54, Sept., 10/8/54, Oct.-Nov., 12/6/54. Other materials on emigration: 1/4/52, 1/8/52(2), 1/11/52 attachment to 1/16/52, 2/4/52, 2/15/52-2/16/52, 3/26/52 Letter MIG-98, 4/11/52-4/17/52, 4/30/52 Levy to Abraham, 5/6/52, 5/13/52, 6/16/52, 6/19/52 Levy to Deutsch, 12/16/52, 2/23/53, 7/1/53, 12/4/53, 5/27/54, 8/17/54(2), 8/19/54, 10/5/54, 12/21/54-12/28/54, 3/7/55-4/23/55, 11/2/55, 6/19/56, 10/2/56, 3/19/57, 1/14/58, 3/18/58, 1/5/59, 10/6/59, 3/2/60, 3/7/61, 6/14/62, 2/13/64. Also see: File 484. Correspondence: R.D. Abraham, A.M. Bagg, W.J. Citrin, J. Elfenbein, C.H. Jordan, H. Kadoorie, H.L. Levy, R. Pilpel, J. Rice, S.R. Toeg.
Index Terms:
Abraham, R.D.
Bagg, A.M.
China
Citrin, W.J.
Elfenbein, J.
Emigration
Jordan, C.H.
Kadoorie, H.
Levy, H.L.
List
Pilpel, R.
Reports
Rice, J.
Toeg, S.R.
#Return to Top
File 500: China: Subject Matter, Emigration, Shanghai Emigration Files
In March 1941, the U.S. Gov't indicated a readiness to include Shanghai refugees in its immigration quotas. To expedite matters, the JDC transferred Laura Margolis, its representative in Cuba to Shanghai. She arrived in April 1941, but the Consulate issued visas at a snail's pace owing to staff shortages. Quota restrictions and the scarcity of ships in the Far East compounded the difficulties. By Pearl Harbor, some 300 Shanghai refugees had migrated to Palestine, Australia, Canada and Burma with JDC aid. The war cut off all further emigration and it resumed again only in 1946. Between 1946-1953, the JDC aided in the emigration to overseas lands of some 16,000 DP's from China, and they came from Shanghai predominantly. Some 6,700 DP's were admitted to the U.S., and included several hundred persons who were in transit to third countries. The remaining DP's went to Israel, Europe, Australia, Latin America, and Canada. 1946/1,400; 1947/6,700; 1948/3,300; 1949/3,000; 1950/750; 1951/640; 1952/235; Total/16,025. Shipping shortages in the Far East restricted emigration in 1946, but among the first to go were members of the rabbinical groups. In the following year, emigration soared to its post-war peak when the restriction eased, and emigration to the U.S. increased notably. In mid-1947, the U.S. State Dept. agreed to extend to German and Austrian DP's in Shanghai the use of the corporate affidavit which theretofore had been restricted to Europe. That step permitted the immigration of DP's who were otherwise eligible but who lacked relatives or friends in the U.S. who could submit acceptable individual affidavits on their behalf. The arrangement remained in effect until the U.S. closed its Consulate in Shanghai in February 1950, in the aftermath of the Communist takeover. The closing brought emigration to the U.S. from Shanghai to a virtual end. The International Refugee Organization (IRO) reimbursed the JDC, in whole or in part, for transportation costs incurred by it on behalf of many refugees. The IRO was created by the UN in 1946, to aid in the repatriation and resettlement of refugees and DPs left in the wake of W.W. II. In time, the IRO replaced existing refugee organizations such as UNRRA and the Intergovernmental Committee for Refugees (IGCR). It was dissolved in Feb. 1952. IRO reimbursements to the JDC covered only a part of the overall emigration expenditures which that agency had incurred. For emigration to Australia, see: Australia, Files 438a-438b. For emigration to Canada, see: Canada, File 455. List of 7,570 JDC Files of Shanghai emigrants to the U.S., Canada, South America, Europe, Israel and Australia. Shipment of the files out of Shanghai was first approved by the Chinese Communist authorities but later and finally disapproved.
Index Terms:
Australia
Canada
China
Emigration
Europe
Israel
List
Shanghai
South America
United States (U.S.)
#Return to Top
File 501: China: Subject Matter, Housing, 1939; 1946 - 1949
Shanghai was beset by a severe housing shortage following the occupation of the city by the Japanese in 1937. The subsequent arrival of thousands of Jewish refugees worsened the pressure. To cope with housing needs as they arose, the JDC acquired houses and huts as well as single apartments or rooms, as they became available. High rentals and costly key money were the usual price. Annual Report 1939 of the I.C.R. Homes, 12/31/39. Status of refugee housing: 10/20/41-10/23/41, 1/29/46, 3/21/46, 4/23/46, 5/4/46, 11/18/46, 12/26/46 and attachments, 8/19/48 and attachments. Statement of Camps and Houses under the Management of the JDC, 7/5/48. The JDC appropriated $20,000 to construct a dwelling housing 135 persons, 8/26/48-11/9/48. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, A.C. Glassgold, C.H. Jordan, J. Saper, M. Speelman, Wu-Kuo-Tsung.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, P.
China
Emigration
Glassgold, A.C.
Housing
Jordan, C.H.
Refugees
Reports
Saper, J.
Shanghai
Speelman, M.
Tsung, Wu-Kuo
#Return to Top
File 502: China: Subject Matter, Medical Aid, 1945 - 1950
For a review of the medical condition of DPs and of JDC medical facilities in Shanghai 1939-1949, see below, report by Simon Bergman, 8/9/49. Status of medical care in Shanghai for DPs: 2/13/46, 4/29/46, 6/4/46, 6/18/46, 7/5/46 J. Hamer, 6/17/47, 4/21/48, 10/21/48, 2/25/49. Reports: Medical Care of European Refugees in Shanghai 1942-1945 by T. Kunfi, 9/25/45; Shanghai Refugee Hospital Jan.-Mar. 1946, 6/15/46; Shanghai Refugee Medical Board by S. Bergman, Annual Report 1946 4/22/47, and Jan.-June 1948, 8/30/48 attachment to 9/3/48; Medical Services and Supplies by D. Stansby, 1/9/48; SR Hospital General statistics May 1948, 7/5/48, and year 1948, undated; Jewish Dp's in China by S. Bergman, 8/9/49. Correspondence: S. Bergman, A.C. Glassgold, J.J. Golub, C.H. Jordan, T. Kunfi, M.A. Leavitt, R. Pilpel, J. Wong.
Index Terms:
Bergman, S.
China
Displaced Persons
Emigration
Glassgold, A.C.
Golub, J.J.
Jordan, C.H.
Kunfi, T.
Leavitt, M.A.
Medical Aid
Pilpel, R.
Reports
Shanghai
Wong, J.
#Return to Top
File 503: China: Subject Matter, Relief Supplies and Vocational Training
Essential food and clothing supplies as well as education and religious articles formed the staples among JDC imports into Shanghai following W.W.II. Import licenses, hedged in by restrictions and regulations, were essential for every import even for charitable organizations, and slowed down the flow of supplies. Only UNRRA/IRO supplies came in without restriction, as they were covered by a blanket import license. See below, File 467, 4/27/48 and File 468, 6/30/48. a. General, 1945 - 1949 b. Books, 1945 - 1947 c. Passover Supplies, 1946 - 1949 2. Vocational Training, 1941 - 1948. Reports: Four years ORT Activities in Shanghai 1941-1945; Guild of Craftsmen, Shanghai, 1945-1947.
Index Terms:
China
Emigration
International Refugee Organization (IRO)
Relief Supplies
Reports
Shanghai
United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA)
Vocational Training
#Return to Top
Record Group 4.12: Costa Rica
File 504: Costa Rica: General
Correspondence, memos, reports, addenda. Reports: 1939 - 1944 L. Feigenblatt: 1/17/39, 1/28/39 attachment to 2/2/39, 6/9/39, 7/12/39 Minute, 10/19/39, 6/1/40, 6/13/40, 6/19/40 attachment to 6/24/40, 7/12/40, 3/17/41, 12/27/41, 3/13/42, 4/22/42, 7/8/42; L.J. Obermayer: 3/7/39, 3/22/39 Obermayer to Razovsky; J.B. Lightman: 7/15/44. Correspondence: H.D. Biele, L. Feigenblatt, M.A. Leavitt, J.B. Lightman, L. J. Obermayer, R. Pilpel, C. Razovsky, J.A. Weston.
Index Terms:
Biele, H.D.
Costa Rica
Feigenblatt, Louis
Leavitt, M.A.
Lightman, J.B.
Obermayer, Leon J.
Pilpel, R.
Razovsky, C.
Reports
Weston, J.A.
#Return to Top
File 504a: Costa Rica: Tenorio Project
In the mid-1930s, the Refugee Economic Corp. (REC) focused on Costa Rica as the Latin -American country offering the greatest promise for the colonization and resettlement of German refugees. In August 1937, it purchased the Tenorio Ranch on which it hoped to settle some 100-400 families, following the receipt of assurances by the Costa Rican Govt. that the refugees would be admitted. The ranch contained some 50,000 acres and lay mostly in the temperate highlands of that country, at a considerable distance from larger cities and towns. Abraham J. Bruman, an experienced agronomist with the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture was engaged as the general manager. When the Costa Rican press got wind of the purchase, it kicked up a storm, on the ground that the refugees would not remain on the land and would turn instead to trade and commerce where they would compete with native establishments. The Public Registrar thereupon refused to record the deed of sale on strictly arbitrary grounds. The REC appealed to the courts, which ruled in its favor in the lower courts, but the decision was reversed on appeal. The Government thereupon aided the REC in gaining title to the property via a subsidiary, a newly organized Costa Rican corporation, but imposed the condition that new refugees should not be brought in. Moreover, to protect the property against squatter invasions, the REC found itself compelled to install a managerial staff and to add costly improvements and safeguards at various points on the property. What's more, refugee immigration to Latin America was sharply curtailed by the outbreak of W.W. II and came to a standstill following Pearl Harbor. When W.W. II ended, proposals were repeatedly advanced for the settlement of DPs on the property and for the opening of an industrial and agricultural center, but they all came to nothing. Finally, in October, 1949, the REC sold the Tenorio Ranch to the United Fruit Co. For summary accounts of developments over the years, see below: Report by A.J. Bruman, 1937, undated. Memos: 4/18/38, 11/30/38, 3/21/40, May 1941, 11/2/45, 3/17/47, 10/20/47, 6/17/48, 10/7/48, 5/9/49, 6/22/49.
Index Terms:
Bruman, Abraham J.
Costa Rica
Refugee Economic Corp. (REC)
Refugees
Tenorio Project
United Fruit Co.
#Return to Top
File 504b: Costa Rica, Tenouio Project, 1943-1947, June
In the mid-1930s, the Refugee Economic Corp. (REC) focused on Costa Rica as the Latin -American country offering the greatest promise for the colonization and resettlement of German refugees. In August 1937, it purchased the Tenorio Ranch on which it hoped to settle some 100-400 families, following the receipt of assurances by the Costa Rican Govt. that the refugees would be admitted. The ranch contained some 50,000 acres and lay mostly in the temperate highlands of that country, at a considerable distance from larger cities and towns. Abraham J. Bruman, an experienced agronomist with the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture was engaged as the general manager. When the Costa Rican press got wind of the purchase, it kicked up a storm, on the ground that the refugees would not remain on the land and would turn instead to trade and commerce where they would compete with native establishments. The Public Registrar thereupon refused to record the deed of sale on strictly arbitrary grounds. The REC appealed to the courts, which ruled in its favor in the lower courts, but the decision was reversed on appeal. The Government thereupon aided the REC in gaining title to the property via a subsidiary, a newly organized Costa Rican corporation, but imposed the condition that new refugees should not be brought in. Moreover, to protect the property against squatter invasions, the REC found itself compelled to install a managerial staff and to add costly improvements and safeguards at various points on the property. What's more, refugee immigration to Latin America was sharply curtailed by the outbreak of W.W. II and came to a standstill following Pearl Harbor. When W.W. II ended, proposals were repeatedly advanced for the settlement of DPs on the property and for the opening of an industrial and agricultural center, but they all came to nothing. Finally, in October, 1949, the REC sold the Tenorio Ranch to the United Fruit Co. For summary accounts of developments over the years, see below: Report by A.J. Bruman, 1937, undated. Memos: 4/18/38, 11/30/38, 3/21/40, May 1941, 11/2/45, 3/17/47, 10/20/47, 6/17/48, 10/7/48, 5/9/49, 6/22/49.
Index Terms:
Bruman, Abraham J.
Costa Rica
Refugee Economic Corp. (REC)
Refugees
Tenorio Project
United Fruit Co.
#Return to Top
File 504c: Costa Rica, Tenouio Project July 1947-1949
In the mid-1930s, the Refugee Economic Corp. (REC) focused on Costa Rica as the Latin -American country offering the greatest promise for the colonization and resettlement of German refugees. In August 1937, it purchased the Tenorio Ranch on which it hoped to settle some 100-400 families, following the receipt of assurances by the Costa Rican Govt. that the refugees would be admitted. The ranch contained some 50,000 acres and lay mostly in the temperate highlands of that country, at a considerable distance from larger cities and towns. Abraham J. Bruman, an experienced agronomist with the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture was engaged as the general manager. When the Costa Rican press got wind of the purchase, it kicked up a storm, on the ground that the refugees would not remain on the land and would turn instead to trade and commerce where they would compete with native establishments. The Public Registrar thereupon refused to record the deed of sale on strictly arbitrary grounds. The REC appealed to the courts, which ruled in its favor in the lower courts, but the decision was reversed on appeal. The Government thereupon aided the REC in gaining title to the property via a subsidiary, a newly organized Costa Rican corporation, but imposed the condition that new refugees should not be brought in. Moreover, to protect the property against squatter invasions, the REC found itself compelled to install a managerial staff and to add costly improvements and safeguards at various points on the property. What's more, refugee immigration to Latin America was sharply curtailed by the outbreak of W.W. II and came to a standstill following Pearl Harbor. When W.W. II ended, proposals were repeatedly advanced for the settlement of DPs on the property and for the opening of an industrial and agricultural center, but they all came to nothing. Finally, in October, 1949, the REC sold the Tenorio Ranch to the United Fruit Co. For summary accounts of developments over the years, see below: Report by A.J. Bruman, 1937, undated. Memos: 4/18/38, 11/30/38, 3/21/40, May 1941, 11/2/45, 3/17/47, 10/20/47, 6/17/48, 10/7/48, 5/9/49, 6/22/49.
Index Terms:
Bruman, Abraham J.
Costa Rica
Refugee Economic Corp. (REC)
Refugees
Tenorio Project
United Fruit Co.
#Return to Top
Record Group 4.13: Cuba
Series 1: Cuba: Administration
Correspondence, memos, reports and addenda.
File 505: Cuba: Administration, General, 1938
The JDC allocated $10,000 to the NCC for refugee aid in Cuba, 9/29/38, 10/12/38, and $3,000 to the JRC directly for the same purpose, 10/31/38(2), 11/3/38(3), 11/4/38 memo, 11/10/38, 12/9/38 memo Hyman to Bressler, 12/20/38 Hyman to Bressler, 12/30/38 Katzki to Razovsky. Reports and memos on events and developments: 9/18/38, 10/18/38 J. Brandon to R. Brandon, 11/2/38 Hyman to Bressler, 11/7/38 memo on agreement with JRC, 11/18/38 Brandon to Razovsky, 11/26/38 Chamberlain to Hyman, 12/20/38 Berenson to NCC, 12/30/38 Bressler to Razovsky, 12/31, 38. Correspondence: L. Berenson, J. Brandon, D. Bressler, J.C. Hyman, A.H. Kates, H. Katzki, C. Razovsky, Wm. Rosenwald.
Index Terms:
Administration
Berenson, L.
Brandon, J.
Bressler, D.
Cuba
Hyman, J.C.
Kates, A.H.
Katzki, H.
National Coordinating Committee (NCC)
Razovsky, C.
Refugee Aid
Reports
Rosenwald, Wm.
#Return to Top
File 506: Cuba: Administration, General, 1939 (Jan.-May)
The JDC allocated $10,000 for refugee aid in Cuba, 1/6/39. JDC costs for refugee aid in Cuba for 1939 were estimated at $100,000, 2/16/39 D. Bressler report, 3/21/39(2) memo and Hyman to Margolis. Refugee costs were running at $3,500 per week on a budget of $2,000 per week, 2/15/39 Margolis to Razovsky. The JDC allocated $50,000 for refugee aid in the first six months of 1939, 5/1/39 and granted $1,000 per week in addition effective 4/10/39, 4/7/39, 5/25/39. Reports and memos on events and developments: 1/2/39, 1/5/39, 1/7/39 and 1/10/39 Bressler to Razovsky, 1/12/39(2), 1/21/39, 3/10/39 memo, 3/17/39(2) Maduro to Bressler and Margolis to Razovsky, 3/21/39(2) memo and Razovsky to Bressler, 3/23/39, 3/24/39 Margolis to Razovsky, 3/27/39, 3/28/39(2) Margolis to Razovsky and Maduro to Bressler, 3/29/39 Margolis to Razovsky, 4/8/39, 4/15/39(2), 4/17/39, 5/3/39, 5/19/39. Special Reports: On Cuba, David Bressler, 2/16/39; On the Situation of Refugees in Havana, Edward Hochhauser, 3/3/29. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, L. Berenson, D. Bressler, M.D. Goldsmith, J.C. Hyman, A.H. Kates, L.L. Margolis. S.L. Maduro, E. Perlman, C. Razovsky.
Index Terms:
Administration
Baerwald, P.
Berenson, L.
Bressler, D.
Cuba
Goldsmith, M.D.
Hyman, J.C.
Kates, A.H.
Maduro, S.L.
Margolis, L.L.
Perlman, E.
Razovsky, C.
Refugee Aid
Reports
#Return to Top
File 507: Cuba: Administration, General, 1939 (June-Aug.)
The JDC allocated $78,000 for refugee aid covering the second half of 1939, 7/27/39 Morrissey to Lew. Reports and memos on events and developments: 6/13/39, 6/15/39 Bressler to Maduro, 6/20/39 Hyman to Rosenwald attachment, 6/23/39 Margolis to Razovsky, 6/26/39 Jaretzki to Montes, 7/19/39, 8/10/39, 8/15/39 Montes to Pilpel, 8/16/39 Schwartz to Vorenberg. Correspondence: L. Berenson, D.M. Bressler, J.P. Chamberlain, M.D. Goldsmith, J.C. Hyman, A. Jaretski Jr., A.H. Kates, S.L. Maduro, L.L. Margolis, J.G. Montes, R. Pilpel, C. Razovsky, J.J. Schwartz.
Index Terms:
Administration
Berenson, L.
Bressler, D.M.
Chamberlain, J.P.
Cuba
Goldsmith, M.D.
Hyman, J.C.
Jaretski Jr., A.
Kates, A.H.
Maduro, S.L.
Margolis, Laura L.
Montes, J.G.
Pilpel, R.
Razovsky, C.
Refugee Aid
Reports
Schwartz, J.J.
#Return to Top
File 508: Cuba: Administration, General, 1939 (Sept.-Dec.)
The JRC was incorporated so that American staff members could work in Havana and M.D. Goldsmith was elected president, 9/13/39, 10/9/39 (Note: Cuban labor laws forbade the employment of foreigners in Cuba unless they were officers, or members of the B. of D.). Reports and memos on events and developments: 9/1/39, 9/7/39 Goldsmith to Schwartz, 9/11/39 Goldsmith to Pilpel, 9/21/39, 9/30/39 attachment to 10/12/39, 10/23/39. Special report on the visit to Havana by F.N. Trager 8/12/39-8/25/39 attachment to 10/13/39, Amendment to Cuban Immigration Law proposed in legislature to permit seizure of bond moneys deposited by refugees, 11/14/39-11/28/39. Proposal defeated 12/13/39-12/14/39, 12/18/39, 12/19/39. Also see below: File 509, 1/11/40 memo, 1/12/40 Jaretzki to Montes, 1/17/40 Montes to Jaretzki, 1/27/40, 1/30/40, 1/31/40, 2/1/40; and SS Orinoco, File 388. Correspondence: M.D. Goldsmith, J.C. Hyman, P.C. Jessup, A.H. Kates, J. Kleiman, E.S. Margolis, J.G. Montes, R.T. Pell, R. Pilpel, J.J. Schwartz.
Index Terms:
Administration
Cuba
Cuban Immigration Law
Goldsmith, M.D.
Hyman, J.C.
Jessup, P.C.
Joint Relief Committee (JRC)
Kates, A.H.
Kleiman, J.
Margolis, E.S.
Montes, J.G.
Pell, R.T.
Pilpel, R.
Reports
Schwartz, J.J.
#Return to Top
File 509: Cuba: Administration, General, 1940 (Jan.-June)
The JDC allocated $98,300 for refugee aid covering the first half of 1940, 1/15/40, 2/23/40, 3/21/40, 5/9/40, 5/18/40. Reports and memos on events and developments: 1/13/40, 1/18/40 Hyman to Goldsmith, 1/18/40 memo, 2/24/40, 2/27/40, 2/29/40, 3/11/40 Pilpel to Hersey, 4/3/40, 5/8/40, 5/9/40, 5/20/40, 5/22/40, 6/18/40. Also see: File 130, 4/26/76 pp. 7-13. Correspondence: M.D. Goldsmith, J.C. Hyman, A.H. Kates, A. Jaretzki Jr., L.L. Margolis, R. Pilpel, J.J. Schwartz.
Index Terms:
Administration
Cuba
Goldsmith, M.D.
Hyman, J.C.
Jaretzki Jr., A.
Kates, A.H.
Margolis, Laura L.
Pilpel, R.
Refugee Aid
Reports
Schwartz, J.J.
#Return to Top
File 510: Cuba: Administration, General, 1940 (July-Dec.)
The JDC allocated $79,500 for refugee aid covering the second half of 1940, 5/18/40, 7/15/40, 9/21/40, 10/25/40, 11/20/40. Voluntary registration of refugees in Cuba came to 1,636 persons, of whom 828 were beneficiaries of JRC relief aid, 8/8/40. Reports and memos on events and developments: 7/22/40(2), 8/8/40, 8/16/40 memo, 8/20/40, 8/28/40(2), 9/5/40, 9/10/40, 9/13/40, 9/16/40, 9/23/40, 10/1/40(2), 10/16/40, 10/21/40, 10/29/40(2) Margolis to Pilpel, 10/31/40, 11/21/40, 12/11/40. Special Report: Study of Change of Status Cases Jan. 1937 - Oct. 1940, by M. Siegel and L. Veissid, 12/1/40. Correspondence: J.C. Hyman, A.H. Kates, M.A. Leavitt, L.L. Margolis, A. Mayerson, R. Pilpel, C. Razovsky, A. Teitelbaum.
Index Terms:
Administration
Cuba
Hyman, J.C.
Kates, A.H.
Leavitt, M.A.
Margolis, Laura L.
Mayerson, A.
Pilpel, R.
Razovsky, C.
Refugee Aid
Reports
Teitelbaum, A.
#Return to Top
File 511: Cuba: Administration, General, 1941 (Jan.-Sept.)
Reports and memos on events and developments: 2/3/41, 2/17/41 F.R. Adlerstein, 3/25/41, 5/5/41, 5/21/41, 5/30/41(2), SS Marques de Comillas, 9/8/41. Also see: File 376, SS Navemar 9/9/41 Pilpel to Adlerstein, File 130, 4/26/76 pp. 12-13. Correspondence: F.R. Adlerstein, J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt, L.L. Margolis, R. Pilpel, M. Siegel.
Index Terms:
Adlerstein, F.R.
Administration
Cuba
Hyman, J.C.
Leavitt, M.A.
Margolis, Laura L.
Pilpel, R.
Reports
Siegel, M.
#Return to Top
File 512: Cuba: Administration, General, 1941 (Oct.-Dec.)
Reports and memos on events and developments: 10/15/41 Pilpel to Mayerson, 10/22/41 and 10/31/41 Pilpel to Brochard, 11/1/41 Leavitt to Pilpel, 12/15/41 memo on makeup of refugees in Havana, 12/20/41 Jordan to Pilpel, 12/31/41 Pilpel to Adlerstein. Correspondence: F.W. Borchard, C.H. Jordan, M.A. Leavitt, R. Pilpel, M. Siegel, M. Stephany.
Index Terms:
Administration
Borchard, F.W.
Cuba
Jordan, C.H.
Leavitt, M.A.
Pilpel, R.
Refugees
Reports
Siegel, M.
Stephany, M.
#Return to Top
File 513: Cuba: Administration, General, 1942 (Jan.-May)
Reports and memos on events and developments: 1/5/42 Troper to Stephany, 1/13/42 and attachment; nearly 2,000 refugees arrived in Cuba during December 1941, 1/23/42, 2/7/42, 2/14/42, 2/25/42, 3/2/42 Pilpel to Jordan, 3/16/42(2), 4/10/42, 4/11/42 Jordan to Pilpel, 4/15/42 memo, 4/16/42 memo, 4/19/42 telegram, 4/20/42 memo, 5/1/42 R. Pilpel, 5/6/42; also see: File 388, SS San Thome. Statistical summary of 2,396 refugees registered at the JDC, 5/22/42, 5/26/42, 5/28/42. Special Report: Observations on Visit to Cuba 3/26/42-4/2/42, M.A. Leavitt, 4/13/42. Correspondence: O. Gurfinkel, J.C. Hyman, C.H. Jordan, M.A. Leavitt, R. Pilpel, C. Razovsky, M.C. Troper.
Index Terms:
Administration
Cuba
Gurfinkel, O.
Hyman, J.C.
Jordan, C.H.
Leavitt, M.A.
Pilpel, R.
Razovsky, C.
Refugees
Reports
Troper, M.C.
#Return to Top
File 514: Cuba: Administration, General, 1942 (June-Dec.)
Reports and memos on events and developments: 6/8/42(2), 6/11/42, 7/15/42(2), 8/5/42, 8/17/42 memo, 9/1/42, 9/2/42, 9/8/42, 9/16/42, 9/25/42, 10/1/42 Pilpel to Bernstein, 10/3/42, 10/6/42, 10/23/42, 10/28/42 memo, 11/3/42. Lists of refugee arrivals in Florida from Cuba, by months, June-December 1942. Correspondence: J.C. Hyman, C.H. Jordan, M.A. Leavitt, R. Pilpel.
Index Terms:
Administration
Cuba
Hyman, J.C.
Jordan, C.H.
Leavitt, M.A.
List
Pilpel, R.
Refugees
Reports
#Return to Top
File 515: Cuba: Administration, General, 1943
Reports and memos on events and developments: 2/1/43 Pilpel to Frank, 3/8/43 Jordan to Pilpel, 3/24/43, 3/29/43, 4/12/43, 4/21/43, 5/10/43, 5/29/43, 6/8/43, 6/14/43, 8/9/43, 11/25/43, 11/30/43, 12/17/43. Lists of refugee arrivals in Florida from Cuba, by months, Jan.-Dec. 1943. Correspondence: S. Braden, O. Gurfinkel, C.H. Jordan, R. Pilpel, R. Rabinoff, G.L. Warren.
Index Terms:
Administration
Braden, S.
Cuba
Gurfinkel, O.
Jordan, C.H.
List
Pilpel, R.
Rabinoff, R.
Refugees
Reports
Warren, G.L.
#Return to Top
File 516: Cuba: Administration, General, 1944
Reports and memos on events and developments: 2/17/44, 2/25/44, 3/1/44, 3/3/44, 3/9/44, 3/10/44, 3/13/44 Gurfinkel to Leavitt, 3/27/44 and attachment, 5/11/44 and 5/18/44 Gurfinkel to Sobel, 6/8/44, 7/7/44, 8/7/44, 12/5/44. Lists of refugees arrivals in Florida from Cuba, by months Jan.-Nov. 1944. The JDC Emergency Admin. Committee set up a deferred commitment of $500,000 as a maintenance guarantee in that sum, if the Cuban Gov't would admit 1,000 refugee children, 5/2/44, 5/16/44, 6/18/44 memo #2598. Correspondence: H.D. Beale, S. Braden, O. Gurfinkel, J.C. Hyman, L.H. Sobel.
Index Terms:
Administration
Beale, H.D.
Braden, S.
Children
Cuba
Florida
Gurfinkel, O.
Hyman, J.C.
JDC Emergency Administration Committee
List
Refugees
Reports
Sobel, L.H.
#Return to Top
File 517: Cuba: Administration, General, 1945 - 1959
Reports and memos on events and developments: 1/23/45, 1/25/45, 3/27/45, 7/4/46, 2/6/47, 6/30/47, 6/30/48-8/6/48, 9/13/48, 5/1/56. Report on visit to Havana 10/6/48-10/22/48, by Philip Skorneck, 10/22/48. For data on years following 1959, see: Correspondence: A. Gurfinkel, A. Hartman, C.H. Jordan, A.H. Kates, J. Landau, M.A. Leavitt, R. Pilpel, P. Skorneck, A.Z. Weinstein.
Index Terms:
Administration
Cuba
Gurfinkel, A.
Hartman, A.
Jordan, C.H.
Kates, A.H.
Landau, J.
Leavitt, M.A.
Pilpel, R.
Reports
Skorneck, P.
Weinstein, A.Z.
#Return to Top
File 522: Cuba: Administration, Financial, 1938 - 1939
Monthly Financial and Statistical Reports: 1939: June (7/12/39), August-December Financial and Statistical Report, M.A. Goldsmith, undated (Nov. 1939).
Index Terms:
Administration
Cuba
Financial
Goldsmith, M.A.
Reports
#Return to Top
File 523: Cuba: Administration, Financial, 1940
Monthly Financial and Statistical Reports: 1940: January-December Suspense Account Between the NRS and the JDC, 7/5/40. Loeb and Troper Field Audit, Joint Relief Committee 1939-1940.
Index Terms:
Administration
Cuba
Financial
Joint Relief Committee (JRC)
National Refugee Service (NRS)
Reports
#Return to Top
File 524: Cuba: Administration, Financial, 1941
Monthly Financial and Statistical Reports: 1941: January-December Loeb and Troper Field Audit, Joint Relief Committee, 1941. LandP Field Audit Letters #21-27, 5/28/41.
Index Terms:
Administration
Cuba
Financial
Joint Relief Committee (JRC)
Reports
#Return to Top
File 525: Cuba: Administration, Financial, 1942 - 1943
Monthly Financial and Statistical Reports: 1942: January-December; 1943: January-December Weekly Financial Summaries #1-15, 9/22/43-12/29/43. Loeb and Troper Field Audit Letters, 1942: #10, 5/13/42; #11, 5/15/42; #12, 5/20/42; #13, 5/22/42.
Index Terms:
Administration
Cuba
Financial
Reports
#Return to Top
File 526: Cuba: Administration, Financial, 1944
Monthly Financial and Statistical Reports: 1944: January-December. Weekly Financial Summaries #16-30, 1/5/44-4/12/44, #32-36, 4/26/44-12/20/44 (many gaps). Loeb and Troper Field Audit Letters 1944: #5, 4/20/44; #6, 4/24/44.
Index Terms:
Administration
Cuba
Financial
Reports
#Return to Top
File 527: Cuba: Administration, Financial, 1945 - 1946
Monthly Financial and Statistical Reports: 1945: Jan.-July, November; 1946: December. Loeb and Troper Field Audit Letters 1945: #4, 5/2/45; #5, 5/7/45; #6, 5/10/45. 1946: #4, 4/29/46, #5, 5/3/46.
Index Terms:
Administration
Cuba
Financial
Reports
#Return to Top
File 528: Cuba: Administration, Financial, 1947 - 1950
Monthly Financial and Statistical Reports: 1947: May, Sept., Oct.
Index Terms:
Administration
Cuba
Financial
Reports
#Return to Top
File 529: Cuba: Administration, Fund-Raising, 1938 - 1944
The Jewish population of Cuba was fragmented into three major segments: the English speakers who stemmed from the U.S. mostly, the East Europeans and the Sephardis. Between them, communication and cooperation were minimal at best or non-existent. When the tide of Central European refugees began to pour into Cuba, the JDC called upon the Jewish community to participate in refugee relief, via local fund-raising, but the results were meager. Three years of local fund-raising, 1940-1942, produced a mere $7,900 all told. Only in 1945, under the stress of the holocaust, did local fund-raising for European refugees achieve significance. In that year, the JDC conducted its own campaign and collections reached $77,000; George Greenspun came in to serve as coordinator (see: File 531, 2/28/46, 3/6/46, 6/22/46). Thereafter, JDC collections fell off in the face of competing campaigns conducted by the Keren Hayesod, the HIAS, the Histadruth, the WJC and other organizations (1946: $45,000; 1947; $35,000). In 1948, a $500,000 campaign was launched in Cuba; Israel was named the major beneficiary while the JDC was excluded. In the next years, the JDC conducted limited campaigns and collected modest sums. Correspondence: H.D. Biele, O. Gurfinkel, J.C. Hyman, L.L. Margolis, M. Siegel.
Index Terms:
Administration
Biele, H.D.
Cuba
Fund-Raising
Greenspun, George
Gurfinkel, O.
Hebrew Sheltering and Immigrant Aid Society (HIAS)
Histadruth
Hyman, J.C.
Keren Hayesod
Margolis, Laura L.
Refugees
Siegel, M.
World Jewish Congress (WJC)
#Return to Top
File 530: Cuba: Administration, Fund-Raising, 1945
The Jewish population of Cuba was fragmented into three major segments: the English speakers who stemmed from the U.S. mostly, the East Europeans and the Sephardis. Between them, communication and cooperation were minimal at best or non-existent. When the tide of Central European refugees began to pour into Cuba, the JDC called upon the Jewish community to participate in refugee relief, via local fund-raising, but the results were meager. Three years of local fund-raising, 1940-1942, produced a mere $7,900 all told. Only in 1945, under the stress of the holocaust, did local fund-raising for European refugees achieve significance. In that year, the JDC conducted its own campaign and collections reached $77,000; George Greenspun came in to serve as coordinator (see: File 531, 2/28/46, 3/6/46, 6/22/46). Thereafter, JDC collections fell off in the face of competing campaigns conducted by the Keren Hayesod, the HIAS, the Histadruth, the WJC and other organizations (1946: $45,000; 1947; $35,000). In 1948, a $500,000 campaign was launched in Cuba; Israel was named the major beneficiary while the JDC was excluded. In the next years, the JDC conducted limited campaigns and collected modest sums. Correspondence: G. Greenspun, O. Gurfinkel, A. Hartman, J.C. Hyman, R. Pilpel, L.H. Sobel.
Index Terms:
Administration
Cuba
Fund-Raising
Greenspun, G.
Greenspun, George
Gurfinkel, O.
Hartman, A.
Hebrew Sheltering and Immigrant Aid Society (HIAS)
Histadruth
Hyman, J.C.
Keren Hayesod
Pilpel, R.
Refugees
Sobel, L.H.
World Jewish Congress (WJC)
#Return to Top
File 531: Cuba: Administration, Fund-Raising, 1946 - 1947
The Jewish population of Cuba was fragmented into three major segments: the English speakers who stemmed from the U.S. mostly, the East Europeans and the Sephardis. Between them, communication and cooperation were minimal at best or non-existent. When the tide of Central European refugees began to pour into Cuba, the JDC called upon the Jewish community to participate in refugee relief, via local fund-raising, but the results were meager. Three years of local fund-raising, 1940-1942, produced a mere $7,900 all told. Only in 1945, under the stress of the holocaust, did local fund-raising for European refugees achieve significance. In that year, the JDC conducted its own campaign and collections reached $77,000; George Greenspun came in to serve as coordinator (see: File 531, 2/28/46, 3/6/46, 6/22/46). Thereafter, JDC collections fell off in the face of competing campaigns conducted by the Keren Hayesod, the HIAS, the Histadruth, the WJC and other organizations (1946: $45,000; 1947; $35,000). In 1948, a $500,000 campaign was launched in Cuba; Israel was named the major beneficiary while the JDC was excluded. In the next years, the JDC conducted limited campaigns and collected modest sums. Correspondence: G. Greenspun, O. Gurfinkel, J.B. Lightman, R. Pilpel, P. Skorneck.
Index Terms:
Administration
Cuba
Fund-Raising
Greenspun, G.
Greenspun, George
Gurfinkel, O.
Hebrew Sheltering and Immigrant Aid Society (HIAS)
Histadruth
Keren Hayesod
Lightman, J.B.
Pilpel, R.
Refugees
Skorneck, P.
World Jewish Congress (WJC)
#Return to Top
File 532: Cuba: Administration, Fund-Raising, 1948 - 1951
The Jewish population of Cuba was fragmented into three major segments: the English speakers who stemmed from the U.S. mostly, the East Europeans and the Sephardis. Between them, communication and cooperation were minimal at best or non-existent. When the tide of Central European refugees began to pour into Cuba, the JDC called upon the Jewish community to participate in refugee relief, via local fund-raising, but the results were meager. Three years of local fund-raising, 1940-1942, produced a mere $7,900 all told. Only in 1945, under the stress of the holocaust, did local fund-raising for European refugees achieve significance. In that year, the JDC conducted its own campaign and collections reached $77,000; George Greenspun came in to serve as coordinator (see: File 531, 2/28/46, 3/6/46, 6/22/46). Thereafter, JDC collections fell off in the face of competing campaigns conducted by the Keren Hayesod, the HIAS, the Histadruth, the WJC and other organizations (1946: $45,000; 1947; $35,000). In 1948, a $500,000 campaign was launched in Cuba; Israel was named the major beneficiary while the JDC was excluded. In the next years, the JDC conducted limited campaigns and collected modest sums. Correspondence: O. Gurfinkel, M.A. Leavitt, J.B. Lightman, R. Pilpel, P. Skorneck, E.M.M. Warburg.
Index Terms:
Administration
Cuba
Fund-Raising
Greenspun, George
Gurfinkel, O.
Hebrew Sheltering and Immigrant Aid Society (HIAS)
Histadruth
Keren Hayesod
Leavitt, M.A.
Lightman, J.B.
Pilpel, R.
Refugees
Skorneck, P.
Warburg, E.M.M.
World Jewish Congress (WJC)
#Return to Top
Series 2: Cuba: Organizations
American Friends Service Committee, see below: File 518. Asociacion Democratica de Refugiados Hebreos de la Habana, see General, File 515, 5/24/43, 6/1/43 and File 516, 2/3/44. Joint Relief Committee, see Cuba: Introductory section.
File 518: American Friends Service Committee (Friends)
In July 1939, the Friends opened a work camp and school, on the outskirts of Havana, for the informal training in trade and agriculture of some 50 young refugees. The Friends expended $3,500 for the equipment and upkeep of the establishment. The JDC granted allocations for maintenance and tuition of $4,000 in 1940 and $9,900 in 1941. The work camp closed its gates in March 1942. Correspondence: H.J. Cadbury, M.D. Goldsmith, J.C. Hyman, H. Kraus, L.L. Margolis, C. Pickett, R. Pilpel, J.J. Schwartz.
Index Terms:
American Friends Service Committee (Friends)
Cadbury, H.J.
Cuba
Goldsmith, M.D.
Hyman, J.C.
Kraus, H.
Margolis, L.L.
Pickett, C.
Pilpel, R.
Refugees
Schools
Schwartz, J.J.
#Return to Top
Series 3: Cuba: Subject Matter
File 519: Cuba: Subject Matter, Repatriation of Cuban Jews
A group of twenty naturalized Cuban Jews fled to Spain from France following the Nazi occupation, and awaited their repatriation in exchange for German nationals interned in Cuba. The repatriation was cancelled and their departure overseas was delayed until Feb. 1945. The JDC supported them during their entire sojourn in Spain and met the costs of their ocean crossing to Cuba.
Index Terms:
Cuba
Repatriation
Spain
#Return to Top
File 520: Special Historical Project on the History of the Jews in Cuba
Ever since the depression 1930's, Cuban law barred the labor market to foreigners. In April 1943, the JDC underwrote a form of WPA Federal Writer's Project for the many professional and white collar workers among the unemployed refugees. Materials collected and prepared by them on the History of the Jews in Cuba up to circa 1933, will be found in the JDC Archives 1921-1932, Files 184-185. Materials bearing upon the post-1933 years will be found below. The project was supervised by Boris Sapir. Correspondence: H.D. Biele, O. Gurfinkel, C. Jordan, R. Pilpel, R. Rabinoff, B. Sapir, L.H. Sobel.
Index Terms:
Biele, H.D.
Cuba
Gurfinkel, O.
Jordan, C.
Pilpel, R.
Rabinoff, R.
Refugees
Sapir, B.
Sobel, L.H.
WPA Federal Writer's Project
#Return to Top
File 521: Special Historical Project on the History of the Jews in Cuba, Manuscript
Ever since the depression 1930's, Cuban law barred the labor market to foreigners. In April 1943, the JDC underwrote a form of WPA Federal Writer's Project for the many professional and white collar workers among the unemployed refugees. Materials collected and prepared by them on the History of the Jews in Cuba up to circa 1933, will be found in the JDC Archives 1921-1932, Files 184-185. Materials bearing upon the post-1933 years will be found below. The project was supervised by Boris Sapir. "Is There a Jewish Question in Cuba", W. Berger, 1944.
Index Terms:
Berger, W.
Cuba
Refugees
WPA Federal Writer's Project
#Return to Top
Record Group 4.14: Curacao
File 533: Curacao
In 1939, some 800 Jewish families made their homes in Curacao, and all but 100 were of Sephardi descent. In 1940, following the fall of Holland, the Dutch Gov't-in-Exile interned as enemy aliens a number of Jewish refugees arriving in Curacao. In Nov. 1941, the Dutch Gov't allowed 83 refugees from the SS Cabo de Hornos to land in Curacao for 90 days, from the notorious voyage of that vessel in Oct.-Nov. 1941. The JDC shouldered responsibility for the costs of maintenance and for placing the refugees in permanent homes elsewhere. For materials on the voyage of the SS Cabo de Hornos and on the 83 refugees who landed in Curacao, see: Emigration, Files 370-371. Milton H.M. Maduro served as the unpaid JDC representative in Curacao, from 11/19/41 until the end of W.W. II. Rabbi I.J. Cardozo headed the local relief committee, Joodsch Hulp-Comite, which aided the refugees throughout the war. In the post-war years, the Jewish community of Curacao became a JDC contributor. For materials, see: Curacao, Fund-Raising. Correspondence: I.S. Cardozo, M.A. Leavitt, I.H. Levy, M.H.L. Maduro, R. Pilpel.
Index Terms:
Cardozo, I.S.
Curacao
Leavitt, M.A.
Levy, I.H.
Maduro, M.H.L.
Pilpel, R.
Refugees
SS Cabo de Hornos
Sephardi
#Return to Top
Record Group 4.15: Czechoslovakia
Series 1: Czechoslovakia: Administration
Correspondence, memos, reports, addenda.
File 534: Czechoslovakia: Administration, General, 1934 - 1938
Reports and memos on the Situation of the Jews in Czechoslovakia: 2/7/34, 7/11/34, 2/10/36; 10/29/38 and attachments; November 1938(2) N. Aronovici, in English and German; HICEM Prague, 11/18/38 attachment to 12/1/38; HIAS-ICA, Paris, attachment to 12/9/38 Asofsky to Hyman. Correspondence: N. Aronovici, P. Baerwald, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, N. Katz.
Index Terms:
Administration
Aronovici, N.
Baerwald, P.
Czechoslovakia
HIAS-ICA Emigration Association (HICEM)
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, B.
Katz, N.
Prague
Refugees
Reports
#Return to Top
File 535: Czechoslovakia: Administration, General, 1939 - 1940 (June)
Reports and memos on the Situation of the Jews in Czechoslovakia: Boris Smolar, 3/17/39; Bohemia - Moravia, 6/7/39; Slovakia, 6/8/39; Jewish Political Situation in Moravia and Bohemia, F. Ullmann, 11/7/39 attachment to 11/9/39; Review of Pre-War Czechoslovakia, undated; Slovakia, 2/8/40, 2/9/40; Bohemia - Moravia, 2/23/40. Correspondence: H.K. Buchman, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, H. Katzki, O Newmann, M. Schmolka, H. Steiner, M.C. Troper.
Index Terms:
Administration
Bohemia-Moravia
Buchman, H.K.
Czechoslovakia
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, B.
Katzki, H.
Newmann, O.
Refugees
Reports
Schmolka, M.
Slovakia
Steiner, H.
Troper, M.C.
#Return to Top
File 536: Czechoslovakia: Administration, General, 1940 (June) - 1944; 1945
Reports and memos on the Situation of the Jews in Czechoslovakia: The Czech Gov't-in-Exile, undated (Aug. 1940); JDC Budapest, 10/16/40 and attachments to 10/25/40; Federation of Czechoslovakian Jews, June 1942; Deportation of Jews from Slovakia, undated, (1943); F. Kohn, 3/17/44; CICR, 12/19/44; Review of Pre-War Czechoslovakia, Aronovici and Tarshansky, 1/12/45. List of 1,200 Theresienstadt inmates who arrived in Switzerland in Feb. 1945, undated; for additional materials, see: SM Archives, File 21. Correspondence: J. Becko, J. Blum, P.T. Culbertson, R.K. Fueredi, G. Fleischmann, J.C. Hyman, S.B. Jacobson, J. Katzki, M. Rosenbluth, H. Schwartz, M.R. Springer, M.C. Troper.
Index Terms:
Administration
Becko, J.
Blum, J.
Comite International de Croix Rouge (CICR)
Culbertson, P.T.
Czechoslovakia
Fleischmann, G.
Fuerdi, R.K.
Hyman, J.C.
Jacobson, S.B.
Katzki, J.
List
Refugees
Reports
Rosenbluth, M.
Schwartz, H.
Slovakia
Springer, M.R.
Theresienstadt
Troper, M.C.
#Return to Top
File 537: Czechoslovakia: Administration, Financial
a. General, 1939 - 1941: Correspondence: F. Friedman, L. Rosner, M.C. Troper. b. Transfer of Funds, 1938 - 1942: Clearance arrangements for the transfer of funds: 9/9/38, 1/6/39, 2/13/39, 3/29/39, 8/8/39, 8/22/39, 2/14/40. Correspondence: J.C. Hyman, H. Katzki, E.M. Morrissey, J. Robbins, J.J. Schwartz, D.J. Schweitzer, M.C. Troper.
Index Terms:
Administration
Czechoslovakia
Financial
Friedman, F.
Hyman, J.C.
Katzki, H.
Morrissey, E.M.
Robbins, J.
Rosner, L.
Schwartz, J.J.
Schweitzer, D.J.
Troper, M.C.
Troper, M.C.
#Return to Top
Series 2: Czechoslovakia: Organizations
Comite International de la Croix Rouge a Geneve, see below: File 542. Czechoslovak Jewish Representative Committee, New York (affiliated with the WJC), see below: Files 542, 544. Federation of Czechoslovakian Jews, (FCJ), London, see below: Files 536, 544, 545. Masaryk - Gaster Fund, London, (affiliated with the FCJ), see below: Files 536, 538, 541, 558. School for Domestic Science, Mukacevo, see below: File 534. Sozialer Hilfsverein fuer Juden der Slovakei, Kosice, see below: File 534.
Series 3: Czechoslovakia: Subject Matter
Concentration Camps, see Files 542-544.
File 538: Czechoslovakia: Subject Matter, Emigration, General, 1938 - 1942
Urgency of Jewish emigration from B-M, 11/7/39. JDC expenditures for emigration from B-M, 7/24/40. Status of emigration to the U.S., 6/26/41 attachment to 6/27/41, 7/18/41, 7/24/41. For materials on the Kladovo episode, see: SM Archives, File 31. Correspondence: G. Fleischmann, F. Friedmann, R.K. Fueredi, J.C. Hyman, C.H. Jordan, H. Katzki, M.A. Leavitt, R. Pilpel, I. Rosen, J.J. Schwartz, M.R. Springer, H. Steiner, M.C. Troper.
Index Terms:
Czechoslovakia
Emigration
Fleischmann, G.
Friedman, F.
Fueredi, R.K.
Hyman, J.C.
Jordan, C.H.
Katzki, H.
Leavitt, M.A.
Pilpel, R.
Rosen, I.
Schwartz, J.J.
Springer, M.R.
Steiner, H.
Troper, M.C.
#Return to Top
File 539: Czechoslovakia: Subject Matter, Emigration, Individuals, 1933 - 1944
1. Kettner, L. and H. 2. Robitschek, J. and L. 3. Sabl, Karoline
Index Terms:
Czechoslovakia
Emigration
Kettner, H.
Kettner, L.
Robitschek, J.
Robitschek, L.
Sabl, Karoline
#Return to Top
File 540: Czechoslovakia: Subject Matter, Reconstruction, 1935 - 1939; 1970
Cooperatives, 1935 - 1939; 1970 - Report: Jewish Cooperatives in Czechoslovakia (between the two World Wars), Moshe Ussoskin, 1970. Correspondence: J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, H. Katzki, I. Millstein, L. Oungre, M. Ussoskin.
Index Terms:
Cooperatives
Czechoslovakia
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, B.
Katzki, H.
Millstein, I.
Oungre, L.
Reconstruction
Reports
Ussoskin, M.
#Return to Top
File 541: Czechoslovakia: Subject Matter, Refugees, 1933 - 1944
Jews in "no-man's-lands" along the various Czech frontiers, 11/1/38, 11/28/38, 12/12/38 - 1/6/39, 1/23/39, 2/7/39. Situation of refugees in Czechoslovakia: Memo, Nov. 1938; Report, Feb. 1939. JDC aided refugees from Czechoslovakia who were stranded in Rumania, 11/18/39 - 1/5/40. For earlier materials, see: Germany, File 628, 11/14/34 attachment to 11/21/34 pp. 22-24. For additional materials, 1938, 1939, see: EUREXCO, Files 179-181. Correspondence: E. Jabotinski, E. Kafka, R. Katz, H. Katzki, M.A. Leavitt, M.R. Springer, J.J. Schwartz, M. Schmolka, M.C. Troper.
Index Terms:
Czechoslovakia
Jabotinski, E.
Kafka, E.
Katz, R.
Katzki, H.
Leavitt, M.A.
Refugees
Rumania
Schmolka, M.
Schwartz, J.J.
Springer, M.R.
Troper, M.C.
#Return to Top
File 542: Czechoslovakia: Subject Matter, Relief Supplies, General
In Nov. 1941, the Nazis proceeded to transform the fortress city of Terezin (Theresienstadt), to the northwest of Prague, into a Jewish ghetto under the supervision of the Gestapo. Jews in the tens of thousands were shipped in, initially from Germany, Austria and Czechoslovakia and later from other countries too. At first, conditions were less intolerable than in other ghettos and concentration camps, but in time grave shortages in food, clothing and medicaments cropped up, epidemics broke out and mortality rates mushroomed. In May 1943, the JDC was authorized by the U.S. Treasury to transfer $12,000 per month to its Lisbon office, for the shipment of individual food parcels to non-Czech inmates of Theresienstadt. The inmates were restricted to the receipt of two parcels per month, weighing no more than one pound each. In May 1944, the JDC enlarged the monthly allocations to $14,000 and in August to $16,000. In addition, the Lisbon office supervised the shipment of some 5,000 parcels per month to Czech nationals in Theresienstadt. These parcels were shipped via the Czech representative in Lisbon, and were paid for by the British Board of Guardians. Moreover, in April 1944, Saly Mayer, with JDC funds, began to ship 2,000 parcels per month to Theresienstadt from Switzerland via the CICR, and the number expanded greatly by the year's end. Lists of individual inmates for the receipt of parcels were submitted by a number of organizations, and mainly the Federation of Czechoslovakian Jews, the Self-Help of Emigres from Central Europe, the Czechoslovak Jewish Representative Committee, and the Agudas Israel. Correspondence, memos, reports and addenda. Reports and memos on food parcel shipments to Theresienstadt: 9/2/43 Katzki to JDC N.Y., 11/8/43, 1/26/44, 7/7/44, 8/8/44, 1/31/45, 2/9/45. Reports and memos on conditions in Theresienstadt: 8/27/43, 9/15/43 attachment, 6/23/44 attachment to 10/26/44, 8/1/44, 10/13/44(2), 4/23/45 attachment to 7/3/45, 5/24/45, 5/26/45 attachment to 6/11/45, 6/4/45(2), July 1945, 7/25/45, 9/22/45. For a small pin bearing the words in Czech: "In Memoriam Theresienstadt", see R.K. Correspondence: Leo Baeck, P. Baerwald, P.F. Dunand, E. Frischer, C. Huber, H. Katzki, A.L. Kubowitzki, M.A. Leavitt, H. Linder, L.L. Margolis, R. McClelland, R. Pilpel, M. Rossel, J.J. Schwartz.
Index Terms:
Agudas Israel
Baeck, Leo
Baerwald, P.
Czechoslovak Jewish Representative Committee
Czechoslovakia
Dunand, P.F.
Federation of Czechoslovakian Jews
Food
Frischer, E.
Huber, C.
Katzki, H.
Kubowitzki, A.L.
Leavitt, M.A.
Linder, H.
Lisbon
List
Margolis, L.L.
Mayer, Saly
McClelland, R.
Pilpel, R.
Relief Supplies
Reports
Rossel, M.
Schwartz, J.J.
Self-Help of Emigres from Central Europe
Theresienstadt
#Return to Top
File 543: Czechoslovakia: Subject Matter, Relief Supplies, Food package lists for Theresienstadt
In Nov. 1941, the Nazis proceeded to transform the fortress city of Terezin (Theresienstadt), to the northwest of Prague, into a Jewish ghetto under the supervision of the Gestapo. Jews in the tens of thousands were shipped in, initially from Germany, Austria and Czechoslovakia and later from other countries too. At first, conditions were less intolerable than in other ghettos and concentration camps, but in time grave shortages in food, clothing and medicaments cropped up, epidemics broke out and mortality rates mushroomed. In May 1943, the JDC was authorized by the U.S. Treasury to transfer $12,000 per month to its Lisbon office, for the shipment of individual food parcels to non-Czech inmates of Theresienstadt. The inmates were restricted to the receipt of two parcels per month, weighing no more than one pound each. In May 1944, the JDC enlarged the monthly allocations to $14,000 and in August to $16,000. In addition, the Lisbon office supervised the shipment of some 5,000 parcels per month to Czech nationals in Theresienstadt. These parcels were shipped via the Czech representative in Lisbon, and were paid for by the British Board of Guardians. Moreover, in April 1944, Saly Mayer, with JDC funds, began to ship 2,000 parcels per month to Theresienstadt from Switzerland via the CICR, and the number expanded greatly by the year's end. Lists of individual inmates for the receipt of parcels were submitted by a number of organizations, and mainly the Federation of Czechoslovakian Jews, the Self-Help of Emigres from Central Europe, the Czechoslovak Jewish Representative Committee, and the Agudas Israel. 1. Self-Help of Emigres from Central Europe, #1-21, 1943 - 1944. 2. JDC list #12, the names of 3,589 persons in receipt of JDC packages, 2/23/44. 3. JTA lists, Czechoslovakia, undated. 4. Federation of Czechoslovakian Jews, lists #24-28, 1944.
Index Terms:
Czechoslovakia
Federation of Czechoslovakian Jews
Food
List
List
Relief Supplies
Self-Help of Emigres from Central Europe
Theresienstadt
#Return to Top
File 544: Czechoslovakia: Subject Matter, Relief Supplies, Czechoslovakian Jewish Representative Committee,
In Nov. 1941, the Nazis proceeded to transform the fortress city of Terezin (Theresienstadt), to the northwest of Prague, into a Jewish ghetto under the supervision of the Gestapo. Jews in the tens of thousands were shipped in, initially from Germany, Austria and Czechoslovakia and later from other countries too. At first, conditions were less intolerable than in other ghettos and concentration camps, but in time grave shortages in food, clothing and medicaments cropped up, epidemics broke out and mortality rates mushroomed. In May 1943, the JDC was authorized by the U.S. Treasury to transfer $12,000 per month to its Lisbon office, for the shipment of individual food parcels to non-Czech inmates of Theresienstadt. The inmates were restricted to the receipt of two parcels per month, weighing no more than one pound each. In May 1944, the JDC enlarged the monthly allocations to $14,000 and in August to $16,000. In addition, the Lisbon office supervised the shipment of some 5,000 parcels per month to Czech nationals in Theresienstadt. These parcels were shipped via the Czech representative in Lisbon, and were paid for by the British Board of Guardians. Moreover, in April 1944, Saly Mayer, with JDC funds, began to ship 2,000 parcels per month to Theresienstadt from Switzerland via the CICR, and the number expanded greatly by the year's end. Lists of individual inmates for the receipt of parcels were submitted by a number of organizations, and mainly the Federation of Czechoslovakian Jews, the Self-Help of Emigres from Central Europe, the Czechoslovak Jewish Representative Committee, and the Agudas Israel.
Index Terms:
Czechoslovak Jewish Representative Committee
Czechoslovakia
List
Relief Supplies
#Return to Top
File 545: Czechoslovakia: Subject Matter, Relief Supplies, Food package lists of Czech Jews in Slovakia, Polish Ghettos and Upper Silesia
Agudas Israel Organization, #15 (1942), #23 (1943); Federation of Czechoslovakian Jews, #1-19, 1942; Lists from Gisi Fleischmann, Bratislava, 1942 - 1944; Unidentified, 1944.
Index Terms:
Agudas Israel
Bratislava
Czechoslovakia
Federation of Czechoslovakian Jews
Food
List
Relief Supplies
Slovakia
#Return to Top
Series 4: Czechoslovakia: Localities
Terezin (Theresienstadt), see Files 542 - 544.
#Return to Top
Record Group 4.16: Danzig
File 546: Danzig: Reports on the Situation in Danzig:
Neville Laski, 8/12/34 attachment to 10/15/34; I. Gitermann, 7/24/35 attachment to 8/12/35, 11/4/37 attachment, 12/12/37, 12/14/37 and attachments, January 1938, 12/30/38, 5/2/39; Dr. Berendt, 11/28/36(2); M. Rosenblueth, 12/24/37; Jewish Community of Danzig, 1/4/39, 8/22/39; M. Ausuebel, 10/4/39 attachment to 10/8/39; B. Kahn, 3/7/40. Correspondence: C. Adler, I. Gitermann, O.I. Hirsch, D. Jonas, B. Kahn, N. Katz, Neville Laski, M. Rosenblueth, J.J. Schwartz, M.C. Troper.
Index Terms:
Adler, C.
Danzig
Emigration
Gieldzinski collection
Gitermann, I.
Hirsch, O.I.
Jonas, D.
Kahn, B.
Katz, N.
Museum of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America
Neville Laski
Reports
Rosenblueth, M.
Schwartz, J.J.
Troper, M.C.
#Return to Top
File 547: Danzig: Danzig Museum
#Return to Top
Record Group 4.17: Denmark
File 548: Denmark
Reports on the Situation in Denmark: 1/30/41 (anonymous); S. Adler-Rudel April 1943, attachment to 8/18/43. The JDC allocated $25,000 to the Mosaiska Foersamlingen Stockholm for the aid of Danish refugees in Sweden 10/13/43(5), and a second $25,000 12/13/43. Correspondence: D. Adler-Rudel, J. Blum, J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt, J.J. Schwartz, B. Shor.
Index Terms:
Adler-Rudel, D.
Blum, J.
Denmark
Hyman, J.C.
Leavitt, M.A.
Nazis
Refugee Aid
Refugees
Reports
Schwartz, J.J.
Shor, B.
Theresienstadt
#Return to Top
Record Group 4.18: Dominican Republic
Series 1: Dominican Republic: Administration
Correspondence, memos, reports, addenda.
File 549: Dominican Republic: Administration, General, 1930; 1937 - 1939
On refugee events and developments: 4/21/38, 8/15/39, 12/5/39. Fin. and Statistical Reps. by the JRC, 1939: June-July, Aug., Sept., Nov. Correspondence: L. Berenson, W.A. Frey, J.C. Hyman, L.L. Margolis, R. Pilpel, A. Staiman, E.J. Swift.
Index Terms:
Administration
Berenson, L.
Dominican Republic (D.R.)
Financial
Frey, W.A.
Hyman, J.C.
Joint Relief Committee (JRC)
Margolis, L.L.
Pilpel, R.
Refugees
Reports
Staiman, A.
Swift, E.J.
#Return to Top
File 550: Dominican Republic: Administration, General, 1940 - 1941
On refugee events and developments: 2/19/41, 6/16/41, 10/31/41. Narrative reports: W. Baum, 3/1/41; M. Wischnitzer, 3/10/41; M. Siegel, 7/10/41 attachment to 7/14/41; M.C. Troper, 9/25/41. Fin. and statistical Reports: L and T Field Audit of JRC 3/22/39 - 12/31/41, 6/1/42; J.M. Brossa Audit 4/1/39 - 12/31/40; JRC 1940 (consolidated): Jan.-June, July-Dec., 1/24/41 attachment to 1/28/41; 1941: March 4/18/41, April 5/14/41, December 12/31/41. Correspondence: W. Baum, E. Birnbaum, L. Falk Jr., E.M. Morrissey, R. Pilpel, J.N. Rosenberg, D.J. Schweitzer, M. Siegel, A. Staiman, M.C. Troper, G.L. Warren.
Index Terms:
Administration
Baum, W.
Birnbaum, E.
Dominican Republic (D.R.)
Falk Jr., L.
Financial
Joint Relief Committee (JRC)
Morrissey, E.M.
Pilep, R.
Refugees
Reports
Rosenberg, J.N.
Schweitzer, D.J.
Siegel, M.
Staiman, A.
Troper, M.C.
Warren, G.L.
#Return to Top
File 551: Dominican Republic: Administration, General, 1942
On refugee events and developments: 1/10/42, 1/14/42 minutes of meeting, 2/4/42, 2/5/42, 2/13/42, 2/17/42, 7/19/42 attachment to 7/30/42 Baum to Pilpel, 12/7/42. Fin. and statistical reps.-JRC 1942: Jan., Feb., May 6/11/42, July 7/13/42, Oct. 11/10/42; L and T Field Letters #3-5, 3/20/42, #6-7, 5/5/42. Correspondence: S. Arons, W. Baum, J.C. Hyman, C.H. Jordan, B. Kahn, E.M. Morrissey, R. Pilpel, D.J. Schweitzer.
Index Terms:
Administration
Arons, S.
Baum, W.
Dominican Republic (D.R.)
Financial
Hyman, J.C.
Joint Relief Committee (JRC)
Jordan, C.H.
Kahn, B.
Morrissey, E.M.
Pilep, R.
Refugees
Reports
Schweitzer, D.J.
#Return to Top
File 552: Dominican Republic: Administration, General, 1943
On refugee events and developments: 1/9/43, 1/26/43, 3/30/43 Baum to Pilpel, 8/9/43 report on discussions with C.H. Jordan. Report: Refugees in the Dominican Republic, R. Pilpel, 7/16/43. Fin. and Statistical Reports: Loeb and Troper (L and T) Field Audit for 1943, 4/12/44, L and T Field Letters #1-4 attachments to 5/10/43 and #14-15, 5/15/43, JRC 1943: Feb. attachment to 3/19/43. Correspondence: W. Baum, J.C. Hyman, C.H. Jordan, R. Pilpel.
Index Terms:
Administration
Baum, W.
Dominican Republic (D.R.)
Financial
Hyman, J.C.
Joint Relief Committee (JRC)
Jordan, C.H.
Pilpel, R.
Refugees
Reports
#Return to Top
File 553: Dominican Republic: Administration, General, 1944
On refugee events and developments: 3/17/44 attachment to 3/30/44, 3/25/44, 4/22/44, 5/8/44, 7/10/44(2), 9/2/44, 9/16/44. Fin. and statistical Reports: JRC, 9/5/44 attachment to 10/10/44, Sept. 1944 attachment to 10/11/44, on Batey Admin. 4/1/44 - 10/31/44, 11/30/44; L and T Field Letters #1-3a, 3/23/44. Correspondence: N. Aronovici, W. Baum, W.L. Bein, H.D. Biele, M.B. Hexter, L.H. Sobel.
Index Terms:
Administration
Aronovici, N.
Baum, W.
Bein, W.L.
Biele, H.D.
Dominican Republic (D.R.)
Financial
Hexter, M.B.
Joint Relief Committee (JRC)
Refugees
Reports
Sobel, L.H.
#Return to Top
Series 2: Dominican Republic: Subject Matter
File 554: Dominican Republic: Subject Matter, Cultural and Religious
In 1939, the newly arrived immigrants established the Jewish Community of the D.R. (Parroquia Israelita de la Republica Dominicana). Beginning in 1939, the JDC Cultural Committee made small grants for cultural and religious projects, to the Parroquia in the main, and these continued until the end of 1947. In all, the allocations ran beyond $15,000, but their modest size failed to reflect the wide-ranging efforts undertaken by the JDC to aid in making the projects possible and in developing communal unity. In addition, the JDC provided the Jewish community with a range of matzos, prayer books, Torah scrolls and other religious articles as well as books of Jewish interest. Besides the usual religious, cultural and linguistic dissensions that fragmented communities of recent immigrants, a single ruthless individual, F. Steinmetz, managed to divide the Ciudad Trujillo community into pro and anti-Steinmetz factions. His machinations served to paralyze Jewish communal initiative for several years, until finally he succeeded in driving off even his staunchest partisans. Reports and memos on developments in the Jewish Community: M. Wischnitzer, 3/10/41, 4/15/41; J. Engel, 11/6/41, 12/29/42. Correspondence: S. Arons, W. Baum, H.K. Buchman, J. Engel, J.A. Rosen, J. Rosenheim, F. Steinmetz, D.J. Schweitzer, M. Wischnitzer.
Index Terms:
Arons, S.
Baum, W.
Buchman, H.K.
Cultural and Religious
Dominican Republic (D.R.)
Engel, J.
Immigrants
JDC Cultural Committee
Jewish Community of the D.R.(Parroquia Israelita de la Republica Dominicana
Reports
Rosen, J.A.
Rosenheim, J.
Schweitzer, D.J.
Steinmetz, F.
Wischnitzer, M.
#Return to Top
File 555: Dominican Republic: Subject Matter, Cultural and Religious
In 1939, the newly arrived immigrants established the Jewish Community of the D.R. (Parroquia Israelita de la Republica Dominicana). Beginning in 1939, the JDC Cultural Committee made small grants for cultural and religious projects, to the Parroquia in the main, and these continued until the end of 1947. In all, the allocations ran beyond $15,000, but their modest size failed to reflect the wide-ranging efforts undertaken by the JDC to aid in making the projects possible and in developing communal unity. In addition, the JDC provided the Jewish community with a range of matzos, prayer books, Torah scrolls and other religious articles as well as books of Jewish interest. Besides the usual religious, cultural and linguistic dissensions that fragmented communities of recent immigrants, a single ruthless individual, F. Steinmetz, managed to divide the Ciudad Trujillo community into pro and anti-Steinmetz factions. His machinations served to paralyze Jewish communal initiative for several years, until finally he succeeded in driving off even his staunchest partisans. Reports and memos on developments in the Jewish Community: C.H. Jordan, 2/25/43, 7/11/43. Fin. and statistical repts.: Parroquia Israelita de la Republica Dominicana, Quarterly, 1943 - 1945 (some omissions). Correspondence: S. Arons, W. Baum, H.K. Buchman, A. Horwitz, C.H. Jordan, E. Phillips, J. Rosenheim, F. Steinmetz, D. Stern.
Index Terms:
Arons, S.
Baum, W.
Buchman, H.K.
Cultural and Religious
Dominican Republic (D.R.)
Horowitz, A.
Immigrants
Jewish Community of the D.R.(Parroquia Israelita de la Republica Dominicana)
Jordan, C.H.
Phillips, E.
Reports
Rosenheim, J.
Steinmetz, F.
Stern, D.
#Return to Top
Record Group 4.19: Egypt
File 556: Egypt
The JDC made no allocations for use in Egypt, but during W.W. II it made efforts to purchase food and other supplies in that country for shipment to Teheran. The efforts foundered, owing to wartime restrictions on exports form Egypt. General, 1942 - 1944: Reports on visits to Cairo: Harry Viteles, 2/3/43 - 2/13/43, 2/22/43; Reuben B. Resnik 1/15/44 - 1/25/44, 1/29/44, 2/17/44.
Index Terms:
Egypt
Food
Relief Supplies
Reports
Resnik, Reuben B.
Teheran
Viteles, Harry
#Return to Top
Record Group 4.20: England
Series 1: England: Administration
File 557: England: Administration, General and Financial
a. General, 1940; 1942 - 1944: Correspondence: S. Adler - Rudel, J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt, O.M. Schiff, J.J. Schwartz, M. Stephany, D. Sulzberger, E.M.M. Warburg. b. Financial: Transfer of Funds, 1940 - 1942.
Index Terms:
Adler-Rudel, S.
Administration
Council for German Jewry
England
Financial
HIAS-ICA Emigration Association (HICEM)
Hebrew Sheltering and Immigrant Aid Society (HIAS)
Hyman, J.C.
Jewish Colonization Association (ICA)
Kitchener Refugee Transit Camp
Leavitt, M.A.
Refugee Aid
Refugees
SS St. Louis
Schiff, O.M.
Schwartz, J.J.
Stephany, M.
Sulzberger, D.
Warburg, E.M.M.
Zentral Ausschuss der deutschen Juden
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Series 2: England: Organizations
Materials on the following organizations will be found in the general files below, unless noted otherwise. The organizations all have their seats in London. Organizations preceded by an asterisk have separate listings, while the others are found below: Academic Assistance Council, 1935; 1940; Anglo-HICEM, see: German-Jewish Emigration Council; Central British Fund for German Jewry and Central British Fund for Relief and Rehabilitation, see: Files 559-570: In May 1933, the CBF was organized to conduct a united appeal for emergency aid to Jewish victims of Nazi persecution. It formed an Allocations Committee (see: Files 560-562) for the distribution of the funds, and a Jewish Refugees Committee as a case-working body to aid needy Jewish refugees in the U.K. A second appeal was launched in 1936 and a third in 1938 following the Anschluss, and these were conducted in the name of the Council for Germany Jewry. For financial purposes, the CBF and the Council must be treated as one and the same. For details on the structure, aims and a summary of the activities of the CBF, see below: File 559, Report for 1933 - 1943. In 1944, the CBF was reorganized and became the Central British Fund for Relief and Rehabilitation. Osmond d'Avigdor Goldsmid served as Chairman of the Exec. Committee from 1933 until his death in 1940 and was succeeded by Anthony de Rothschild. Between 1933 - 1940, the CBF/Council for German Jewry, the ICA and the HIAS agreed to cover transportation costs and landing fees of Nazi victim emigrants incurred by the HICEM. Those expenditures ranged into the millions of dollars over the years. Wartime restrictions cut off the flow of funds from the CBF/Council, and the JDC shouldered their share in full until the war ended. In pre-war Germany and Shanghai the bulk of the funds coming from abroad stemmed from the JDC, although the CBF/Council also contributed. The JDC shouldered the latter's share as well, following the outbreak of the war. Early in 1934, the JDC and the CBF arranged for an exchange of information on their respective programs of refugee and emigration aid to Nazi victims. The same arrangement was continued subsequently between the JDC and the Council for German Jewry. Central Bureau for the Settlement of German Jews of the Jewish Agency, see: Palestine, Files 765-766; Central Council for Jewish Refugees, see: Council for Germany Jewry: In Jan. 1936, a delegation of Anglo-Jewish leaders - Viscount Bearsted, Mr. Simon Marks and Sir. Herbert Samuel - visited the U.S. to discuss plans for a projected $15,000,000 fund to finance the massmigration of German Jews. The projected plan fell through, but the visit led to the formation of the Council, in March 1936. The Council was designed to serve as a central committee for the exchange of plans and recommendations. The JDC, the UPA and the REC were invited to cooperate with the Council. The Exec. Committee comprised ten members - five British and five American. The British members were: Sir Herbert Samuel, Chairman, Viscount Bearsted, Mr. Simon Marks, Dr. Chaim Weitzmann and Sir Osmond d'Avigdor Goldsmid. The American members were: Felix M. Warburg, Paul Baerwald, Charles J. Liebman, Rabbi Stephen S. Wise and Morris Rothenberg. Lewis L. Strauss joined the Committee following the death of Felix Warburg, and Sir Herbert Samuel was succeeded as Chairman by Lord Reading in Feb. 1939. Following the outbreak of W.W. II, the Council became the Central Council for Jewish Refugees. The American members thereupon resigned from the Council as a political gesture, but JDC-Council cooperation continued as theretofore. In 1944, the Central Council joined with the CBF to form the Central British Fund for Relief and Rehabilitation. Chief Rabbis Religious Emergency Council, 1938 - 1944; Council for Germany Jewry, 1936 - 1944, see: Files 571-585; Federation of Jewish Relief Organizations, 1943 - 1944; Friends Food Fund, 1937 - 1938; German-Jewish Emigration Council, 1933 - 1934, see: File 586; German Refugee Aid Committee, see: Files 587-588; German-Jewish Aid Committee, see: Files 587-588; Jewish Refugee Committee, see: Files 587-588; Inter-Aid Committee for Children from Germany, 1936; 1938 - 1940, see: File 589; Jewish Committee for Relief Abroad, 1943 - 1944; Jewish Refugee Committee, see: German Refugee Aid Committee; Jewish Resettlements Inc., 1935; 1938; Joint British Committee ORT-OSE, 1936 - 1939; Joint Orthodox Jewish Refugee Committee, 1940; Maccabi World Union, 1939 - 1940, see: File 590; Masaryk-Gaster Fund, 1941 - 1942, also see: Files 536, 538, 541; Movement for the Care of the Children from Germany, see: File 589; Polish-Jewish Refugee Fund, 1940 - 1941; Refugee Children's Movement, see: Inter-Aid Committee for Children; World Union for Progressive Judaism, 1937 - 1940.
Index Terms:
Academic Assistance Council
Anglo-HICEM
Central British Fund for Relief and Rehabilitation
Central Bureau for the Settlement of German Jews of the Jewish Agency
Central Council for Jewish Refugees
Chief Rabbis Religious Emergency Council
England
Federation of Jewish Relief Organizations
Friends Food Fund
Jewish Committee for Relief Abroad
Jewish Refugee Committee
Jewish Resettlement Inc.
Joint British Committee ORT-OSE
Joint Orthodox Jewish Refugee Committee
Massaryk-Gaster Fund
Movement for the Care of the Children from Germany
Polish-Jewish Refugee Fund
Refugee Children's Movement
World Union for Progressive Judaism
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File 558: England: Organizations, Miscellaneous
Index Terms:
Academic Assistance Council
Anglo-HICEM
Central British Fund for Relief and Rehabilitation
Central Bureau for the Settlement of German Jews of the Jewish Agency
Central Council for Jewish Refugees
Chief Rabbis Religious Emergency Council
England
Federation of Jewish Relief Organizations
Friends Food Fund
Jewish Committee for Relief Abroad
Jewish Refugee Committee
Jewish Resettlement Inc.
Joint British Committee ORT-OSE
Joint Orthodox Jewish Refugee Committee
Massaryk-Gaster Fund
Movement for the Care of the Children from Germany
Polish-Jewish Refugee Fund
Refugee Children's Movement
World Union for Progressive Judaism
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File 559: England: Organizations, Central British Fund (CBF), General, 1933 - 1940; 1944
On CBF/JDC Relations: 5/30/33, 11/2/33, 12/1/33, 2/26/34, 3/13/34 Kahn to Goldsmid excerpts, 3/14/34, 4/16/34, 5/18/34(2) - 6/18/34, 7/3/34, 8/8/34 - 9/21/34, 3/12/35 - 5/1/35, 5/10/35 - 6/5/35, 6/3/36, 3/23/44 - 8/30/44. Report: CBF Report for 1933 - 1943. Minutes of Meetings: 2/28/44 attachment to 3/23/44, 10/4/44, 10/12/44, 10/31/44, 11/33/44. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, D.M. Bressler, O.E. d'Avigdor Goldsmid, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, E.M. Morrissey, O. Schiff, J.J. Schwartz, J. Simon, M. Stephany, F.M. Warburg.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, P.
Bressler, D.M.
Central British Fund for German Jewry (CBF)
Central British Fund for Relief and Rehabilitation
Council for German Jewry
England
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, B.
London
Morrissey, E.M.
Report
Schiff, O.
Schwartz, J.J.
Simon, J.
Stephany, M.
Warburg, F.M.
d' Avigdor Goldsmid, O.E.
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File 560: England: Organizations, Central British Fund (CBF), Allocations Committee, General
The Allocations Committee of the CBF functioned between 1933 and Dec. 1934, and had seven members - three Zionists, three non-Zionists and an impartial Chairman, Osmond d'Avigdor Goldsmid. At the close of 1934, the CBF was incorporated and it was governed thereafter by a Council which consisted of the members of the Allocations Committee, plus the Chief Rabbi of England and O.E. d'Avigdor Goldsmid. Reports of Alloc. Comm: 1/28/34, 2/4/35 Correspondence: C. Adler, E.O. d'Avigdor Goldsmid, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, E.M. Morrissey, L. de Rothschild.
Index Terms:
Adler, C.
Allocations Committee
Central British Fund for German Jewry (CBF)
England
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, B.
Morrissey, E.M.
Reports
d'Avigdor Goldsmid, O.E.
de Rothschild, L.
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File 561: England: Organizations, Central British Fund (CBF), Allocations Committee, Minutes of Meetings, 1934 (Jan.-June)
The Allocations Committee of the CBF functioned between 1933 and Dec. 1934, and had seven members - three Zionists, three non-Zionists and an impartial Chairman, Osmond d'Avigdor Goldsmid. At the close of 1934, the CBF was incorporated and it was governed thereafter by a Council which consisted of the members of the Allocations Committee, plus the Chief Rabbi of England and O.E. d'Avigdor Goldsmid. 2/5/34, 3/15/34, 3/22/34, 4/10/34, 4/16/34, 4/23/34, 5/7/34, 5/22/34, 5/29/34, 6/11/34, 6/25/34.
Index Terms:
Allocations Committee
Central British Fund for German Jewry (CBF)
England
Minutes of Meetings
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File 562: England: Organizations, Central British Fund (CBF), Allocations Committee, Minutes of Meetings, 1934 (July-Dec.)
The Allocations Committee of the CBF functioned between 1933 and Dec. 1934, and had seven members - three Zionists, three non-Zionists and an impartial Chairman, Osmond d'Avigdor Goldsmid. At the close of 1934, the CBF was incorporated and it was governed thereafter by a Council which consisted of the members of the Allocations Committee, plus the Chief Rabbi of England and O.E. d'Avigdor Goldsmid. 7/9/34, 7/25/34, 9/3/34, 10/3/34, 10/30/34, 11/20/34, 12/11/34.
Index Terms:
Allocations Committee
Central British Fund for German Jewry (CBF)
England
Minutes of Meetings
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File 563: England: Organizations, Central British Fund (CBF), Fin. Statements, 1934 - 1937
Annual: 12/31/35, 12/31/36, 12/31/37 Intermittent: 5/28/34, 6/20/34, 7/18/34, 8/17/34, 9/27/34, 10/25/34, 11/13/34, 12/5/34, 12/31/34(2), 4/30/35, 5/31/35, 6/30/35, 9/7/35, 10/9/35, 10/31/35, 12/3/35, 12/31/35, 2/5/36, 3/5/36, 5/21/36, 8/31/36.
Index Terms:
Central British Fund for German Jewry (CBF)
England
Financial
Reports
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File 564: England: Organizations, Central British Fund (CBF), Building Scheme Accounts, 1934 - 1935
1/26/34, 7/26/34, 9/30/34, 11/30/34, 12/31/34, 1/31/35, 2/28/35, 3/31/35, 4/30/35, 5/31/35, 6/30/35, 7/31/35, 8/31/35
Index Terms:
Central British Fund for German Jewry (CBF)
England
Reports
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File 565: England: Organizations, Central British Fund (CBF), Building Scheme Accounts, 1935 - 1937
9/30/35, 10/31/35, 11/30/35, 12/31/35, 1/31/36, 2/29/36, 3/31/36, 4/30/36, 5/31/36, 6/30/36, 7/31/36, 8/1/36, 9/30/36, 12/31/36, 3/31/37.
Index Terms:
Central British Fund for German Jewry (CBF)
England
Reports
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File 566: England: Organizations, Central British Fund (CBF), Training Scheme Accounts, 1934 - 1937
9/30/34, 11/30/34, 12/31/34, 1/31/35, 2/28/35, 4/30/35, 5/31/35, 6/30/35, 7/31/35, 8/31/35, 9/30/35, 10/31/35, 11/30/35, 12/31/35, 1/31/36, 2/29/36, 3/31/36, 4/30/36, 5/31/36, 6/30/36, 7/31/36, 8/31/36, 9/30/36, 12/31/36, 3/31/37.
Index Terms:
Central British Fund for German Jewry (CBF)
England
Reports
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File 567: England: Organizations, Central British Fund (CBF), Training Scheme Accounts, 1937 - 1938
Consolidated Accounts, Quarterly Building/Training Schemes: 6/30/37, 9/30/37, 12/31/37, 3/31/38, 6/30/38, 9/30/38, 12/31/38.
Index Terms:
Central British Fund for German Jewry (CBF)
England
Reports
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File 568: England: Organizations, Central British Fund (CBF), Exec. Committee, Minutes of Meetings, 1934 (Dec.) - 1935 (May)
These minutes focus on the period between June 1935 - Dec. 1936. For the years 1937 - 1939 there are many omissions, and the reader should also consult the Exec. Committee Minutes of the Council for German Jewry. For Minutes of 1944, see above: File 559. 12/19/34, 1/14/35, 2/4/35, 2/25/35, 3/18/35, 4/9/35, 5/13/35, 5/31/35.
Index Terms:
Central British Fund for German Jewry (CBF)
England
Minutes of Meetings
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File 569: England: Organizations, Central British Fund (CBF), Exec. Committee, Minutes of Meetings, 1935 (June-Dec.)
These minutes focus on the period between June 1935 - Dec. 1936. For the years 1937 - 1939 there are many omissions, and the reader should also consult the Exec. Committee Minutes of the Council for German Jewry. For Minutes of 1944, see above: File 559. 7/8/35, 7/29/35, 9/17/35, 10/15/35, 11/5/35, 10/10/35. For summaries of earlier meetings in 1935, see above: File 559, 3/7/35, 5/27/35.
Index Terms:
Central British Fund for German Jewry (CBF)
England
Minutes of Meetings
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File 570: England: Organizations, Central British Fund (CBF), Exec. Committee, Minutes of Meetings, 1936 - 1939
These minutes focus on the period between June 1935 - Dec. 1936. For the years 1937 - 1939 there are many omissions, and the reader should also consult the Exec. Committee Minutes of the Council for German Jewry. For Minutes of 1944, see above: File 559. 1/14/36, 2/11/36, 3/10/36, 4/20/36, 5/25/36, 6/22/36, 7/23/36, 12/16/36, 7/7/37, 12/30/37, 2/21/38, 9/12/38, 9/18/39.
Index Terms:
Central British Fund for German Jewry (CBF)
England
Minutes of Meetings
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File 571: England: Organizations, Central Council for Jewish Refugees, General, 1936 (Jan.-Feb.)
On the visit to the U.S. of the British delegation: 1/22/36, Steno report of the reception by the JDC 1/28/36, 1/29/36, 2/5/36 - 2/6/36. Memo on the visit by the delegation 2/7/36, 2/10/36, 2/13/36. Statement Concerning the Plans of the English Delegation and the Relationship of the JDC to the Proposals, 2/23/36. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, J.N. Rosenberg, H. Samuel, F. Warburg, S.S. Wise.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, P.
Central Council for Jewish Refugees
Council for German Jewry (Council)
England
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, B.
London
Reports
Rosenberg, J.N.
Samuel, H.
Warburg, F.
Wise, S.S.
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File 572: England: Organizations, Central Council for Jewish Refugees, General, 1936 (March-June)
On the organization of the Council and the JDC response: 3/16/36 Hyman to Snyder, 3/30/36, 4/2/36 Cable Kahn to N.Y., 4/6/36 Warburg to Bentwich, 4/9/36 attachment to 4/14/36, 4/24/36, 4/28/36, 4/29/36 Rosenberg to Baerwald, 5/4/36(3), 5/14/36(2), 5/15/36 Baerwald to Hyman, 5/21/36, 6/3/36, 6/7/36 - 6/16/36 Baerwald to Warburg. Report: Diary of Mission to Europe by D.M. Bressler, 6/26/36. Also see below: Minutes of Meetings 1936 - 1937. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, N. Bentwich, D. Bressler, O.E. d'Avigdor Goldsmid, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, J.N. Rosenberg, Wm. Rosenwald, H. Samuel, M. Stephany, B.C. Vladeck, F. Warburg, M. Warburg, S. Warburg, Ch. Weizmann.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, P.
Bentwich, N.
Bressler, D.
Central Council for Jewish Refugees
Council for German Jewry (Council)
England
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, B.
London
Reports
Rosenberg, J.N.
Rosenwald, Wm.
Samuel, H.
Stephany, M.
Vladeck, B.C.
Warburg, F.
Warburg, M.
Warburg, S.
Weizmann, Ch.
d'Avigdor Goldsmid, O.E.
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File 573: England: Organizations, Central Council for Jewish Refugees, General, 1936 (July-Dec.)
Report to JDC Exec. Committee by D.M. Bressler, 7/2/36. Article in the American Hebrew 7/17/36 attachment to 7/22/36. The JDC and the Council each allocated L 8,000 ($40,000) to cover the transportation costs of some 650 German emigrants, so they could enter the Union of South Africa before new legal restrictions entered into effect. Also see: Union of South Africa, File 1,053. Reports by the Council: Interim Report Dec. 1936; Report for 1936, 5/25/37. Other data on Council/JDC Relations: 8/10/36, 8/14/36, 8/18/36, 8/28/36 attachment to 9/3/36, 9/16/36, 9/28/36, 9/30/36(2), 10/20/36 attachment to 11/2/36, 12/1/36, 12/4/36(2), 12/11/36, 12/17/36. Also see below: File 581. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, C.J. Liebman, H. Samuel, F.M. Warburg.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, P.
Central Council for Jewish Refugees
Council for German Jewry (Council)
England
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, B.
Liebman, C.J.
London
Reports
Samuel, H.
South Africa
Warburg, F.M.
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File 574: England: Organizations, Central Council for Jewish Refugees, General, 1937
The JDC and the Council agreed to allot: $50,000 each for German emigration and $7,500 each to aid professional groups in Israel, 1/15/37(2), 2/3/37; and $15,000 each (plus the same sum by the ICA) to the HICEM. E.S. Harkness donated $100,000 to the JDC for the aid of German refugees, 1/8/37(2), 1/29/37 Warburg to Bearsted, 2/16/37. Also see below: File 575, 2/1/38(2), 3/8/38, 3/30/38. JDC contributions to programs aided by the Council, 3/26/37. Other data on Council/JDC relations: 4/7/37, 4/21/37, 5/28/37 attachment to 7/8/37, 9/29/37 attachment to 10/6/37 Hyman to Council, 10/18/37. Attack by Prof. L.B. Namier on JDC activities in Germany and the JDC rebuttal, 6/3/37 - 6/10/37 Hyman to Warburg. Report by the Council: 1937, 2/28/38. Also see below: File 581. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, D.M. Bressler, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, N. Katz, H. Katzki, L.B. Namier, D.J. Schweitzer, M. Stephany, F.M. Warburg.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, P.
Bressler, D.
Central Council for Jewish Refugees
Council for German Jewry (Council)
Emigration
England
Harkness, E.S.
Hyman, J.C.
Israel
Kahn, B.
Katz, N.
Katzki, H.
London
Namier, L.B.
Refugees
Reports
Schweitzer, D.J.
Stephany, M.
Warburg, F.M.
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File 575: England: Organizations, Central Council for Jewish Refugees, General, 1938 - 1939 (Aug.)
On expenditures of the Harkness Fund, 2/1/38(2), 3/8/38, 3/30/38; for earlier data see: File 574. Report on M.C. Troper trip to London 12/6/38 - 12/12/38, 12/26/38. Council Report for 1938, Feb. 1939. The Council proposed to open in England a camp for refugees and requested JDC cooperation, 1/11/39. Other data on Council/JDC relations: 3/8/38, 4/25/38, 6/9/38(2), 6/14/38(2), 9/9/38(2), 9/14/38, 1/17/39(2), 2/17/39(2) - 2/22/39. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, N. Bentwich, J.C. Hyman, A. Jaretzki, B. Kahn, N. Katz, M. Stephany, M.C. Troper, J.B. Wise, B.M. Woolf.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, P.
Bentwich, N.
Central Council for Jewish Refugees
Council for German Jewry (Council)
England
Harkness Fund
Hyman, J.C.
Jaretzki, A.
Kahn, B.
Katz, N.
London
Reports
Stephany, M.
Troper, M.C.
Wise, J.B.
Woolf, B.M.
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File 576: England: Organizations, Central Council for Jewish Refugees, General, 1939 (Sept.) - 1944
The American members resigned from the Council following the outbreak of the war in Sept. 1939, 9/27/39, 9/29/39(3), 10/16/39. The JDC offered aid to the Council to help it cope with wartime currency restrictions, and the Council's responses, 11/3/39, 11/7/39, 11/8/39 Troper to N.Y., 11/21/39, 1/29/40 Cable 357, 1/29/40 memo. The Central Council joined the CBF, 3/23/44, 8/8/44, 8/25/44. Other data on Council/JDC relations: 1/27/41, 4/4/41, 4/28/41, 7/4/41, 7/17/41, 9/8/41. Correspondence: S. Adler - Rudel, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, J.J. Schwartz, M. Stephany, L.L. Strauss, M.C. Troper.
Index Terms:
Adler-Rudel, S.
Central Council for Jewish Refugees
Council for German Jewry (Council)
England
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, B.
London
Schwartz, J.J.
Stephany, M.
Strauss, L.L.
Troper, M.C.
War
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File 577: England: Organizations, Central Council for Jewish Refugees, Agricultural Committee, 1939 - 1940
The Committee was established at the start of 1939 to aid in providing agricultural training in England for refugees from Germany and Austria. Following the outbreak of the war, the number of trainees decreased sharply, as industry absorbed increasing numbers of refugees.
Index Terms:
Agricultural Committee
Central Council for Jewish Refugees
Council for German Jewry (Council)
England
Financial
London
Refugees
Reports
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File 578: England: Organizations, Central Council for Jewish Refugees, Financial Statements, 1936 - 1941
Monthly: 12/31/36, 11/30/37, 12/31/37, 1/3/38, 2/28/38, 3/28/38, 4/30/38, 5/31/38, 7/12/38, 8/31/38(2)*, 9/30/38(2)*, 10/31/38(2)*, 12/31/38(2)*. *Note: The second fin. statements in the last four entries pertain to the Austrian Appeal of the Council. Intermittent: 4/30/39, 5/31/39, 9/1/39, 11/30/39, 12/31/39, 3/31/40, 12/31/40. Annual: Income and Expenditure Account: 1937, 1938, 1939, 1940. Fin. Statement for the years: 1938, 1939, 1940. Statements of Receipts and Payments of Funds Administered for the Council by the Jewish Agency for Palestine
Index Terms:
Central Council for Jewish Refugees
Council for German Jewry (Council)
England
Financial
London
Reports
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File 579: England: Organizations, Central Council for Jewish Refugees, Financial Statements, 1936 - 1937
7/30/36-9/30/36, 10/31/36, 11/30/36, 12/31/36, 1/31/37, 2/28/37, 3/31/37, 4/30/37, 5/31/37, 6/30/37, 7/31/37, 8/31/37, 9/30/37, 10/31/37, 11/30/37, 12/31/37.
Index Terms:
Central Council for Jewish Refugees
Council for German Jewry (Council)
England
Financial
London
Reports
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File 580: England: Organizations, Central Council for Jewish Refugees, Financial Statements, 1938
1/31/38, 2/28/38, 3/31/38, 5/31/38, 6/30/38, 7/31/38, 8/31/38, 9/30/38, 10/31/38, 11/30/38, 12/31/38.
Index Terms:
Central Council for Jewish Refugees
Council for German Jewry (Council)
England
Financial
London
Reports
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File 581: England: Organizations, Central Council for Jewish Refugees, Exec. Committee, Minutes of Meetings, 1936 - 1937
1936: 3/18/36, 3/23/36; 9/22/36, 10/13/36, 11/3/36, 11/18/36, 12/4/36, 12/8/36, 12/17/36. 1937: 1/12/37, 2/9/37, 3/2/37, 3/16/37, 3/22/37, 3/23/37, 3/24/37, 4/13/37, 5/4/37, 5/25/37, 7/6/37, 9/13/37, 10/28/37, 11/22/37, 12/7/37, 12/20/37, 12/30/37 (Agenda only).
Index Terms:
Central Council for Jewish Refugees
Council for German Jewry (Council)
England
London
Minutes of Meetings
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File 582: England: Organizations, Central Council for Jewish Refugees, Exec. Committee, Minutes of Meetings, 1938
1/24/38, 2/21/38, 3/15/38, 3/29/38, 4/4/38, 5/10/38, 5/16/38, 6/13/38, 6/27/38, 7/25/38, 9/12/38, 10/3/38, 10/24/38, 11/17/38, 11/28/38, 12/1/38, 12/12/38, 12/29/38.
Index Terms:
Central Council for Jewish Refugees
Council for German Jewry (Council)
England
London
Minutes of Meetings
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File 583: England: Organizations, Central Council for Jewish Refugees, Exec. Committee, Minutes of Meetings, 1939 (Jan.-May)
1/5/39, 1/18/39, 1/25/39, 2/6/39, 2/20/39, 3/14/39, 3/27/39, 4/13/39, 5/1/39, 5/18/39.
Index Terms:
Central Council for Jewish Refugees
Council for German Jewry (Council)
England
London
Minutes of Meetings
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File 584: England: Organizations, Central Council for Jewish Refugees, Exec. Committee, Minutes of Meetings, 1939 (June-Dec.)
6/1/39, 6/19/39, 7/10/39, 8/10/39, 9/13/39, 9/26/39, 10/10/39, 11/14/39, 11/21/39, 12/1/39, 12/12/39, 12/14/39 (Agenda only), 12/21/39, 12/28/39.
Index Terms:
Central Council for Jewish Refugees
Council for German Jewry (Council)
England
London
Minutes of Meetings
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File 585: England: Organizations, Central Council for Jewish Refugees, Exec. Committee, Minutes of Meetings, 1940 - 1941
1/4/40, 1/10/40, 1/18/40, 2/8/40, 2/22/40, 3/19/40, 4/11/40, 4/18/40, 4/25/40, 5/1/40, 5/9/40, 5/22/40, 6/5/40, 6/14/40, 6/20/40, 6/26/40, 7/10/40, 7/24/40, 8/8/40, 8/16/40, 8/21/40, 9/18/40, 10/15/40, 11/13/40, 12/31/40, 2/14/41, 3/19/41, 5/15/41, 6/24/41.
Index Terms:
Central Council for Jewish Refugees
Council for German Jewry (Council)
England
London
Minutes of Meetings
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File 586: England: Organizations, German-Jewish Emigration Council, London (Anglo HICEM)
The Council was formed in Dec. 1933 so as to coordinate the activities of HICEM Paris with refugee emigration needs in England and other countries. Sir Osmond d'Avigdor Goldsmid and Mr. Otto M. Schiff were among the principal sponsors. In Nov. 1934, the Council transferred its refugee emigration activities to the Jewish Refugee Committee, London, since the prospects of any mass migration to overseas lands had grown dim. 1933 - 1934: Minutes of Meetings: 12/15/33, 1/24/34, 2/2/34 and Summary, 3/1/34, 3/22/34, 4/19/34, 5/7/34, 5/24/34, 6/12/34, 7/10/34, 11/8/34. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, O.E. d'Avigdor Goldsmid, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, P.
England
German-Jewish Emigration Council (Anglo HICEM)
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, B.
London
Minutes of Meetings
d'Avigdor Goldsmid, O.E.
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File 587: England: Organizations, Jewish Refugee Committee, London, 1938 - 1939 (June)
The German Refugee Committee was established in 1933, became subsequently the German-Jewish Aid Committee and following the outbreak of the war, the Jewish Refugee Committee The funds distributed by it stemmed from the Council for German Jewry and in growing measure from the British Gov't. Reports: Narrative and Statistical, 1/1/38-2/1/39; Monthly 1939: Feb., March, April, May, June. Fin. Report: 6/5/39.
Index Terms:
England
Financial
Jewish Refugee Committee
London
Reports
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File 588: England: Organizations, Jewish Refugee Committee, London, 1939 (July) - 1941 (Feb.)
The German Refugee Committee was established in 1933, became subsequently the German-Jewish Aid Committee and following the outbreak of the war, the Jewish Refugee Committee The funds distributed by it stemmed from the Council for German Jewry and in growing measure from the British Gov't. Reports: Narrative and Statistical, monthly: 1939, July; 1940, March and Supplement, April, Sept., Oct., Nov., Dec., Supp. Rep. for 1940; 1941, Jan., Feb.
Index Terms:
England
Jewish Refugee Committee
London
Reports
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File 589: England: Organizations, Inter-Aid Committee for Children from Germany, London (Movement)
Also know as: Movement for the Care of the Children from Germany, London Refugee Children's Movement, London The non-sectarian Inter-Aid Committee was formed in 1936, renamed in the wake of the Kristalnacht, and again following the outbreak of the war. It brought to England some 9,300 children from Germany and Austria. About 90% were Jewish and all but a handful came in following the events of the Kristalnacht. The children were cared for by local committees formed on denominational lines. In May 1938, the Council for German Jewry and the JDC joined in a grant of and7,500, but subsequent support stemmed from the Baldwin Fund and the Council General, 1936; 1938 - 1940: Reports: "Organizations in Great Britain for the Care of Children from Germany", attachment to 12/19/38; 4/21/39 attachment to 5/13/39, 5/18/39, 5/25/39, "Second Annual Report 1939-1940", 3/31/41.
Index Terms:
Children
Council for German Jewry
England
Inter-Aid Committee for Children from Germany (Movement)
London
Reports
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File 590: England: Organizations, Maccabi World Union, London, 1939 - 1940
The Maccabi World Union applied to the JDC for aid in conducting projects for illegal immigrants to Palestine from Vienna and for colonization in Bolivia. Both projects fell through when the JDC refused to grant the funds requested because it viewed them as unsound. For data on these projects, see: 2/13/40-5/1/40. For data on a project by an affiliate organization, Svaz Makabi Prague, see: SM Archives, File 31.
Index Terms:
Bolivia
England
Immigrants
London
Maccabi World Union
Palestine
Vienna
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Series 3: England: Subject Matter
Child Care, See Organizations: Inter-Aid Committee for Children from Germany. Cultural and Religious, See File 558, Friends Food Fund (for shipments of kosher meat to Germany), and World Union for Progressive Judaism. Emigration, See Organizations: German-Jewish Emigration Council Central British Fund Council for German Jewry Vocational Training See above: File 558, Joint British Committee ORT-OSE. (Transfer of ORT vocational school and student body from Berlin to Leeds.)
File 591: England: Subject Matter, Refugees, General, 1938 - 1941; 1945
Aid for the upkeep of German-Jewish refugees in England was distributed via the German-Jewish Aid Committee/Jewish Refugee Committee For materials, see above: Files 587-588. For other materials on refugees, see above: Organizations, German-Jewish Emigration Council, Central British Fund, Central Council for Jewish Refugees, Federation of Jewish Relief Organizations, Joint Orthodox Jewish Refugee Committee, Masaryk-Gaster Fund, Polish-Jewish Refugee Fund and Academic Assistance Council. Situation of Jewish refugees in England: 7/5/39, 8/22/39, 10/12/39, 11/24/39, 1/4/40, 1/17/40, 1/18/40, 2/29/40, 3/1/40, 4/12/40, 8/6/40, 12/30/40, 7/4/41, 12/5/41, 2/6/45. Correspondence: S. Adler - Rudel, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, M.A. Leavitt, R. Pilpel, J.J. Schwartz, M.C. Troper.
Index Terms:
Adler-Rudel, S.
England
German-Jewish Aid Committee
Hyman, J.C.
Jewish Refugee Committee
Kahn, B.
Leavitt, M.A.
Pilpel, R.
Refugees
Schwartz, J.J.
Troper, M.C.
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File 592: England: Subject Matter, Refugees, Kitchener Camp, 1938 - 1940
Aid for the upkeep of German-Jewish refugees in England was distributed via the German-Jewish Aid Committee/Jewish Refugee Committee For materials, see above: Files 587-588. For other materials on refugees, see above: Organizations, German-Jewish Emigration Council, Central British Fund, Central Council for Jewish Refugees, Federation of Jewish Relief Organizations, Joint Orthodox Jewish Refugee Committee, Masaryk-Gaster Fund, Polish-Jewish Refugee Fund and Academic Assistance Council. Early in 1939, in the wake of the Kristalnacht, the Council for German Jewry opened a refugee transit camp on the English south coast (Kitchener Camp) to accommodate German and Austrian refugees in transit to overseas countries. Some 3,500 refugees were accommodated there and the JDC shouldered some 20% of the upkeep costs ($77,282). The camp closed its gates in May 1940, for by then the residents had emigrated or had volunteered for national service, following the outbreak of the war. Reports: 12/28/38, 4/26/39, 8/2/39, 11/21/39. Publications: "Some Victims of the Nazi Terror", attached to 10/27/39. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, N. Bentwich, J.C. Hyman, M. Stephany, M.C. Troper.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, P.
Bentwich, N.
Council for German Jewry
England
Hyman, J.C.
Kitchener Camp
Publications
Refugees
Reports
Stephany, M.
Troper, M.C.
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Record Group 4.21: Finland
File 593: Finland, General, 1939 - 1944
Reports: Jews and Jewish Refugees in Finland April 1943, S. Adler-Rudel, attachment to 8/18/43; Finnish and Stateless Refugees from Finland, L.L. Margolis, Nov. 1944; Report from the Finnish Section, Mosaiska Foersamlingen Stockholm, as of 12/31/44, attachment to 2/28/45. Also see: EUREXCO, Files 189-191. Correspondence: S. Adler-Rudel, L.L. Margolis, S. Rubenstein.
Index Terms:
Adler-Rudel, S.
Finland
Margolis, L.L.
Mosaiska Foersamlingen
Refugees
Reports
Rubenstein, S.
Stockholm
Sweden
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Record Group 4.22: France
Series 1: France: Administration
File 594: France: Administration, General, 1939 - 1940
On the situation of the Jews in France: Report by H. Katzki on a 10-day visit to unoccupied France, 7/3/40 attachment to 8/31/40. Telephone conversations with J.J. Schwartz 9/4/40, 9/13/40, 8/14/40 Hyman to Chamberlain, 9/18/40, 10/18/40, 10/21/40, 11/12/40 Schwartz to N.Y. and enclosure by Katzki, 11/13/40 attachment to 11/19/40 Pehle to Linder. Activities of foreign non-Jewish relief organizations working in unoccupied France, 12/30/40. Also see: File 597. Correspondence: N. Aronovici, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, G. Kahn, H. Katzki, H.F. Linder, Robert D. Murphy, J.J. Schwartz, M.C. Troper.
Index Terms:
Administration
Aronovici, N.
France
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, B.
Kahn, G.
Katzki, H.
Linder, H.F.
Murphy, Robert D.
Report
Schwartz, J.J.
Troper, M.C.
#Return to Top
File 595: France: Administration, General, 1941
On the situation of the Jews in France: Present Situation in France, memo H. Katzki 3/22/41, JDC Press Release 5/9/41, Letter to M.C. Troper 7/21/41, Reports by J. Jefroykin - July-Aug. 1941 (8/31/41) and Sept.-Oct. (10/31/41), Statements by H. Katzki 10/9/41, 10/11/41, 10/14/41, 12/31/41. Also see: File 597. Correspondence: B. Kahn, H. Katzki, M.A. Leavitt, J.J. Schwartz.
Index Terms:
Administration
France
Kahn, B.
Katzki, H.
Leavitt, M.A.
Reports
Schwartz, J.J.
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File 596: France: Administration, General, 1942 - 1944
The France Gov't created a new Jewish organization, Union Generale des Israelites de France (UGIF), dissolved all existing Jewish organizations, and transferred all their properties to the UGIF, 4/6/42; for additional materials, see below: File 608. The JDC approved the budgets of its beneficiary organizations for the first 6 months of 1943 directly following the Nazi occupation of the Unoccupied Zone, 11/14/42. The JDC authorized the raising of $600,000 in Ffr, 9/21/43 (also see: SM Archives, File 34(1)). J. Jefroykin reached Spain from France, 5/16/44. Report on General Situation in France Nov. 1942 - June 1944 by J. Jefroykin, August 1944. Illegal JDC activities in occupied France 1942 - 1944, 12/5/44. Other materials on the situation of the Jews in France: 5/1/42, 7/7/42, 7/30/42, 8/13/42, 7/15/43 - 8/6/43, 9/17/43, 12/31/43, 2/25/44, 9/4/44, 9/6/44, 9/8/44, 9/20/44, 11/24/44, 12/31/44. Also see: File 597. Correspondence: N. Aronovici, M. Brener, J.C. Hyman, J. Jefroykin, B. Kahn, H. Katzki, J.J. Schwartz, H.K. Travers, E.M.M. Warburg.
Index Terms:
Administration
Aronovici, N.
Brener, M.
France
Hyman, J.C.
Jefroykin, J.
Kahn, B.
Katzki, H.
Schwartz, J.J.
Travers, H.K.
Union Generale des Israelites de France (UGIF)
Warburg, E.M.M.
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File 597: France: Administration, Reports, 1940 - 1944
Note: For the most part, reports by JDC representatives or on JDC activities will be found in Files 594-596, while reports on the general situation of Jews in France, and notably those prepared by non-JDC representatives, may be looked for in this file. "The Situation of the Jews in the Occupied Zone" (March (?) 1941) and English summary, 6/19/41. "Judaism in France" (two parts), by Professor Halphen of Paris, June 1941. "Work Companies in France", 6/25/42. "Social Services of Europe: (France), 3/13/44. "La Situation Generale en France, Nov. 1942 - June 1944", by J. Jefroykin, Aug. 1944.
Index Terms:
Administration
France
Halphen, Professor
Jefroykin, J.
Reports
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File 598: France: Administration, Financial, 1940 - 1944
General: Accumulative statement of income and expenditures in 1941 by CAR, Federation, OSE and Camp Commission, 11/24/42. Expenditures in France June 1942 - April 1944 (as reported by J. Jefroykin), 4/30/44 - summary thereof 10/27/44. Transfer of Funds: In the course of W.W. II, the JDC raised greater sums in France for local use, via its private clearing system, than in any other country. A number of large lenders, organizations and individuals came forward. In some of these instances, and notably when the JDC was pressed for local funds, it arranged for earlier repayments. For additional materials, see: SM Archives, File 34(1).
Index Terms:
Administration
Camp Commission
Comite d'Assistance aux Refugies, Paris (CAR)
Financial
France
Jefroykin, J.
Oeuvres de Secours aux Enfants (OSE)
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File 599: France: Administration, Financial, 1940 - 1941 (June)
Correspondence: H. Katzki, M.A. Leavitt, E.M. Morrissey, J.J. Schwartz.
Index Terms:
Administration
Financial
France
Katzki, H.
Leavitt, M.A.
Morrissey, E.M.
Schwartz, J.J.
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File 600: France: Administration, Financial, 1942 (July) - 1945
1. Deposits by Individuals: Between June-Nov. 1942, individuals in France deposited $1,088,988 in Ffr. for JDC aided activities, 12/22/42. The JDC authorized the raising of $600,000 in Ffr. to support aid programs for 6 months, 9/21/43; for additional materials, see: SM Archives, File 34(1). J. Jefroykin raised $1,600,000 in Ffr. in 1st half of 1944, 7/14/44. Status of French clearances as of 10/13/44. 2. Lists of depositors in Ffr. to JDC aided activities in France: Feb. 1941 - Oct. 1942, undated. For additional materials, see: SM Archives, File 34(1). Correspondence: H. Katzki, M.A. Leavitt, D.J. Reagan, J.J. Schwartz, M.C. Troper.
Index Terms:
Administration
Financial
France
Jefroykin, J.
Katzki, H.
Leavitt, M.A.
List
Reagan, D.J.
Schwartz, J.J.
Troper, M.C.
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Series 2: France: Organizations
Comite Teitel, 1943 - 1945, see: SM Archives, File 35a. Oeuvres d'Aide Sociale Israelite, Perigueux, 1941 - 1944. For materials, see: File 625, Alsace-Lorraine. Les Oeuvres de la Guette, see: File 609, 4/2/41, 8/21/41, 9/13/41. Secours Suisse aux Enfants, see: File 609, 12/20/40. Union for Refugees in France, see: File 619, 5/28/41. Union OSE France, see: Files 610-612. Also see: Files 326-329, and SM Archives, File 35a.
File 601: France: Organizations, Miscellaneous 1
Agriculture et Artisanat, Paris, 1933 - 1935: The organization was organized in 1933 to train Jewish refugees from Germany in trades and agriculture. It was a JDC beneficiary, receiving $16,300 in 1934 and $5,100 in 1935. Alliance Israelite Universelle, Paris, 1940 - 1941. Assistance Medicale aux Enfants d'Emigres, Paris, 1937 - 1940: The organization was organized in 1934 to provide young refugee children with medical aid. It was a JDC beneficiary. Correspondence: D.M. Bressler, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, J.G. McDonald, E.M. Morrissey Association des Israelites Pratiquants, Marseilles, 1942. Association Nationale Intercorporative du Commerce de L' Industrie et de L' Artisinat, Paris, 1944. Association pour le Retablissement des Institutions et Oeuvres Juives en France et dans ses Possessions d' Outremer (ARIF), 1944. Caisse Israelite de Prets, Paris, 1934 - 1935: The Caisse Israelite was created in 1935 to provide German refugees in Paris with rehabilitation loans. The JDC Foundation and the ICA contributed most of the operating funds. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, B. Flexner, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn. Central Commission of Social Organizations, Marseilles, 1941: The Central Commission was created in 1940 as a coordinating body for ten Franco-Jewish organizations conducting relief activities in the Unoccupied Zone, among them the Federation of Jewish Societies in France, ORT, OSE et al. The Chief Rabbi of France served as President. Centre de Reclassement Professionnel, 1939 - 1945. Comite National de Secours aux Refugies Allemands, Paris, 1933 - 1944: The Comite came into existence in 1933 to aid German refugees in France and it became a JDC beneficiary. But it failed to meet refugee problems and it was succeeded by the CAR in July 1936. Correspondence: J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn. Consistoire Central des Israelites de France, Paris/Marseilles, 1933 - 1944: The Consistoire was the religious organization of the Jewish Communities of France. Correspondence: J. Helbronner, J. Jefroykin, H. Katzki. Czechoslovakian Relief Center, Marseilles, 1941
Index Terms:
Agriculture et Artisanat
Alliance Israelite Universelle
Assistance Medicale aux Enfants d'Emigres
Association Nationale Intercorporative du Commerce de L'Industrie et de L'Artisinat
Association des Israelites Pratiquants
Association pour le Retablissement des Institutions et Oeuvres Juives en France et dans ses Possessions d'Outremer (ARIF)
Caisse Israelite de Prets
Central Commission of Social Organizations
Centre de Reclassement Professionnel
Comite National de Secours aux Refugies Allemands
Consistoire Central des Israelites de France
France
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, B.
Marseilles
Paris
Refugees
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File 602: France: Organizations, Miscellaneous 2
Eclaireurs Israelites de France (EIF), 1941: For additional materials, see: SM Archives, File 35a. Hehaloutz, Paris, 1935: The Hehaloutz received JDC allocations for the equipment of farms used for the training of young German refugees for aliyah to Palestine. Jeuness Juive de France, Marseille, 1941. Jewish Einheit Committee, Paris, 1944. Oeuvres d'Aide Sociale Israelite, Marseilles, 1941. ORT France. Le Renouven (Chateau de Born), 1934 - 1936: Correspondence: P. Baerwald, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn. Service Juridique pour les Refugees Allemand, Paris, 1935. Tiomkin Ambulatory, 1940. Unitarian Service Committee (USC), Boston, 1941 - 1943: The USC was established in 1940 to help refugees escape from Nazi occupied lands. In W.W. II, it maintained a branch office in Unoccupied France, but transferred it to Switzerland following the occupation. It provided medical aid in the main, and about one-half its beneficiaries in France were Jews. In 1942, the JDC contributed $15,000 to the USC activities in France. For additional materials, see: File 337. Correspondence: R.C. Dexter, J.C. Hyman, C.R. Joy, M.A. Leavitt, M.C. Troper. Workmen's Circle, Paris, 1939 - 1940.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, P.
Dexter, R.C.
France
Hehaloutz
Hyman, J.C.
Hyman, J.C.
Jeuness Juive de France
Jewish Einheit Committee
Joy, C.R.
Kahn, B.
Le Renouven (Chateau de Born)
Leavitt, M.A.
ORT France
Oeuvres d'Aide Sociale Israelite
Service Juridique pour les Refugees
Tiomkin Ambulatory
Troper, M.C.
Unitarian Service Committee (USC)
Workmen's Circle
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File 603: France: Organizations, Miscellaneous 3
American Relief for France (ARF), 1944: The ARF was organized in mid-1944 as a national organization representing the American people in the matter of French relief. J.C. Hyman served as an incorporator and as a Board member, but acted as a private person and not a JDC representative. The JDC maintained a close liaison with the ARF but was neither a contributor nor a financial beneficiary.
Index Terms:
American Relief for France (ARF)
France
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File 604: France: Organizations, Comite d' Assistance aux Refugees (CAR)
The CAR was the principal committee for aiding refugees in France (Germany, Austria and Czechoslovakia, in the main). It was organized in July 1936 as the successor to the Comite National Francais. Following the fall of France, it evacuated its headquarters to Marseilles and continued operations in the Unoccupied Zone. It extended aid as well via some 20-25 local affiliates, and maintained its independent standing until it was forcibly merged into the UGIF in 1942. Albert Levy served as President and Gaston Kahn as Director. In 1939, CAR beneficiaries doubled in number, (January: 2,750, December: 5,500), at an annual cost of some Ffr. 30,700,000. Some 70% (Ffr. 21,825,000) came from the JDC. In 1941, beneficiaries increased to 12,000 and the JDC contribution reached some Ffr. 24,000,000. Correspondence: H. Katzki, A. Levy, H.C. Troper.
Index Terms:
Comite d'Assistance aux Refugees (CAR)
France
Kahn, G.
Katzki, H.
Levy, A.
Marseilles
Paris
Refugees
Troper, H.C.
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File 605: France: Organizations, Comite d' Assistance aux Refugees (CAR), Reports
1936: Jan. -Oct.; 7/20/36 - 6/30/37. 1938: Jan.-March 1939: Annual 1940: Annual 1941: Jan.-June; General statistical data, 1941 1942: Feb.
Index Terms:
Comite d'Assistance aux Refugees (CAR)
France
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File 606: France: Organizations, Committee for the Defense of the Rights of Jews in Central and Eastern Europe and Union for the Protection of the Human Person, 1933 - 1944
The first organization was established in Paris in 1933 and concerned itself with refugees in France largely, the second was established in 1938 and was more international in character. Both organizations were really one in fact (Director, Boris Gourevitch), and over the years the JDC extended small allocations to the one or the other. During W.W. II, the organizations sought to conduct independent fund-raising campaigns in the U.S. and came into conflict with the JDC and the UJA. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, B. Gourevitch, J. Hadamard, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, H.S. Leiper, J.A. Rosen, M.C. Troper.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, P.
Committee for the Defense of the Rights of Jews in Central and Eastern Europe and Union for the Protection of the Human Person
France
Fund-Raising
Gourevitch, B.
Hadamard, J.
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, B.
Leiper, H.S.
Paris
Refugees
Rosen, J.A.
Troper, M.C.
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File 607: France: Organizations, Federation de Societes Juives de France (FSJF) and Comite de Coordination et de Federation
Federation de Societes Juives de France (FSJF), Paris/Lyon, 1939 - 1942. Comite de Coordination et de Federation The FSJF extended aid to artisans, intellectuals, students and religious functionaries, members of the professions et al, stemming from Eastern Europe, in the main. (Presidents: J. Jefroykin and M. Jarblum). The Comite was the coordinating committee among the organizations and local committees affiliated with the Federation. Reports: Semi-Annual - 1/1/41 - 6/30/41, 1/1/42, 6/30/42. Reports: Quarterly - 1941: 3rd Quarter Reports: Monthly - 1941: Feb., July, August, Sept., Oct. Correspondence: M. Jarblum, H. Katzki, J.J. Schwartz, M.C. Troper.
Index Terms:
Comite de Coordination et de Federation
Federation de Societes Juives de France (FSJF)
Jarblum, M.
Katzki, H.
Reports
Schwartz, J.J.
Troper, M.C.
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File 608: France: Organizations, Union Generale des Israelites de France (UGIF), Marseilles, 1941 - 1944
In March 1942, the Vichy Gov't decreed that the UGIF should become the sole representative Jewish body in the field of philanthropy. Albert Levy, President of the CAR, served as the UGIF Pres. until he escaped to Switzerland in Nov. 1942 following the Nazi occupation of the Unoccupied Zone. The Consistoire deplored the alleged role played by Levy and by R.R. Lambert (Secy-Gen. of CAR) in the establishment of the UGIF, and feelings ran high for a time. Gradually, the controversy subsided at the realization that matters would have gotten far worse had Levy and Lambert followed any other course. Correspondence: H. Katzki, J.J. Schwartz
Index Terms:
France
Katzki, H.
Lambert, R.R.
Levy, A.
Schwartz, J.J.
Union General des Israelites de France (UGIF)
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Series 3: France: Subject Matter
Camps (Transient and Detention): JDC aid to transient and detention camps (food and clothing) was distributed largely via the America Friends Service Committee (Quakers), and medical supplies via the Unitarian Service Committee The distribution was non-sectarian, but beneficiaries were mainly Jews. The materials on the camps listed below will be found in the section on Refugees. For lists of deportees shipped to unknown destinations from transient and concentration camps, see: File 615. Drancy: 1941 (July-Dec.), 1942 - 1944; Gurs: 1940 (July-Dec.), 1941 (2), 1942 - 1944; Camp des Milles: 1941 (July-Dec.); Recebedou: 1941 (July-Dec.), 1942 - 1944; Riencros: 1941 (Jan.-June); St. Cyprien: 1940 (July-Dec.); Vernet: 1940 (Jan.-June), 1941(2). Loan Fund, See: File 601, Caisse Israelite de Prets, Paris. Medical Aid, See: File 601, Assistance Medicale aux Enfants d'Emigres, File 602; Unitarian Service Committee and Tiomkin Ambulatory; also see: Files 205-209, 325-330 and 337. Vocational Training, see: File 601, Centre de Reclassement Professionnel.
Index Terms:
America Friends Service Committee
Camp des Milles
Canteens
Clothing
Drancy
Food
France
Gurs
Medical Supplies
Paris
Recebedou
Refugees
Reports
Riencros
St. Cyprien
Transient and Detention Camps
Unitarian Service Committee
Vernet
#Return to Top
File 609: France: Subject Matter, Canteens, 1940 - 1942
Following the fall of Paris, JDC funds continued to support four canteens in Paris where needy refugees got free meals or at reduced prices, 8/10/40, 10/21/40, 12/27/40, 12/31/40. Monthly reports on the canteens - 1941: Jan. (3/6/41), Feb. (4/17/41 attachment to 4/24/41), June (undated), July (undated), 1942: Feb. (undated).
Index Terms:
American Friends Service Committee (AFSC)
Camp des Milles
Canteens
Clothing
Drancy
Food
France
Gurs
Medical Supplies
Paris
Recebedou
Refugees
Reports
Riencros
St. Cyprien
Transient and Detention Camps
Unitarian Service Committee
Vernet
#Return to Top
File 610: France: Subject Matter, Child Care, General, 1936; 1940 - 1942 (Sept.)
Following the fall of France, three Jewish organizations provided child care in the Unoccupied Zone: Union OSE France (the major agency in this field), CAR, and FSJF. All three were JDC beneficiaries over the years. In addition, the ARC and the AFSC (Quakers), conducted child care activities on behalf of the JDC at a number of concentration camps and detention centers. Moreover, the U.S. Committee for the Care of European Children aided in the emigration of refugee children to the U.S. from western and central Europe, and in the major undertakings the JDC shouldered a substantial share of the costs. For additional materials, see: Files 343-345. Union OSE France: 2/29/40, 9/30/40, 10/31/40, Fin. Statement for 1941. Summary of Activities Oct. 1940, Dec. 1941 and Jan. 1942, 5/1/42(2), 5/4/42, 7/28/42, 8/26/42 Schwartz to Leavitt, 8/28/42. For additional materials on Union OSE France, see: Files 326-329 and SM Archives, File 35a. CAR: 1/16/41, 2/20/41, 4/20/41. AFSC: 11/4/41, 2/20/42. U.S. Comm: 4/13/42 attachment to 4/15/42, 9/4/42, 9/8/42, 9/15/42 Hyman to Warren, 9/21/42(2), 9/22/42 Leavitt to Schwartz, 9/23/42(2), 9/26/42(2). Correspondence: P. Baerwald, S. Hayes, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, H. Katzki, M.A. Leavitt, J.N. Rosenberg, Guy de Rothschild, J.J. Schwartz, A.M. Warren, G.L. Warren.
Index Terms:
American Friends Service Committee (AFSC)
Baerwald, P.
Child Care
Comite d'Assistance aux Refugies (CAR)
Financial
France
Hayes, S.
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, B.
Katzki, H.
Leavitt, M.A.
Oeuvres de Secours aux Enfants (OSE)
Reports
Rosenberg, J.N.
Schwartz, J.J.
Warren, A.M.
Warren, G.L.
de Rothschild, Guy
#Return to Top
File 611: France: Subject Matter, Child Care, General, 1942 (Oct.) - 1944
Following the fall of France, three Jewish organizations provided child care in the Unoccupied Zone: Union OSE France (the major agency in this field), CAR, and FSJF. All three were JDC beneficiaries over the years. In addition, the ARC and the AFSC (Quakers), conducted child care activities on behalf of the JDC at a number of concentration camps and detention centers. Moreover, the U.S. Committee for the Care of European Children aided in the emigration of refugee children to the U.S. from western and central Europe, and in the major undertakings the JDC shouldered a substantial share of the costs. For additional materials, see: Files 343-345. The U.S. Gov't agreed to admit 5,000 refugee children from France under the sponsorship of the U.S. Committee The JDC undertook to cover up to 45% of the costs ($2,000,000), and the U.S. Committee was to cover the rest, 10/9/42, 10/14/42, 10/15/42, 10/16/42 Leavitt to Baerwald, 10/22/42, 10/23/42, 10/26/42 Schwartz to Leavitt. The Vichy Gov't authorized exit visas for only 500 children and delayed additional ones indefinitely, 10/29/42, 10/30/42(4), 11/4/42 memo, 11/12/42 and 11/13/42 Schwartz to Leavitt, 12/14/42 Leavitt to Schulman, 1/14/43 Schwartz to N.Y., 3/10/43, 5/25/43, 8/6/43, 12/30/43, 5/18/44, 12/7/44. Offers to admit children from France made by various Govts. in 1942, 3/7/44. Correspondence: F.R. Adlerstein, M. Brener, P. Dreyfus, S. Hayes, J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt, D.A. Lowrie, J.J. Schwartz, J.B. Wise, L.Wulman.
Index Terms:
Adlerstein, F.R.
Brener, M.
Children
Dreyfus, P.
France
Hayes, S.
Hyman, J.C.
Leavitt, M.A.
Lowrie, D.A.
Refugees
Schwartz, J.J.
Wise, J.B.
Wulman, L.
#Return to Top
File 612: France: Subject Matter, Child Care, Letters to OSE
Following the fall of France, three Jewish organizations provided child care in the Unoccupied Zone: Union OSE France (the major agency in this field), CAR, and FSJF. All three were JDC beneficiaries over the years. In addition, the ARC and the AFSC (Quakers), conducted child care activities on behalf of the JDC at a number of concentration camps and detention centers. Moreover, the U.S. Committee for the Care of European Children aided in the emigration of refugee children to the U.S. from western and central Europe, and in the major undertakings the JDC shouldered a substantial share of the costs. For additional materials, see: Files 343-345. Letters written in 1941 by refugee children and teenagers in France.
Index Terms:
Children
France
Oeuvres de Secours aux Enfants (OSE)
Refugees
#Return to Top
File 613: France: Subject Matter, Cultural and Religious, 1933; 1937; 1939 - 1942
Also see: File 601, Association des Israelites Pratiquants, and Consistoire Central des Israelites de France. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, H.K. Buchman, S.M. Cohen, J.J. Schwartz.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, P.
Buchman, H.K.
Cohen, S.M.
Cultural and Religious
France
Schwartz, J.J.
#Return to Top
File 614: France: Subject Matter, Deportations, General, 1942 - 1945
On the deportations from France: 8/10/42, 8/11/42(4), 8/18/42, 8/19/42 Wells to Baerwald, 8/27/42 (2), 9/6/42 attachment to 9/24/42 Schwartz to JDC N.Y., 9/9/42 Schwartz to JDC N.Y., 9/14/42 (2), 9/19/42 attachment to 11/21/42, 9/26/42 attachment to 10/15/42, 10/1/42, 10/21/42, 10/25/42, 10/26/42, 10/11/43, 11/5/43, 3/12/45. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, J.C. Hyman, H. Katzki, M.A. Leavitt, D.A. Lowrie, R. McClelland, J.J. Schwartz, G.L. Warren, Sumner Wells.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, P.
Deportations
France
Hyman, J.C.
Katzki, H.
Leavitt, M.A.
Lowrie, D.A.
McClelland, R.
Schwartz, J.J.
Warren, G.L.
Wells, Sumner
#Return to Top
File 615: France: Subject Matter, Deportations, Lists of Deportees, Aug./Sept. 1942
Lists of deportees to unknown destinations from camps and detention centers in the Unoccupied Zone-Agde, Gurs, Camp des Milles, Recebedou, Rivesaltes.
Index Terms:
Agde
Camp des Milles
Deportees
France
Gurs
List
Recebedou
Rivesaltes
#Return to Top
File 616: France: Subject Matter, Emigration, 1940 - 1945
On the status of emigration from France: 8/14/40, 9/17/40, 10/21/40, 12/18/40, 2/21/41 Troper to Perlman, 2/21/41 cable, 2/28/41, 4/3/41, 4/19/41, 5/27/41, 5/30/41, 6/6/41; on the SS Alsina and the followup, see: Files 370-372, 6/9/41 and attachments, 6/27/41 HICEM Activities April/May 1941, 6/30/41 Schwartz to Warren, 8/5/41, 8/11/42 Schwartz to JDC, 8/13/42, 8/19/42, 8/21/42, 8/28/42 (2), 9/25/42 (2), 9/25/42, 12/21/42. Correspondence: J.C. Hyman, H. Katzki, R. Pilpel, J.J. Schwartz, M. Siegel, M.C. Troper.
Index Terms:
Emigration
France
Hyman, J.C.
Katzki, H.
Pilpel, R.
Schwartz, J.J.
Siegel, M.
Troper, M.C.
#Return to Top
File 617: France: Subject Matter, Refugees, 1933 - 1940 (June)
In Sept. 1939, the French Gov't set up detention camps for the internment of aliens, and notably enemy aliens. The latter were virtually all Jewish refugees from Germany. Following the fall of France, the Nazis proceeded to deport thousands of Jews from southwest Germany to Unoccupied France, and the Vichy Gov't promptly clapped them into Gurs and other detention centers. Disease, pollution, bad sanitation and hunger were widespread, and conditions worsened with time. In the summer of 1942, many thousands were deported eastward from the camps. In Nov., the Nazis abolished the Unoccupied Zone and assumed full jurisdiction over the camps. For additional materials, see: Files 604, 605, 607, 608 and 601, Central Commission of Social Organizations. On the status of refugees in France: 8/8/33 attachment to 8/24/33, 10/16/33 Hyman to Wineman, 10/25/33, 3/8/34, Oct. 1934, 2/15/35, 5/8/36, 7/15/36, 8/1/36, June 1937 undated, 9/23/38(2), 2/28/39, Aug. 1939 undated, 10/9/39, Nov. 1939 undated, 12/18/39, 1/12/40, 1/16/40, 1/29/40, 2/8/40, 2/14/40, 3/15/40, 4/16/40, 4/27/40, 5/31/40. Also see: Germany, File 628, 11/14/34 attachment to 11/21/34 pp. 31-41. For additional data 1938, 1939, see: EUREXCO, Files 188-191. Individual Camps - Vernet: Feb. 1940, attachment to 3/15/40, 5/17/40 Publication "Friday". Correspondence: J.L. Cohen, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, G. Kahn, H. Katzki, P. Kurgass, C.J. Liebman, J.G. McDonald, E.M. Morrissey, M.C. Troper.
Index Terms:
Cohen, J.L.
Detention Camps
France
Germany
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, B.
Kahn, G.
Katzki, H.
Kurgass, P.
Liebman, C.J.
McDonald, J.G.
Morrissey, E.M.
Refugees
Troper, M.C.
Vernet
#Return to Top
File 618: France: Subject Matter, Refugees, 1940 (July-Dec.)
In Sept. 1939, the French Gov't set up detention camps for the internment of aliens, and notably enemy aliens. The latter were virtually all Jewish refugees from Germany. Following the fall of France, the Nazis proceeded to deport thousands of Jews from southwest Germany to Unoccupied France, and the Vichy Gov't promptly clapped them into Gurs and other detention centers. Disease, pollution, bad sanitation and hunger were widespread, and conditions worsened with time. In the summer of 1942, many thousands were deported eastward from the camps. In Nov., the Nazis abolished the Unoccupied Zone and assumed full jurisdiction over the camps. For additional materials, see: Files 604, 605, 607, 608 and 601, Central Commission of Social Organizations. On the status of refugees in France: 7/13/40, 7/19/40, 7/22/40(3), Report on Situation in France by H. Katzki 7/23/40 attachment to 8/31/40, 8/14/40, 8/15/40, 8/16/40 Leavitt to Kochmann, 8/30/40(2), Report on Jewish Refugees from Belgium in France 9/8/40 attachment to 10/7/40, 10/27/40 attachment to 11/18/40 Troper to JDC, 11/5/40 Hyman to Pickett, 11/8/40, 11/9/40, 11/26/40, 12/6/40, Report by W. Baum 12/10/40, 12/13/40, 12/20/40. Individual Camps - St. Cyprien: 9/8/40, 9/16/40, 9/17/40, 9/26/40, 9/30/40 memo, 12/14/40 Schwartz to JDC. Gurs: 10/27/40 attachment to 11/18/40 Troper to JDC, 11/4/40, 11/8/40, 11/15/40 Katzki to JDC, 11/27/40, 12/9/40 Schwartz to Leavitt, 12/10/40, 12/20/40, 12/28/40. Correspondence: W. Baum, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, H. Katzki, M.A. Leavitt, J.J. Schwartz, M.C. Troper.
Index Terms:
Baum, W.
Detention Camps
France
Gurs
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, B.
Katzki, H.
Leavitt, M.A.
Refugees
Reports
Schwartz, J.J.
St. Cyprien
Troper, M.C.
#Return to Top
File 619: France: Subject Matter, Refugees, 1941 (Jan.-June)
In Sept. 1939, the French Gov't set up detention camps for the internment of aliens, and notably enemy aliens. The latter were virtually all Jewish refugees from Germany. Following the fall of France, the Nazis proceeded to deport thousands of Jews from southwest Germany to Unoccupied France, and the Vichy Gov't promptly clapped them into Gurs and other detention centers. Disease, pollution, bad sanitation and hunger were widespread, and conditions worsened with time. In the summer of 1942, many thousands were deported eastward from the camps. In Nov., the Nazis abolished the Unoccupied Zone and assumed full jurisdiction over the camps. For additional materials, see: Files 604, 605, 607, 608 and 601, Central Commission of Social Organizations. On the status of refugees in France: 1/8/41, 2/16/41, 2/24/41, 2/28/41, 3/3/41, 3/21/41, 3/22/41, 4/5/41 - 4/8/41, April 1941, 5/5/41, 5/7/41, 6/12/41(2). Individual Camps - Gurs: 12/9/40, 12/28/40 attachment to 1/30/41, 1/7/41 attachment to 3/14/41, 1/15/41 attachment to 2/12/41, 2/18/41, 2/19/41 Report, 3/4/41, Report Feb. 1941 attachment to 3/6/41, 3/20/41, 4/3/41, 4/4/41 N.Y. Times, 4/28/41, 5/9/41(2), 5/28/41, 6/11/41 attachment to 6/12/41. Vernet: March 1941, 4/25/41 attachment to 3/14/41, March 1941. Rieucross: March 1941 attachment to 4/2/41. Rivesaltes: March 1941 attachment to 4/2/41, 6/11/41 attachment to 6/12/41. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, R.C. Dexter, G. Kahn, C. Hirsch, J.C. Hyman, H. Katzki, M.A. Leavitt, A. Levy, H. Mueller, R. Pilpel, J.J. Schwartz, M.M. Warburg.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, P.
Detention Camps
Dexter, R.C.
France
Gurs
Hirsch, C.
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, G.
Katzki, H.
Leavitt, M.A.
Levy, A.
Mueller, H.
Pilpel, R.
Recebedou
Refugees
Rivesaltes
Schwartz, J.J.
Vernet
Warburg, M.M.
#Return to Top
File 620: France: Subject Matter, Refugees, 1941 (July-Dec.)
In Sept. 1939, the French Gov't set up detention camps for the internment of aliens, and notably enemy aliens. The latter were virtually all Jewish refugees from Germany. Following the fall of France, the Nazis proceeded to deport thousands of Jews from southwest Germany to Unoccupied France, and the Vichy Gov't promptly clapped them into Gurs and other detention centers. Disease, pollution, bad sanitation and hunger were widespread, and conditions worsened with time. In the summer of 1942, many thousands were deported eastward from the camps. In Nov., the Nazis abolished the Unoccupied Zone and assumed full jurisdiction over the camps. For additional materials, see: Files 604, 605, 607, 608 and 601, Central Commission of Social Organizations. On the status of refugees in France: 7/4/41, List of Camps 7/20/41, 7/21/41, 8/12/41 attachment to 9/18/41, 9/3/41, 9/30/41 and attachment, 10/9/41 Katzki statement, 10/9/41 Jefroykin to JDC, 10/21/41, 10/23/41, 10/31/41, 11/5/41 Report, 12/1/41 - 12/3/41, Reports Dec. 1941(2). Individual Camps - Drancy: 10/10/41, 11/6/41, 11/9/41, 11/10/41. Gurs: 2/25/41 attachment to 9/18/41, Aug. 1941, Oct. 1941, 11/7/41. Camp des Milles: 10/9/41 Fullerton to Hull, List of literary men at des Milles, undated, 12/16/41. Recebedou: Dec. 1941 attachment to 12/26/41. Rivesaltes: July 1941, 10/8/41 attachment to 12/23/41, 11/5/41 Report, 11/15/41, 12/3/41. Vernet: Dec. 1941. Correspondence: B. Gourevitch, J.C. Hyman, G. Kahn, H. Katzki, J. Rosenheim, J.J. Schwartz.
Index Terms:
Camp des Milles
Detention Camps
Drancy
France
Gourevitch, B.
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, G.
Katzki, H.
Recebedou
Refugees
Rivesaltes
Rosenheim, J.
Schwartz, J.J.
#Return to Top
File 621: France: Subject Matter, Refugees, 1942 - 1944
In Sept. 1939, the French Gov't set up detention camps for the internment of aliens, and notably enemy aliens. The latter were virtually all Jewish refugees from Germany. Following the fall of France, the Nazis proceeded to deport thousands of Jews from southwest Germany to Unoccupied France, and the Vichy Gov't promptly clapped them into Gurs and other detention centers. Disease, pollution, bad sanitation and hunger were widespread, and conditions worsened with time. In the summer of 1942, many thousands were deported eastward from the camps. In Nov., the Nazis abolished the Unoccupied Zone and assumed full jurisdiction over the camps. For additional materials, see: Files 604, 605, 607, 608 and 601, Central Commission of Social Organizations. On the status of refugees in France: 1/8/42(2), 2/4/42, 3/17/42 Marvel to Katzki and attachment, 3/31/42 and attachments, March 1942, 4/15/42, 5/20/42, 6/5/42, 7/15/42, 7/27/42 - 8/13/42, 8/24/42, 9/28/42, 9/29/42, 10/25/42, 10/29/42, 11/16/42, 10/11/43, 11/4/43, 7/28/43, 10/11/43, 11/4/43. Individual Camps - Drancy: Feb. 1943 (?) undated, 11/4/43. Gurs: 4/20/42, 5/15/42. Recebedou: 4/20/42. For lists of deportees from camps and detention centers Aug./Sept. 1943, see: File 615. Correspondence: J.C. Hyman, J. Jefroykin, B. Kahn, H. Katzki, M.A. Leavitt, D.A. Lowrie, L. Meiss, R. Pilpel, M.C. Troper, J.J. Schwartz, B. Weil.
Index Terms:
Detention Camps
Drancy
France
Gurs
Hyman, J.C.
Jefroykin, J.
Kahn, B.
Katzki, H.
Leavitt, M.A.
Lowrie, D.A.
Meiss, L.
Pilpel, R.
Recebedou
Refugees
Schwartz, J.J.
Troper, M.C.
Weil, B.
#Return to Top
File 622: France: Subject Matter, Refugees, Financial and Statistical Statements on Refugees
In Sept. 1939, the French Gov't set up detention camps for the internment of aliens, and notably enemy aliens. The latter were virtually all Jewish refugees from Germany. Following the fall of France, the Nazis proceeded to deport thousands of Jews from southwest Germany to Unoccupied France, and the Vichy Gov't promptly clapped them into Gurs and other detention centers. Disease, pollution, bad sanitation and hunger were widespread, and conditions worsened with time. In the summer of 1942, many thousands were deported eastward from the camps. In Nov., the Nazis abolished the Unoccupied Zone and assumed full jurisdiction over the camps. For additional materials, see: Files 604, 605, 607, 608 and 601, Central Commission of Social Organizations. Statements by individual local committees affiliated with the CAR.
Index Terms:
Comite d'Assistance aux Refugies (CAR)
Committees
Financial
France
Refugees
#Return to Top
File 623: France: Subject Matter, Refugees, Report on the Food Situation in the Camps of the Unoccupied Zone,
In Sept. 1939, the French Gov't set up detention camps for the internment of aliens, and notably enemy aliens. The latter were virtually all Jewish refugees from Germany. Following the fall of France, the Nazis proceeded to deport thousands of Jews from southwest Germany to Unoccupied France, and the Vichy Gov't promptly clapped them into Gurs and other detention centers. Disease, pollution, bad sanitation and hunger were widespread, and conditions worsened with time. In the summer of 1942, many thousands were deported eastward from the camps. In Nov., the Nazis abolished the Unoccupied Zone and assumed full jurisdiction over the camps. For additional materials, see: Files 604, 605, 607, 608 and 601, Central Commission of Social Organizations. Report: 7/1/42, by the Commission d'Hygiene du Comite de Coordination pour L'Assistance dans les Camps.
Index Terms:
Commision d'Hygiene du Comite de Coordination pour L'Assistance dans les Camps
Food
France
Refugees
Reports
#Return to Top
File 624: France: Subject Matter, Refugees, Scientists
In Sept. 1939, the French Gov't set up detention camps for the internment of aliens, and notably enemy aliens. The latter were virtually all Jewish refugees from Germany. Following the fall of France, the Nazis proceeded to deport thousands of Jews from southwest Germany to Unoccupied France, and the Vichy Gov't promptly clapped them into Gurs and other detention centers. Disease, pollution, bad sanitation and hunger were widespread, and conditions worsened with time. In the summer of 1942, many thousands were deported eastward from the camps. In Nov., the Nazis abolished the Unoccupied Zone and assumed full jurisdiction over the camps. For additional materials, see: Files 604, 605, 607, 608 and 601, Central Commission of Social Organizations. Correspondence: J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt, M.S. Perlaman, L. Rapkine.
Index Terms:
France
Hyman, J.C.
Leavitt, M.A.
Perlman, M.S.
Rapkine, L.
Refugees
Scientists
#Return to Top
Series 4: France: Localities
File 625: France: Localities
Alsace-Lorraine, 1940 - 1945; Drancy, See: Camps; Guerry, 1944 - 1945; Gurs, See: Camps; Camp des Milles, See: Camps; Paris, 1941; Recebedou, See: Camps; Rivesaltes, See: Camps; Rieucross, See: Camps; St. Cyprien, See: Camps; Vernet, See: Camps; Vittel, See: File 621, 8/1/44 - 12/18/44.
Index Terms:
Alsace-Lorraine
France
Guerry
Paris
Refugees
#Return to Top
Record Group 4.23: Germany
Series 1: Germany: Administration
File 626: Germany: Administration, General, 1933 (March-July)
On the situation of the Jews in Germany: 4/1/33, 4/23/33 Kahn to the JDC; Reports and memos - 4/28/33 (B. Kahn), 5/3/33 (B. Kahn), 5/13/33 (Henry Goldman), 6/5/33 (J.C. Hyman), 6/27/33 and supp. 7/10/33 (B. Kahn), June 1933 (J.A. Rosen), 7/14/33 (J.C. Hyman), 7/31/33 (General Summary, German Situation). The JDC moved its European Hq. from Berlin to Paris, but retained an office in Berlin, 3/18/33, 3/21/33(3), 3/27/33 Phillips to Baerwald, 4/2/33 Baerwald to Kahn, 4/4/33 Hyman letter, 4/21/33, 4/23/33 Kahn to JDC, 5/12/33. JDC allocations for German emergency relief: $20,000 4/5/33, $20,000 4/13/33, $55,000 7/7/33, $200,000 7/21/33. Discussions between the JDC and Anglo-Jewish leaders on a possible pooling of resources for German relief between the U.S. and Gt. Britain, 3/30/33, 6/2/33 Baerwald to Goldsmid, 7/21/33 Goldsmid to Warburg. Correspondence: C. Adler, P. Baerwald, O.E. d' Avigdor Goldsmid, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, M.J. Kohler, E.M. Morrissey, J.A. Rosen, J.N. Rosenberg, W.J. Senator, O. Schiff, F. Warburg.
Index Terms:
Adler, C.
Administration
Baerwald, P.
Berlin
Germany
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, B.
Kohler, M.J.
Morrissey, E.M.
Paris
Relief
Reports
Rosen, J.A.
Rosenberg, J.N.
Schiff, O.
Senator, W.J.
Warburg, F.
d'Avigdor Goldsmid, O.E.
#Return to Top
File 627: Germany: Administration, General, 1933 (Aug.-Dec.)
On the situation of the Jews in Germany, reports and memos: 9/29/33 (B.Kahn), 9/30/33 German Emergency Funds and Summary Fin. Report, 10/18/33 (D.J. Schweitzer), 11/7/33 Statistical Material on the Jewish Question, 12/12/33 (J.C. Hyman). JDC discussions with English and French leaders in London on aid to German refugees, 8/8/33, 8/10/33 - 8/14/33 B. Kahn to JDC. The JDC earmarked $200,000 for relief and recon. within Germany and $100,000 for refugee emigration aid outside of Germany, 11/16/33, 11/17/33, 11/28/33. Correspondence: J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, E.M. Morrissey, D.J. Schweitzer, W.J. Senator, M.C. Troper.
Index Terms:
Administration
Financial
Germany
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, B.
Morrissey, E.M.
Reconstruction
Refugees
Relief
Reports
Schweitzer, D.J.
Senator, W.J.
Troper, M.C.
#Return to Top
File 628: Germany: Administration, General, 1934
On the situation of the Jews in Germany, reports and memos: 1/4/34 (J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, M. Troper), 3/5/34 (D.J. Schweitzer), 3/28/34 (B. Kahn), 8/22/34 (B. Kahn), 9/26/34 (J.B. Lightman). JDC aid to Jews in Germany and German refugees: Memo, 1/17/34; JDC appropriations 1st half of 1934, 3/28/34; for the periods 12/1/33 - 4/1/34 (4/17/34, 4/24/34), April-Sept. 1934 (10/23/34 attachment to 10/26/34), April-Oct. 1934 (11/14/34 attachment to 11/21/34); Memo for the Secretary's report to the JDC Exec. Committee meeting, 12/6/34. Statement on a Proposed JDC policy bearing on the German-Jewish Situation, 4/18/34, 4/20/34. Statements on the Zentralausschuss and its activities, 6/1/34, 10/2/34, 10/3/34, 10/19/34. Statistical Material on the Jewish Question, 11/7/34. For additional materials, see below: Files 645-646. Correspondence: J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, M. Kreutzberger, J.B. Lightman, E.M. Morrissey, D.J. Schweitzer.
Index Terms:
Administration
Germany
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, B.
Kreutzberger, M.
Lightman, J.B.
Morrissey, E.M.
Refugee Aid
Refugees
Reports
Schweitzer, D.J.
#Return to Top
File 629: Germany: Administration, General, 1935
On the situation of the Jews in Germany: Reports and memos by B. Kahn - 1/7/35, 2/15/35, 5/11/35, 11/10/35, 11/29/35 attachment to 12/24/35. On JDC fiscal policy in German aid, 2/23/35 Kahn to Morrissey. JDC Paris Monthly Bulletins: Jan. and Feb., 3/6/35, March and April, 6/3/35. JDC expenditures in Germany and for Jewish refugees from Germany, 11/21/35. Summary of JDC Activities - Jewish Problems in Germany and Eastern Europe since 1933, 11/25/35. Correspondence: J.C. Hyman. B. Khan, J.B. Lightman, D.J. Schweitzer.
Index Terms:
Administration
Germany
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, B.
Lightman, J.B.
Refugee Aid
Refugees
Reports
Schweitzer, D.J.
#Return to Top
File 630: Germany: Administration, General, 1936 - 1937
On the situation of the Jews in Germany: 2/5/36 (Anon), 2/15/36 (F. Borchardt), 3/12/36 (A.J. Committee), 3/31/36 (O. Brodnitz), 10/20/36, 12/1/36, 5/11/37 (B. Kahn). On the Work and Organization of the JDC Especially as it Refers to the German Situation, 1/15/36. The Zentralausschuss views on schools, professional and vocational retraining and Hachsharah abroad, 2/25/36. The JDC and its relations with other major Jewish organizations in the aid of German Jews, 3/3/36. JDC Report and Bulletin 1936 #2, April 1936. F. Borchardt defended record of German Jews in Jewish fund-raising, 6/8/37. For a visit to the U.S. (1936: Jan.-Feb.) by Anglo-Jewish delegation (Bearsted, Marks, Samuel), see: England, File 571. For Jewish Winterhilfe 1934 - 1937, see below: File 639.5. For an attack on the JDC by Prof. Namier and the JDC rebuttal, see: England, File 574, 6/3/37 - 6/10/37. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, F. Borchardt, Sherwood Eddy, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, M.S. Lazaron, E.M. Morrissey.
Index Terms:
Administration
Baerwald, P.
Borchardt, F.
Germany
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, B.
Lazaron, M.S.
Morrissey, E.M.
Refugee Aid
Refugees
Reports
Schools
Sherwood, Eddy
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File 631: Germany: Administration, General, 1938 - 1944
On the situation of the Jews in Germany: 8/25/38 attached to 9/18/38, 12/2/38 (G. Rooby), 11/30/38 attachment to 12/24/38 (M.C. Troper), 3/17/39 (J.C. Hyman), March 1939 (Mark Wischnitzer), 9/20/39 and 10/18/39 (G.v. Tijn), 9/24/40, 11/22/40, 5/11/41, 6/18/41, 11/30/43 attachment to 12/6/43, Oct. 1945. Report of M.C. Troper's visit to London 12/8/38 - 12/12/38 to attend a meeting of Council for German Jewry, 12/26/38 attachment to 12/28/38, 1/17/39. Statements on JDC aid for Jews of central Europe and refugees from these countries: 12/8/38, 12/16/39, 2/5/40. Discussions of aid between H. Katzki and P. Meyerheim (Reichsvereinigung) in Brussels, 5/21/40. The JDC closed its Berlin office 6/7/41, 6/10/41, 9/5/41, and disposed of the records, 7/21/41, 8/6/41. For materials on the Kristalnacht, 1938 - 1939, see the following file. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, H. Katzki, M.A. Leavitt, J.J. Schwartz, G.v. Tijn, M.C. Troper, M. Wischnitzer.
Index Terms:
Administration
Baerwald, P.
Germany
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, B.
Katzki, H.
Leavitt, M.A.
Refugee Aid
Refugees
Reports
Schwartz, J.J.
Tijn, G.v.
Troper, M.C.
Wischnitzer, M.
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File 632: Germany: Administration, Kristalnacht, 1938 - 1939
Reports: The Excesses of Nov. 10, 1938 and their Consequences, attachment to 2/24/39. On Trip to Germany by George Rooby, attachment to 12/2/38. The Events in Nuremberg on 11/10/38, attachment to 12/2/38. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, G. Rooby, M.C. Troper. Winterhilfe, Jewish, See: File 639.5.
Index Terms:
Administration
Baerwald, P.
Germany
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, B.
Kristalnacht
Reports
Rooby, G.
Troper, M.C.
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File 633: Germany: Administration, Financial, Transfer of Funds, General, 1933 - 1936
JDC aid reached German Jews by means of financial clearance arrangements whereby the funds themselves were never sent into Germany. Reichsmarks in various categories were paid to the Z.A. and the RJD to cover the costs of their communal programs, while the JDC provided dollar equivalents for expenditures in other countries. Several kinds of clearance arrangements were used over the years. The most important were: Emigration, see below: Files 633-635. Student Clearances, see below: File 636. Transmissions via Intria, see below: File 635. Hachscharah, see below: File 684. Status and Changes, Transfer of Funds: 1/5/34, 11/7/34, 3/18/35, 4/11/35, 4/12/35, 4/26/35, 5/10/35, 7/8/35, 9/24/35, 10/1/35, 10/17/35, 10/23/35 Schweitzer to Morrissey, 5/12/36, 12/15/36. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, J.B. Lightman, E.M. Morrissey, D.J. Schweitzer, F.M. Warburg.
Index Terms:
Administration
Baerwald, P.
Emigration
Financial
Germany
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, B.
Lightman, J.B.
Morrissey, E.M.
Schweitzer, D.J.
Warburg, F.M.
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File 634: Germany: Administration, Financial, Transfer of Funds, General, 1937 - 1941
JDC aid reached German Jews by means of financial clearance arrangements whereby the funds themselves were never sent into Germany. Reichsmarks in various categories were paid to the Z.A. and the RJD to cover the costs of their communal programs, while the JDC provided dollar equivalents for expenditures in other countries. Several kinds of clearance arrangements were used over the years. The most important were: Emigration, see below: Files 633-635. Student Clearances, see below: File 636. Transmissions via Intria, see below: File 635. Hachscharah, see below: File 684. Status and Change, Transfer of Funds: 3/3/37(2), 6/16/37(2), 10/26/37(2), 2/17/38, 6/8/38, 12/19/38, 1/6/39 Hyman to Blaustein, 2/27/39, 3/30/39, 6/2/39, 6/20/39, 7/11/39, 9/20/39, 10/18/40, 2/28/41, 4/8/41, 10/28/41. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, F.W. Borchardt, I.E. Goldwasser, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, E.M. Morrissey, I. Rosen, D.J. Schweitzer.
Index Terms:
Administration
Baerwald, P.
Borchardt, F.W.
Emigration
Financial
Germany
Goldwasser, I.E.
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, B.
Morrissey, E.M.
Rosen, I.
Schweitzer, D.J.
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File 635: Germany: Administration, Financial, Haavara, 1935-1941
The Haavara Transfer Agreement concluded in 1933 permitted German Jews who wished to emigrate to Palestine under the capitalist category to take along up to $5,000. In March 1936, the International Trade and Investment Agency (Intria), was established in London in an attempt to stimulate the emigration of German Jews to Palestine and to enlarge the transfer possibilities. The Zentral Auschuss played an active role in the undertaking. In May 1938, the Transfer Agreement was extended to permit the sending of benevolent remittances to Germany and Austria at a favorable rate. The arrangement remained in effect until mid-1941. Status and Changes, Haavara Arrangements: 4/10/36, 4/14/36, 7/1/36, Sept. 1936, 10/7/36 Hyman to Renard, 10/13/36, 11/6/36, 11/10/36, 2/17/37, 3/3/37, 4/15/37, 6/16/37, 7/17/37-7/22/37, 9/29/37, 1/16/37, 11/29/37, 12/27/37, 2/16/38, 2/17/38, 3/11/38, May 1938, 7/12/38, 9/13/38, 2/27/39, 12/15/39, 1/4/40, 4/1/40, 5/31/40 Rosen to Morrissey, 3/20/41, 7/17/41. Also see below: File 678, brochure, "Five Years Immigration from Germany and the Haavara Transfer", Dr. Werner Feilchenfeld. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, H.K. Buchman, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, H. Katzki, E.M. Morrissey, R. Pilpel, I. Rosen, M. Schlesinger, D.J. Schweitzer.
Index Terms:
Administration
Baerwald, P.
Buchman, H.K.
Emigration
Financial
Germany
Haavara
Hyman, J.C.
International Trade and Investment Agency (Intria)
Kahn, B.
Katzki, H.
Morrissey, E.M.
Pilpel, R.
Rosen, I.
Schlesinger, M.
Schweitzer, D.J.
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File 636: Germany: Administration, Financial, Students Clearances, 1936; 1939 - 1944
Status and Changes, Students Clearances: 7/27/36, 3/18/40, 9/10/40, 11/27/40, 11/28/40, 8/22/41. Also see: Switzerland, Files 1,028-1,032. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, C.S. Bertheim, P. Meyerheim, E.M. Morrissey.
Index Terms:
Administration
Baerwald, P.
Bertheim, C.S.
Financial
Germany
Meyerheim, P.
Morrissey, E.M.
Students
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Series 2: Germany: Organizations
Council for German Jewry, London, see: England, Files 571-585. HICEM: See: Files 674-676. For additional materials, see: HIAS, Files 244-248. ICA, File 260. Emigration, Introduction, File 389. Anglo-HICEM, File 586. Hilfsverein der Juden in Deutschland, Berlin, see: Files 640-641. International Trade and Investment Agency, London (Intria), see: File 635 Juedische Heimspeisung, Berlin, 1933-1939, see: File 652. Palaestina Amt, see: Files 677-678. Reichsverinigung der Juden in Deutschland see: Files 642-644a. Reichsvertretung der deutschen Juden see: Files 642-644a. Reichsvertretung der Juden in Deutschland see: Files 642-644a. Trust and transfer Office Haavara Ltd., see: Haavara, File 635. Vereinigung fuer das religios-liberale Judentum, see: File 558, World Union for Progressive Judaism. Zentral Ausschuss der deutschen Juden fuer Hilfe and Aufbau, see: Files 645-651a. Zentralstelle fuer juedischer Darlehnskassen in Deutschland, 1934-1939, see: File 685.
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File 637: Germany: Organizations, General
Report: "The Structure of Jewish Emergency Relief in Germany-a Guide to Existing Institutions and Organizations", Status Dec. 1936, JDC Paris. (Plus two duplicate copies)
Index Terms:
Germany
Paris
Reports
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File 638: Germany: Organizations, Miscellaneous 1
1. Floersheimische Stiftung, Frankfurt a/Main, 1940-1942, Correspondence: N. Aronovici, R. Pilpel, O. Rocca S., L. Zelwer. 2. Gesellschaft zur Foerderung Wirtschftlicher Interessen von in Deutschland Wohnhaften oder Wohnhft Gewesenen Juden, Berlin, 1936-1937 (Society for the Promotion of Economic Interests of the Jewish Residents or Former Residents in German). 3. Israelitische Gartenbauschule, Ahlem, 1933-1934. For earlier materials, see: Archives 1921-1932, File 205, Correspondence: J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, M. Kreutzberger. 4. Juedische Gemeinde, Berlin, 1934, 1937. 5. Lehranstalt fuer die Wissenschaft des Judentums, Berlin, 1934-1941, Correspondence: C. Adler, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn.
Index Terms:
Adler, C.
Aronovici, N.
Berlin
Frankfurt a/Main
Germany
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, B.
Kreutzberger, M.
Pilpel, R.
Rocca S., O.
Society for the Promotion of Economic Interests of the Jewish Residents or Former Residents in Germany
Zelwer, L.
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File 639: Germany: Organizations, Miscellaneous 2
1. Samson Raphael Hirsch Schule, Frankfurt a/Main, 1933. 2. Thora-Lehranstalt Jeschiwah, Frankfurt a/Main, 1936-1939, Correspondence: C. Adler, P. Baerwald, M. Hackenbroch, J.C. Hyman, L. Jung, B. Kahn. 3. Union of Russian Jews in Berlin, 1934-1935. For earlier materials, see: Archives, 1921-1932, File 208. 4. Verein der Israelitische Realschule, Fuerth, 1933-1937. For earlier materials, see: Archives, 1921-1932, File 205, Correspondence: C. Adler, P. Baerwald, H.K. Buchman, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn. 5. Zentralwohlfahrtsstelle bei der Reichsvertretung der Juden in Deutschland, Berlin, 1934-1937. (Deals mainly with Juedische Winterhilfe)
Index Terms:
Adler, C.
Baerwald, P.
Berlin
Buchman, H.K.
Frankfurt a/Main
Germany
Hackenbroch, M.
Hyman, J.C.
Jung, L.
Kahn, B.
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File 640: Germany: Organizations, Hilfsverein der Juden in Deutschland, Emigration Statistics, 1936 - 1939
(Relief Organization of Jews in Germany) The Hilfsverein played a major role in international Jewish relief from the turn of the century until the close of W.W. I. In the Nazi era it focused on extending migration aid to German Jews going to countries other than Palestine. It was officially dissolved in 1939, but its activities continued until 1941 as an emigration section of the RdJD. On emigration assisted by the Hilfsverein: 5/25/36, 7/22/36, 9/30/36, 12/31/37, 9/6/38, 3/17/39.
Index Terms:
Emigration
Germany
Hilfsverein der Juden in Deutschland (Relief Organization of Jews in Germany)
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File 641: Germany: Organizations, Hilfsverein der Juden in Deutschland, Reports
(Relief Organization of Jews in Germany) The Hilfsverein played a major role in international Jewish relief from the turn of the century until the close of W.W. I. In the Nazi era it focused on extending migration aid to German Jews going to countries other than Palestine. It was officially dissolved in 1939, but its activities continued until 1941 as an emigration section of the RdJD. Korrespondenzblatt ueber Auswanderungs und Siedlungswesen, 1933-1935. Juedische Auswanderung, 1936, 1938.
Index Terms:
Germany
Hilfsverein der Juden in Deutschland (Relief Organization of Jews in Germany)
Reports
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File 642: Germany: Organizations, Reichsvereinigung der Juden in Deutschland (RdJD), General, 1935 - 1943
Reichsvereinigung der Juden in Deutschland (RdJD) (National Union of Jews in Germany) Reichsvertretung der deutschen Juden (RdJ) (National Representation of German Jews) Reichsvertretung der Juden in Deutschland (RJD) (National Representation of Jews in Germany). The RdJ was organized early in 1933. It became the RJD following a reorganization in April 1935, and the RdJD early in 1939. The Jewish communities (Berlin excepted) and the leading Jewish organizations in welfare, economic, education and emigration aid affiliated themselves with it. In Nov. 1936 they numbered twenty. The Zentral Auschuss became its leading arm in those fields, while the Jewish communities retained autonomy only in religious matters. The RJD closed briefly in Nov. 1938, but reopened soon after by order of the Gestapo. Early in 1939, it was reorganized by gov't decree and became the RdJD. Sole responsibility was vested in it for Jewish emigration, education and welfare aid. Until Pearl Harbor, the JDC was the chief source of the funds that came to it from abroad. The RdJD was finally dissolved in June 1943 when but a few thousand Jews were left in Germany. Dr. Leo Baeck was president of the RdJ, the RJD and the RdJD, from first to last. Organizations comprising the RJD, 10/8/36. Fin. Statements-Receipts and Expenditures: Jan.-Aug. 1940, 12/1/40; Jan.-Sept. 1940, 11/15/40; Jan.-Oct. 1941, 11/20/41; Annual 1941, 11/6/42. "The Origin of the RJD and its Activities", Yivo Colloquium 12/2/67-12/3/67. For additional materials, see below: Files 643-644. Correspondence: L. Baeck, P. Baerwald, C.S. Berliner, P. Epstein, J.C. Hyman, O. Hirsch, P. Meyerheim, M.C. Troper.
Index Terms:
Baeck, L.
Baerwald, P.
Berliner, C.S.
Epstein, P.
Financial
Germany
Hirsch, O.
Hyman, J.C.
Meyerheim, P.
National Representation of German Jews
National Representation of Jews in Germany
National Union of Jews in Germany
Reichsvereinigung der Juden in Deutschland (RdJD)
Reichsvertretung der Juden in Deutschland (RJD)
Reichsvertretung der deutschen Juden (RdJ)
Troper, M.C.
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File 643: Germany: Organizations, Reichsvereinigung der Juden in Deutschland (RdJD), Information Bulletins, 1933 - 1936
Reichsvereinigung der Juden in Deutschland (RdJD) (National Union of Jews in Germany) Reichsvertretung der deutschen Juden (RdJ) (National Representation of German Jews) Reichsvertretung der Juden in Deutschland (RJD) (National Representation of Jews in Germany) The RdJ was organized early in 1933. It became the RJD following a reorganization in April 1935, and the RdJD early in 1939. The Jewish communities (Berlin excepted) and the leading Jewish organizations in welfare, economic, education and emigration aid affiliated themselves with it. In Nov. 1936 they numbered twenty. The Zentral Auschuss became its leading arm in those fields, while the Jewish communities retained autonomy only in religious matters. The RJD closed briefly in Nov. 1938, but reopened soon after by order of the Gestapo. Early in 1939, it was reorganized by gov't decree and became the RdJD. Sole responsibility was vested in it for Jewish emigration, education and welfare aid. Until Pearl Harbor, the JDC was the chief source of the funds that came to it from abroad. The RdJD was finally dissolved in June 1943 when but a few thousand Jews were left in Germany. Dr. Leo Baeck was president of the RdJ, the RJD and the RdJD, from first to last. The Information Bulletins were published every few weeks, starting in May 1933. Until March 1935, they were prepared by the Zentralwohlfahrtsstelle der Juden in Deutschland (ZJD) and issued by the Z.A., and thereafter by the RJD. Some of the bulletins are accompanied by English translations or summaries of contents. The file also contains five bulletins (1933, May-June)issued by the Statistical Section of the ZJD, each with a brief summary of contents, in English. 1933: #1-16 (including a duplicate set); 1934: #1-9 and Index for 1933-1934; 1935: #1-11 and Index for 1935; 1936: #1-12.
Index Terms:
Germany
Information Bulletins
National Representation of Jews in Germany
National Union of Jews in Germany
Reichsvereinigung der Juden in Deutschland (RdJD)
Reichsvertretung der Juden in Deutschland (RJD)
Zentralwohlfahrtssetelle der Juden in Deutschland (ZJD)
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File 644: Germany: Organizations, Reichsvereinigung der Juden in Deutschland (RdJD), Reports
Reichsvereinigung der Juden in Deutschland (RdJD) (National Union of Jews in Germany) Reichsvertretung der deutschen Juden (RdJ) (National Representation of German Jews) Reichsvertretung der Juden in Deutschland (RJD) (National Representation of Jews in Germany) The RdJ was organized early in 1933. It became the RJD following a reorganization in April 1935, and the RdJD early in 1939. The Jewish communities (Berlin excepted) and the leading Jewish organizations in welfare, economic, education and emigration aid affiliated themselves with it. In Nov. 1936 they numbered twenty. The Zentral Auschuss became its leading arm in those fields, while the Jewish communities retained autonomy only in religious matters. The RJD closed briefly in Nov. 1938, but reopened soon after by order of the Gestapo. Early in 1939, it was reorganized by gov't decree and became the RdJD. Sole responsibility was vested in it for Jewish emigration, education and welfare aid. Until Pearl Harbor, the JDC was the chief source of the funds that came to it from abroad. The RdJD was finally dissolved in June 1943 when but a few thousand Jews were left in Germany. Dr. Leo Baeck was president of the RdJ, the RJD and the RdJD, from first to last. (Note: Reports with duplicate copies bear an asterisk.) 1937: Annual, in German and English; 1938: Annual, in German*; 1939: Annual, in German, and English*;
Index Terms:
Germany
National Representation of Jews in Germany
National Union of Jews in Germany
Reichsvereinigung der Juden in Deutschland (RdJD)
Reichsvertretung der Juden in Deutschland (RJD)
Reports
Zentralwohlfahrtssetelle der Juden in Deutschland (ZJD)
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File 644a: Germany: Organizations, Reichsvereinigung der Juden in Deutschland (RdJD), Reports and Information Bulletins, duplicate copies
Reichsvereinigung der Juden in Deutschland (RdJD) (National Union of Jews in Germany) Reichsvertretung der deutschen Juden (RdJ) (National Representation of German Jews) Reichsvertretung der Juden in Deutschland (RJD) (National Representation of Jews in Germany) The RdJ was organized early in 1933. It became the RJD following a reorganization in April 1935, and the RdJD early in 1939. The Jewish communities (Berlin excepted) and the leading Jewish organizations in welfare, economic, education and emigration aid affiliated themselves with it. In Nov. 1936 they numbered twenty. The Zentral Auschuss became its leading arm in those fields, while the Jewish communities retained autonomy only in religious matters. The RJD closed briefly in Nov. 1938, but reopened soon after by order of the Gestapo. Early in 1939, it was reorganized by gov't decree and became the RdJD. Sole responsibility was vested in it for Jewish emigration, education and welfare aid. Until Pearl Harbor, the JDC was the chief source of the funds that came to it from abroad. The RdJD was finally dissolved in June 1943 when but a few thousand Jews were left in Germany. Dr. Leo Baeck was president of the RdJ, the RJD and the RdJD, from first to last. Reports and Information Bulletins, duplicate copies.
Index Terms:
Germany
National Representation of Jews in Germany
National Union of Jews in Germany
Reichsvereinigung der Juden in Deutschland (RdJD)
Reichsvertretung der Juden in Deutschland (RJD)
Reports
Zentralwohlfahrtssetelle der Juden in Deutschland (ZJD)
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File 645: Germany: Organizations, Zentral Ausschuss der deutschen Juden fuer Hilfe und Aufbau (Z.A.), General, 1933 - 1934 (June)
Short Z.A. reports, in German with English translations or summaries: #1, 5/22/33. #2, 5/23/33. #3, 5/30/33. #4, July 1933. Z.A. Budget Proposals for 1934 first half, 12/14/33. Report on visit to the Z.A. by J.L. Cohen, 9/24/33. Also see: File 647, 4/1/33-12/31/33; File 648, 1/1/34-6/30/34. Correspondence: D.M. Bressler, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, M. Kreutzberger. Zentral Ausschuss der deutschen Juden fuer Hilfe und Aufbau (Z.A.) (Central Committee of the German Jews for Help and Reconstruction) The Z.A. was organized in April 1933 as an umbrella organization that coordinated the activities of established agencies in the fields of social welfare aid, economic assistance, emigration, education and professional and vocational training and retraining. It had many local branches and was strictly non-partisan. Dr. Leo Baeck served as Chairman. Ludwig Tietz was the first Executive Secretary, and following his untimely death he was succeeded by Max Kreutzberger (1934-1935), and Friedrich Borchardt (1935-1936). Between 1933-1937, the Z.A. received allocations from the JDC, the ICA, the Central British Fund, (CBF), and the Council for German Jewry (CGJ), in addition to funds raised locally in Germany. In those years, over one-half of the funds from abroad, $1,670,000, came from the JDC. The rest stemmed from the ICA, $686,000, the CBF, $468,000 and the CGJ, $376,000. In Nov. 1938, the Z.A. was closed along with every other Jewish organization. It never reopened, although selected affiliated organizations, e.g., the Hilfsverein der Juden in Deutschland, did reopen subsequently. They received a new affiliation, with the Reichsvereinigung der Juden in Deutschland.
Index Terms:
Bressler, D.M.
Central Committee of the German Jews for Help and Reconstruction
Germany
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, B.
Kreutzberger, M.
Reports
Zentral Ausschuss der deutschen Juden fuer Hilfe und Aufbau (Z.A.)
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File 646: Germany: Organizations, Zentral Ausschuss der deutschen Juden fuer Hilfe und Aufbau (Z.A.), General, 1934 (July) - 1938
On the aims and activities of the Z.A.: 9/30/34, 10/2/34, 10/19/34, 12/13/34, 3/20/35, 2/15/36, 3/26/37. English summaries of Z.A. Annual or Semi-Annual Reports: 1934, 2/25/35 CBF minutes; 1935: Fin. Report only 3/2/36; 1936: March 1937; 1937: 1/1/37-6/30/37, June 1937; for the full reports see below: Files 647-651. JDC allocations to the Z.A. for 1935: 1st half-$155,000 (6/13/35 draft memo), 2nd half-$180,000 (7/26/35). Correspondence: L. Baeck, F. Borchardt, M. Brodnitz, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, H. Katzki, M. Kreutzberger, E.M. Morrissey, M.C. Troper. Zentral Ausschuss der deutschen Juden fuer Hilfe und Aufbau (Z.A.) (Central Committee of the German Jews for Help and Reconstruction) The Z.A. was organized in April 1933 as an umbrella organization that coordinated the activities of established agencies in the fields of social welfare aid, economic assistance, emigration, education and professional and vocational training and retraining. It had many local branches and was strictly non-partisan. Dr. Leo Baeck served as Chairman. Ludwig Tietz was the first Executive Secretary, and following his untimely death he was succeeded by Max Kreutzberger (1934-1935), and Friedrich Borchardt (1935-1936). Between 1933-1937, the Z.A. received allocations from the JDC, the ICA, the Central British Fund, (CBF), and the Council for German Jewry (CGJ), in addition to funds raised locally in Germany. In those years, over one-half of the funds from abroad, $1,670,000, came from the JDC. The rest stemmed from the ICA, $686,000, the CBF, $468,000 and the CGJ, $376,000. In Nov. 1938, the Z.A. was closed along with every other Jewish organization. It never reopened, although selected affiliated organizations, e.g., the Hilfsverein der Juden in Deutschland, did reopen subsequently. They received a new affiliation, with the Reichsvereinigung der Juden in Deutschland.
Index Terms:
Baeck, L.
Borchardt, F.
Brodnitz, M.
Central Committee of the German Jews for Help and Reconstruction
Germany
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, B.
Katzki, H.
Kreutzberger, M.
Morrissey, E.M.
Reports
Troper, M.C.
Zentral Ausschuss der deutschen Juden fuer Hilfe und Aufbau (Z.A.)
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File 647: Germany: Organizations, Zentral Ausschuss der deutschen Juden fuer Hilfe und Aufbau (Z.A.), Reports, 1933
Reports: 4/1/33-12/31/33, in German and English Zentral Ausschuss der deutschen Juden fuer Hilfe und Aufbau (Z.A.) (Central Committee of the German Jews for Help and Reconstruction) The Z.A. was organized in April 1933 as an umbrella organization that coordinated the activities of established agencies in the fields of social welfare aid, economic assistance, emigration, education and professional and vocational training and retraining. It had many local branches and was strictly non-partisan. Dr. Leo Baeck served as Chairman. Ludwig Tietz was the first Executive Secretary, and following his untimely death he was succeeded by Max Kreutzberger (1934-1935), and Friedrich Borchardt (1935-1936). Between 1933-1937, the Z.A. received allocations from the JDC, the ICA, the Central British Fund, (CBF), and the Council for German Jewry (CGJ), in addition to funds raised locally in Germany. In those years, over one-half of the funds from abroad, $1,670,000, came from the JDC. The rest stemmed from the ICA, $686,000, the CBF, $468,000 and the CGJ, $376,000. In Nov. 1938, the Z.A. was closed along with every other Jewish organization. It never reopened, although selected affiliated organizations, e.g., the Hilfsverein der Juden in Deutschland, did reopen subsequently. They received a new affiliation, with the Reichsvereinigung der Juden in Deutschland.
Index Terms:
Central Committee of the German Jews for Help and Reconstruction
Germany
Reports
Zentral Ausschuss der deutschen Juden fuer Hilfe und Aufbau (Z.A.)
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File 648: Germany: Organizations, Zentral Ausschuss der deutschen Juden fuer Hilfe und Aufbau (Z.A.), Reports, 1934
Semi-Annual: 1/1/34-6/30/34, in German* and English* Semi-Annual: 7/1/34-12/31/34, in German and English* Zentral Ausschuss der deutschen Juden fuer Hilfe und Aufbau (Z.A.) (Central Committee of the German Jews for Help and Reconstruction) The Z.A. was organized in April 1933 as an umbrella organization that coordinated the activities of established agencies in the fields of social welfare aid, economic assistance, emigration, education and professional and vocational training and retraining. It had many local branches and was strictly non-partisan. Dr. Leo Baeck served as Chairman. Ludwig Tietz was the first Executive Secretary, and following his untimely death he was succeeded by Max Kreutzberger (1934-1935), and Friedrich Borchardt (1935-1936). Between 1933-1937, the Z.A. received allocations from the JDC, the ICA, the Central British Fund, (CBF), and the Council for German Jewry (CGJ), in addition to funds raised locally in Germany. In those years, over one-half of the funds from abroad, $1,670,000, came from the JDC. The rest stemmed from the ICA, $686,000, the CBF, $468,000 and the CGJ, $376,000. In Nov. 1938, the Z.A. was closed along with every other Jewish organization. It never reopened, although selected affiliated organizations, e.g., the Hilfsverein der Juden in Deutschland, did reopen subsequently. They received a new affiliation, with the Reichsvereinigung der Juden in Deutschland.
Index Terms:
Central Committee of the German Jews for Help and Reconstruction
Germany
Reports
Zentral Ausschuss der deutschen Juden fuer Hilfe und Aufbau (Z.A.)
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File 648a: Germany: Organizations, Zentral Ausschuss der deutschen Juden fuer Hilfe und Aufbau (Z.A.), Reports, 1934, Duplicates
Duplicate copies, German and English Zentral Ausschuss der deutschen Juden fuer Hilfe und Aufbau (Z.A.) (Central Committee of the German Jews for Help and Reconstruction) The Z.A. was organized in April 1933 as an umbrella organization that coordinated the activities of established agencies in the fields of social welfare aid, economic assistance, emigration, education and professional and vocational training and retraining. It had many local branches and was strictly non-partisan. Dr. Leo Baeck served as Chairman. Ludwig Tietz was the first Executive Secretary, and following his untimely death he was succeeded by Max Kreutzberger (1934-1935), and Friedrich Borchardt (1935-1936). Between 1933-1937, the Z.A. received allocations from the JDC, the ICA, the Central British Fund, (CBF), and the Council for German Jewry (CGJ), in addition to funds raised locally in Germany. In those years, over one-half of the funds from abroad, $1,670,000, came from the JDC. The rest stemmed from the ICA, $686,000, the CBF, $468,000 and the CGJ, $376,000. In Nov. 1938, the Z.A. was closed along with every other Jewish organization. It never reopened, although selected affiliated organizations, e.g., the Hilfsverein der Juden in Deutschland, did reopen subsequently. They received a new affiliation, with the Reichsvereinigung der Juden in Deutschland.
Index Terms:
Central Committee of the German Jews for Help and Reconstruction
Germany
Reports
Zentral Ausschuss der deutschen Juden fuer Hilfe und Aufbau (Z.A.)
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File 649: Germany: Organizations, Zentral Ausschuss der deutschen Juden fuer Hilfe und Aufbau (Z.A.), Reports, 1935
Annual: in German* and English* Supplement, in German, on the organization structure of the Z.A. Zentral Ausschuss der deutschen Juden fuer Hilfe und Aufbau (Z.A.) (Central Committee of the German Jews for Help and Reconstruction) The Z.A. was organized in April 1933 as an umbrella organization that coordinated the activities of established agencies in the fields of social welfare aid, economic assistance, emigration, education and professional and vocational training and retraining. It had many local branches and was strictly non-partisan. Dr. Leo Baeck served as Chairman. Ludwig Tietz was the first Executive Secretary, and following his untimely death he was succeeded by Max Kreutzberger (1934-1935), and Friedrich Borchardt (1935-1936). Between 1933-1937, the Z.A. received allocations from the JDC, the ICA, the Central British Fund, (CBF), and the Council for German Jewry (CGJ), in addition to funds raised locally in Germany. In those years, over one-half of the funds from abroad, $1,670,000, came from the JDC. The rest stemmed from the ICA, $686,000, the CBF, $468,000 and the CGJ, $376,000. In Nov. 1938, the Z.A. was closed along with every other Jewish organization. It never reopened, although selected affiliated organizations, e.g., the Hilfsverein der Juden in Deutschland, did reopen subsequently. They received a new affiliation, with the Reichsvereinigung der Juden in Deutschland.
Index Terms:
Central Committee of the German Jews for Help and Reconstruction
Germany
Reports
Zentral Ausschuss der deutschen Juden fuer Hilfe und Aufbau (Z.A.)
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File 650: Germany: Organizations, Zentral Ausschuss der deutschen Juden fuer Hilfe und Aufbau (Z.A.), Reports, 1936
Annual: in German and English Zentral Ausschuss der deutschen Juden fuer Hilfe und Aufbau (Z.A.) (Central Committee of the German Jews for Help and Reconstruction) The Z.A. was organized in April 1933 as an umbrella organization that coordinated the activities of established agencies in the fields of social welfare aid, economic assistance, emigration, education and professional and vocational training and retraining. It had many local branches and was strictly non-partisan. Dr. Leo Baeck served as Chairman. Ludwig Tietz was the first Executive Secretary, and following his untimely death he was succeeded by Max Kreutzberger (1934-1935), and Friedrich Borchardt (1935-1936). Between 1933-1937, the Z.A. received allocations from the JDC, the ICA, the Central British Fund, (CBF), and the Council for German Jewry (CGJ), in addition to funds raised locally in Germany. In those years, over one-half of the funds from abroad, $1,670,000, came from the JDC. The rest stemmed from the ICA, $686,000, the CBF, $468,000 and the CGJ, $376,000. In Nov. 1938, the Z.A. was closed along with every other Jewish organization. It never reopened, although selected affiliated organizations, e.g., the Hilfsverein der Juden in Deutschland, did reopen subsequently. They received a new affiliation, with the Reichsvereinigung der Juden in Deutschland.
Index Terms:
Central Committee of the German Jews for Help and Reconstruction
Germany
Reports
Zentral Ausschuss der deutschen Juden fuer Hilfe und Aufbau (Z.A.)
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File 651: Germany: Organizations, Zentral Ausschuss der deutschen Juden fuer Hilfe und Aufbau (Z.A.), Reports, 1937
Semi-Annual: 1/1/37 - 6/30/37, in English* Zentral Ausschuss der deutschen Juden fuer Hilfe und Aufbau (Z.A.) (Central Committee of the German Jews for Help and Reconstruction) The Z.A. was organized in April 1933 as an umbrella organization that coordinated the activities of established agencies in the fields of social welfare aid, economic assistance, emigration, education and professional and vocational training and retraining. It had many local branches and was strictly non-partisan. Dr. Leo Baeck served as Chairman. Ludwig Tietz was the first Executive Secretary, and following his untimely death he was succeeded by Max Kreutzberger (1934-1935), and Friedrich Borchardt (1935-1936). Between 1933-1937, the Z.A. received allocations from the JDC, the ICA, the Central British Fund, (CBF), and the Council for German Jewry (CGJ), in addition to funds raised locally in Germany. In those years, over one-half of the funds from abroad, $1,670,000, came from the JDC. The rest stemmed from the ICA, $686,000, the CBF, $468,000 and the CGJ, $376,000. In Nov. 1938, the Z.A. was closed along with every other Jewish organization. It never reopened, although selected affiliated organizations, e.g., the Hilfsverein der Juden in Deutschland, did reopen subsequently. They received a new affiliation, with the Reichsvereinigung der Juden in Deutschland.
Index Terms:
Central Committee of the German Jews for Help and Reconstruction
Germany
Reports
Zentral Ausschuss der deutschen Juden fuer Hilfe und Aufbau (Z.A.)
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Series 3: Germany: Subject Matter
Cultural and Religious: JDC cultural and religious expenditures for Germany came to $441,868 in all, and occurred between 1935 - 1941. The funds stemmed basically from the JDC appropriations to the Reichsvereinigung and to its successor, the Reichsvertretung. The major share of the funds went for the maintenance of primary and secondary education, and became a necessity in April 1935 when Jewish children were disbarred from attendance at German primary and secondary schools. 1935: $66,000; 1936: 81,000; 1937: 108,500; 1938: 90,500; 1939: $26,000; 1940: 50,368; 1941: 20,000; Total: $441,868. Emigration: Jewish emigration from Germany was negligible in size in the early 1930's. But the rise of Hitler touched off a great wave of it. An accurate record of emigration from Germany is non-existent, but the High Commissioner for Refugees of the League of Nations estimated the number at some 312,000 Jews, in the pattern outlined below. The number is on the conservative side, since thousands of Jews made their own travel and financial arrangements and presumably were not included. 1933: 51,700; 1934: 33,400; 1935: 27,400; 1936: 31,900; 1937: 23,500; 1938: 47,400; 1939: 68,000; 1940: 16,000; 1941: 13,000; Total: 312,300. The major areas of reception were: U.S.: 65,000; Palestine: 55,000; South America: 50,000; England: 40,000; France: 30,000; Shanghai: 16,000. Three Jewish agencies busied themselves with expediting emigration from inside Germany: the Palaestina Amt (To Palestine), the Hilfsverein der Juden in Deutschland (To overseas lands other than Palestine), and the Repatriation Committee of the Reichsvertretung (Hauptstelle fuer Juedische Wanderfuersorge). The latter aided non-German Jews in Germany to return to their native lands, e.g., Poland, Rumania et al, when the necessity arose. Transportation arrangements to overseas lands were handled via the HICEM. Between 1933 - 1940, the JDC, the ICA, the HIAS and the Council for German Jewry covered between them the transportation costs and landing fees expended by the HICEM on behalf of German refugees from Europe. For the rest of W.W. II, the JDC shouldered the transportation costs in major degree. Up to May 1940, German emigrants sailed to overseas lands from European ports, but the entry of Italy into the war, closed the Mediterranean to civilian shipping. For the next year or so, several thousand German emigrants came out of Europe via the Trans-Siberian R.R. to Vladivostok and thence overseas to Japanese ports. For sailings of vessels from those ports, see below, Sailings, Trans-Siberian Route. For sailings of vessels from European ports, see: Emigration, Files 369-389 The U.S. Consulates in Germany ceased to grant visas on 6/11/41, and closed their doors a month or so later, months in advance of Pearl Harbor. For additional materials on emigration from Germany, see: Germany, Z.A., Reports, Files 647-651; Germany,RdJD, Reports, File 644; Germany,HICEM, Files 674-676; 677-682; England, Anglo-Hicem, File 586; HIAS, Files 244-248; Emigration, Files 363 and ff. Sailings: The refugees who sailed to the Western hemisphere from Japanese ports (Kobe/Yokohama) stemmed from Germany, in major degree. Those who sailed westward from Portuguese, Spanish and North African ports came from many European countries, including Germany. For the sailings from Europe, see: Emigration, Files 369-389. Various sailings were beset with crises involving refugees who possessed valid visas to overseas countries, which were then disavowed by the governments in question upon the arrival of the refugees. Refugees who could not be landed were subject to return to Japan and to internment. In all these instances, the JDC and the local refugee committees succeeded in gaining temporary sanctuary somewhere, but only at the cost of wideranging effort and expense, out of all proportion to the number of persons affected. For additional materials, see: Files 363-365, and 659-663.
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File 652: Germany: Subject Matter, Canteens, 1934 - 1939
The Juedische Heimspeisung Berlin (formerly the Baerwald Kitchens) were established to provide impoverished gentle-folk with free meals served in a home setting. Mrs. Emil Baerwald was the driving force. In 1933, the JDC contributed DM 20,000 directly, while lesser sums in succeeding years were transmitted via the Z.A. Also see below: Files 648-650. Reports: 9/1/33 - 9/1/34, 1/1/34 - 12/31/34, 1/1/35 - 12/31/35, 7/1/35 - 7/1/36, Jan. 1934 - July 1936, 1/1/36 - 10/31/36, 1/1/36 - 12/31/36, 1/1/37 - 12/31/37. Correspondence: J.D. Baerwald, P. Baerwald, J.C. Hyman, D.J. Schweitzer
Index Terms:
Baerwald, J.D.
Baerwald, P.
Canteens
Germany
Hyman, J.C.
Reports
Schweitzer, D.J.
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File 653: Germany: Subject Matter, Children
Jewish child care in Germany, in the traditional sense, was provided by the Z.A. and subsequently by the Reichsvertretung. For materials, see: Z.A., File 647-650, Reichsvertretung, File 644. The materials in this file deal mainly with emigration problems of children and youth in moving to other countries. Reports and Memos: Emigration of Jewish Youth from Germany to Palestine by Dr. Leo Baeck, 4/1/35 attachment to 4/23/35. Jews in Germany and Austria by age, 12/2/38. Emigration of Jewish Children 4/1/33 - 7/31/39 attachment to 10/12/39. Correspondence: L. Baeck, I.S. Heller, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, M.J. Kohler, S. Lowenstein, E. Mittwoch.
Index Terms:
Baeck, L.
Children
Germany
Heller, I.S.
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, B.
Kohler, M.J.
Lowenstein, S.
Mittwoch, E.
Reports
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File 654: Germany: Subject Matter, Concentration Camps, 1935; 1944
Report on the treatment of repatriates in a concentration camp near Hamburg, 5/10/36. Report on Bergen-Belsen by Israel Taubes 1944, attached to 3/15/45. Note: An extensive correspondence on German concentration camps was conducted with JDC's European Headquarters first at Paris and subsequently at Lisbon. The Paris and Lisbon Archives have not survived.
Index Terms:
Concentration Camps
Germany
Reports
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File 655: Germany: Subject Matter, Cultural and Religious, General, 1933 - 1941
Brief Reports on Jewish Schools: 8/27/34, 2/25/36, 3/9/36 attachment. Jewish schools aided by the Reichsvertretung, 1/16/34 attachment to 2/23/34, 4/22/37. Jewish institutions of higher learning and their enrollments, 3/12/34. Notes on Jewish schools, 1940 (?). Also see below: Frankfurter Yeshiva (Rabbi Breuer): File 639. Lehranstalt fuer das Wissenschaft des Judentums: File 638. Samson Raphael Hirsch Schule, Frankfurt/Main: File 639. Verein der Israelitische Realschule, Fuerth: File 639. Zentral Ausschuss, Annual Reports 1933 - 1936: Files 647-650. Reichsvertretung, Annual Reports 1937 - 1939: File 644. Correspondence: C. Adler, P. Baerwald, F. Borchard, H.K. Buchman, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, M.A. Leavitt, E.M. Morrisse, J. Rosenheim, E.M. Warburg.
Index Terms:
Adler, C.
Baerwald, P.
Borchard, F.
Buchman, H.K.
Cultural and Religious
Germany
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, B.
Leavitt, M.A.
Morrissey, E.M.
National Representation of Jews in Germany
Reichsvertretung der Juden in Deutschland (RJD)
Reports
Rosenheim, J.
Schools
Warburg, E.M.
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File 656: Germany: Subject Matter, Cultural and Religious, Shechitah, 1936 - 1938
In 1935, the Nazi Gov't prohibited Schechitah in Germany, but limited quantities, at high prices, could be imported under existing trade agreements until the end of that year. Early in 1936, the JDC and the Central British Fund for German Jewry allocated $7,500 each, as matching grants, for importing kosher meats to Germany for Jewish hospitals, homes for the aged and children's homes which were orthodox. Subsequently, the JDC contributed $10,000 more via the Jewish Friends Food Fund, London, which was organized to conduct the activity. See Below: 8/31/37, 11/9/38. Correspondence: C. Adler, P. Baerwald, J. Hoffman, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, H. Katzki, E. Munk, J. Rosenheim, E. Silver.
Index Terms:
Adler, C.
Baerwald, P.
Central British Fund for German Jewry
Germany
Hoffman, J.
Hyman, J.C.
Jewish Friends Food Fund
Kahn, B.
Katzki, H.
London
Munk, E.
Rosenheim, J.
Shechitah
Silver, E.
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File 657: Germany: Subject Matter, Emigration, General, 1933 - 1937
On the status of emigration from Germany: 9/30/34, 12/12/34, 12/31/34, 11/19/35, 3/18/36, 4/2/36, 4/20/36, 5/25/36, 6/7/36, 9/30/36, 12/15/36, 2/26/37, 3/10/37, 10/28/37, 12/31/37(2). Informal discussions on emigration between J.C. Hyman and James McDonald, 11/13/33. Estimates of the number of non-Jewish emigrants from Germany, 4/30/37. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, D.M. Bressler, O.E. d'Avigdor Goldsmid, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, N. Katz, H. Katzki, C. Razovsky, M. Warburg.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, P.
Bressler, D.M.
Emigration
Germany
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, B.
Katz, N.
Katzki, H.
Razovsky, C.
Warburg, M.
d'Avigdor Goldsmid, O.E.
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File 658: Germany: Subject Matter, Emigration, General, 1938 - 1939
On the status of emigration from Germany: 9/6/38, 12/2/38, 5/15/39, 6/21/39, 7/3/39, 10/14/39. Reports on German emigration: "The Emigration of German Jews Since 1933", Kurt Zielenziger, 3/5/38; "A Survey of Overseas Countries into which Jews Have Immigrated During the Last Five Years", JDC June 1938; "Statistics of Jewish Emigration from Greater Germany April 1933 - 7/1/39", 8/1/39; Register of Names of German Emigrants 1933 - 1938, 8/9/39. Correspondence: W.L. Bein, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, H. Katzki, G.V. Tijn, M.C. Troper
Index Terms:
Bein, W.L.
Emigration
Germany
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, B.
Katzki, H.
Reports
Tijn, G.v.
Troper, M.C.
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File 659: Germany: Subject Matter, Emigration, General, 1940 (Jan.-July)
On the status of emigration from Germany (other than via Siberia: 1/3/40, 1/11/40, 1/18/40, 1/30/40, 4/13/40, 5/10/40, 5/31/40, 6/6/40(2), 6/7/40. Emigration via Trans-Siberian Route: 5/2/40, 6/3/40, 6/4/40, 6/6/40(2), 6/7/40, 6/12/40(3), 6/20/40(2), 6/21/40 RJD, 6/25/40 Leavitt to Haber, 7/1/40, 7/5/40(2), 7/18/40 Leavitt to Greenleigh. Also see below: Sailings, Files 667-673. Correspondence: J.C. Hyman, E.M. Morrissey, J.J. Schwartz, S. Trone, M.C. Troper.
Index Terms:
Emigration
Germany
Hyman, J.C.
Morrissey, E.M.
Schwartz, J.J.
Trans-Siberian Route
Trone, S.
Troper, M.C.
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File 660: Germany: Subject Matter, Emigration, General, 1940 (Aug.-Sept.)
Emigration via Trans-Siberian Route: 8/2/40, 8/4/40, 8/5/40, 8/8/40, 8/9/40, 8/14/40 Rosen to Greenleigh and Mund to the RJD, 7/24/40 attachment to 8/15/40, 7/17/40 attachment to 8/16/40, 8/19/40, 8/30/40, 9/5/40, 9/11/40, 9/12/40, 9/21/40, 9/28/40, 9/30/40 Hyman to Lebau. Also see below: Sailings, Individual ships. Correspondence: E. Baerwald, J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt, R. Pilpel.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, E.
Emigration
Germany
Hyman, J.C.
Leavitt, M.A.
Pilpel, R.
Trans-Siberian Route
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File 661: Germany: Subject Matter, Emigration, General, 1940 (Oct.-Dec.)
On the status of emigration from Germany (other than via Siberia): 10/25/40, 11/6/40 memo, 11/12/40, 11/23/40 memo. Emigration via Trans-Siberian Route: 10/9/40, 10/11/40 JDC to Vienna, 10/25/40 N.Y. to Yokohama, 11/6/40 memo, 11/6/40 cable Berlin to N.Y., 11/13/40 Rosen to Zien, 11/20/40 Rosen to Quito, 11/23/40 memo, 11/25/40 Steinfeld to JDC, 11/26/40 Rosen to Greenleigh, 12/12/40. Correspondence: J.C. Hyman, R. Pilpel, I. Rosen, R. Sundel.
Index Terms:
Berlin
Emigration
Germany
Hyman, J.C.
New York (N.Y.)
Pilpel, R.
Rosen, I.
Sundel, R.
Trans-Siberian Route
Vienna
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File 662: Germany: Subject Matter, Emigration, General, 1941 (Jan. -March)
On the status of emigration from Germany (other than via Siberia): 1/7/41, 2/18/41, 3/6/41 Leavitt to Strull, 3/6/41 Schwartz - Leavitt, 3/15/41, 3/24/41. Emigration via Trans-Siberian Route: 1/23/41 cable Berlin to N.Y., 1/24/41 cable Kobe to N.Y., 2/10/41 Pilpel to Weinstein, 2/18/41, 2/19/41 Yokohama to JDC, 3/6/41 Leavitt to Shanghai, 3/14/41, 3/24/41, 3/25/41 letter Osaka Line. Correspondence: M.A. Leavitt, E.M. Morrissey, R. Pilpel, I. Rosen, S. Tarashanski.
Index Terms:
Berlin
Emigration
Germany
Leavitt, M.A.
Morrissey, E.M.
New York (N.Y.)
Pilpel, R.
Rosen, I.
Shanghai
Tarashanski, S.
Trans-Siberian Route
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File 663: Germany: Subject Matter, Emigration, General, 1941 (April-July)
On the status of emigration from Germany (other than via Siberia): 4/4/41, 4/8/41, 4/25/41, 6/3/41 Berliner to Borchardt, 6/4/41, 6/12/41, 6/16/41, 6/18/41(3), 7/3/41 Pilpel to Frieder, 7/15/41. Emigration via Trans-Siberian Route: 4/25/41, 5/5/41, 5/15/41. Correspondence: C. Berliner, J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt, R. Pilpel, M.C. Troper.
Index Terms:
Berliner, C.
Emigration
Germany
Hyman, J.C.
Leavitt, M.A.
Pilpel, R.
Trans-Siberian Route
Troper, M.C.
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File 664: Germany: Subject Matter, Emigration, General, 1941 Aug. - 1945
On the status of emigration from Germany: 8/1/41, 8/8/41, 8/25/41, 11/3/41, 11/4/41, 11/5/41, 11/11/41 11/24/41, 12/1/41, 2/27/42, 5/24/43, 6/7/43. Table of Jewish Emigration 1933 - 1941, 11/19/42. Correspondence: C. Berliner, H. Katski, M.A. Leavitt, J.J. Schwartz, M. Siegel.
Index Terms:
Berliner, C.
Emigration
Germany
Katski, H.
Leavitt, M.A.
Schwartz, J.J.
Siegel, M.
Trans-Siberian Route
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File 665: Germany: Subject Matter, Emigration, Baggage Expenses, 1940 - 1941
On numerous occasions, the baggage of refugees who were migrating overseas was delayed en route and reached the port of embarkation after the owners had sailed. Severe financial problems often followed in the attempt to reunite refugees and their baggage. Also see: Sailings, SS St. Louis, File 382. Correspondence: A.D. Greenleigh, A.J. Lindo, R. Pilpel, P. Schoenholz, S. Treguboff.
Index Terms:
Baggage
Emigration
Germany
Greenleigh, A.D.
Lindo, A.J.
Pilpel, R.
Refugees
Schoenholz, P.
Treguboff, S.
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File 666: Germany: Subject Matter, Emigration, Panic Emigration
Reports and Memos: SS Imperial, 1/12/39. "Bound for Nowhere, Disorganized Panic Migration", by Cecilia Razovsky, 3/9/39. SS Conte Grande, 3/15/39 Hirsch to Hyman, 4/14/39. Verbatim extract from JDC officers meeting, 3/15/39 attachment to 3/23/39. Panic Migration, 3/30/39 (List and itineraries of boats). SS St. Louis, 6/21/39(3), 6/23/39, July 1939 (JDC Bulletin); for additional materials, see: SS St. Louis, Files 378-386. Notes on Status of Jewish Refugees from Germany in Various European Countries, by H. Katzki, 7/5/39. Also see: Illegal Emigration, Files 679-681. Correspondence: A. Hirsch. J.C. Hyman, H. Katzki, R. Pilpel, C. Razovsky, J.N. Rosenberg.
Index Terms:
Emigration
Germany
Hirsch, A.
Hyman, J.C.
Katzki, H.
Pilpel, R.
Razovsky, C.
Refugees
Reports
Rosenberg, J.N.
SS Imperial
SS St. Louis
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File 667: Germany: Subject Matter, Emigration, Sailings, Trans-Siberian Route, General
The General file contains only lists of refugees who sailed to the Western hemisphere from Japanese ports on the ships named. The files on individual sailings that are cited below contain correspondence as well. In addition, the general file contains a few lists of overland travelers to Shanghai, via the Trans-Siberian R.R. President Lines (U.S.): President Cleveland, 9/9/40, 10/7/40, April 1941; City of Los Angeles, 9/22/40; President Pierce, 10/21/40. Japanese Lines: Tatuta Maru, 6/28/40; Kamakura Maru, 7/13/40, 9/15/40, June 1941; Argentina Maru, 7/15/40; Hikawa Maru, 7/22/40, 9/7/40, 6/5/41; Nitta Maru, 7/29/40, 10/17/40; Heian Maru, 8/14/40, 10/16/40, 4/2/41; Asama Maru, 8/16/40, 10/4/40; Yawata Maru, 8/31/40, 10/24/40, April 1941; Brazil Maru, 9/15/40; Yasukuni Maru, 10/28/40.
Index Terms:
Argentina Maru
Asama Maru
Brazil Maru
City of Los Angeles
Germany
Heian Maru
Hikawa Maru
Kamakura Maru
List
Nitta Maru
President Cleveland
President Pierce
Refugees
Sailings
Shanghai
Tatuta Maru
Trans-Siberian Route
Yasukuni Maru
Yawata Maru
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File 668: Germany: Subject Matter, Emigration, Sailings, Trans-Siberian Route, Buenos Aires Maru
Sailings: 8/13/40, Yokohama - South America; 1/21/40, Yokohama - South America. Passenger lists: 8/13/40, 2/8-9-10/41, 6/24/41.
Index Terms:
Buenos Aires Maru
Germany
List
Sailings
South America
Trans-Siberian Route
Yokohama
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File 669: Germany: Subject Matter, Emigration, Sailings, Trans-Siberian Route, Ginyo Maru
Sailings: 10/24/40, Yokohama - South America; April (?) 1941, Yokohama - South America. Passenger lists: 10/24/40, 5/13/41. On the 10/24/40 voyage, 16 refugees were denied landing permits in Panama on the ground that their transit visas for that country, en route to their destinations, were invalid. When the ship sailed from Panama on the way to South American ports, it carried the refugees with them. Shipment back to Japan and internment there faced them unless the JDC could find a sanctuary country. The JDC, acting through local refugee committees in various countries, launched wide-ranging efforts to find at least a temporary haven, by guaranteeing refugee maintenance costs ashore. Several countries had already denied landing permission when Ecuador granted a temporary landing permit at Salinas. From there, the refugees were able to make their way individually to the countries of their destination. Correspondence: S. Lubrainschik, A. Mayerson, R. Pilpel, L. Zelwer.
Index Terms:
Ecuador
Germany
Ginyo Maru
List
Lubrainschik, S.
Mayerson, A.
Panama
Pilpel, R
Refugees
Sailings
South America
Trans-Siberian Route
Yokohama
Zelwer, L.
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File 670: Germany: Subject Matter, Emigration, Sailings, Trans-Siberian Route, Heiyo Maru
Sailings: 10/1/40, Yokohama - South America; 2/13/41, Yokohama - South America; 6/29/41, Yokohama - South America. Passenger lists: 10/1/40, 3/4/41, 7/18/41. On the voyage of 10/1/40, all but 2 of the 105 refugees aboard reached the countries of their destination. Those two carried Chilean visas which the Chilean Gov't disavowed. JDC attempts to find them a temporary haven all failed, and their return to Japan and internment became inevitable. Help arrived at the 12th hour, when the ship touched at Los Angeles, on the return trip to Yokohama. Arrangements were completed there to permit the refugees to land in the Philippines. Correspondence: A. Fishzohn, M. Glikovsky, S. Lubrainschik, R. Pilpel, O. Rocca S., S. Treguboff, L. Zelwer.
Index Terms:
Fishzohn, A.
Germany
Glikovsky, M.
Heiyo Maru
List
Los Angeles
Lubrainschik, S.
Philippines
Pilpel, R.
Refugees
Rocca S., O.
Sailings
South America
Trans-Siberian Route
Treguboff, S.
Yokohama
Zelwer, L.
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File 671: Germany: Subject Matter, Emigration, Sailings, Trans-Siberian Route, Hie Maru
Sailings: 9/26/40, Yokohama to South America; Nov. 1940, Kobe to South America. Passenger lists: 9/26/40, 12/10/40 attachment. On the Nov. 1940 voyage, 32 refugees were denied landing permits in Panama, and had to continue with this ship to South America. In the next few weeks, the JDC and its local refugees found sanctuary for 14 refugees, but the other 18 lacked prospects. After wide-ranging efforts, temporary landing permits in Ecuador were finally obtained, when the JDC agreed to cover all maintenance costs ashore. From Ecuador, the refugees were able subsequently to make their way individually to the countries of their destination. Correspondence: S. Lubrainschik, R. Pilpel, O. Rocca S., L. Zelwer.
Index Terms:
Ecuador
Germany
Hie Maru
Kobe
List
Lubrainschik, S.
Panama
Pilpel, R.
Refugees
Rocca S., O.
Sailings
South America
Trans-Siberian Route
Yokohama
Zelwer, L.
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File 672: Germany: Subject Matter, Emigration, Sailings, Trans-Siberian Route, Montevideo Maru
Sailing: 11/21/40, Kobe - South America. There were 120 refugees aboard, but when the vessel reached Panama the Panamanian Gov't disavowed the transit visas held by 14 passengers, on the ground that their visas were based on Haitian visas which that gov't had previously revoked. When the M.M. neared Montevideo, the Uruguan Gov't granted permission for a temporary landing, but revoked it at the last moment. Finally, the Argentine Gov't permitted the 14 refugees to land. They were interned at Buenos Aires for over 10 months and then proceeded to Montevideo, when the Uruguyan Gov't reversed course a second time and granted them temporary visas. Correspondence: M.A. Leavitt, R. Pilpel, P. Zander.
Index Terms:
Buenos Aires
Germany
Kobe
Leavitt, M.A.
Montevideo
Montevideo Maru
Panama
Pilpel, R.
Refugees
Sailings
South America
Trans-Siberian Route
Zander, P.
#Return to Top
File 673: Germany: Subject Matter, Emigration, Sailings, Trans-Siberian Route, Rakuyo Maru
Sailings: 8/4/40, Yokohama - South America; Jan. 1941, Yokohama - South America; 2/8/41, Kobe - South America; June 1940, Yokohama, South America. Passenger lists: 8/4/40, 1/28/41, 2/8/41, 6/23/41. On the 8/4/40 sailing, 8 refugees were denied admission to Chile although they bore valid Chilean visas. They were headed back to Japan and internment when the Ecuador Gov't granted landing permission. At the last moment, that gov't revoked it, but ultimately, the refugees landed informally in Mexico, with the aid of the JDC. Correspondence: F.W. Borchardt, M.A. Leavitt, S. Lubrainschik, P. Lisker, R. Pilpel, O. Rocca S., L. Zelwer.
Index Terms:
Borchardt, F.W.
Chile
Germany
Kobe
Leavitt, M.A.
Lisker, P.
List
Lubrainschik, S.
Mexico
Pilpel, R.
Rakuyo Maru
Refugees
Rocca S., O.
Sailings
South America
Trans-Siberian Route
Yokohama
Zelwar, L.
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File 674: Germany: Subject Matter, Emigration, HICEM, 1934 - 1939
Reports: Activities in Favour of German Refugees March 1933 - 3/31/34, undated; March 1933 - Oct. 1934, undated. Statistical tables of Emigration: 1/1/34 - 12/31/34, 5/15/33 - 9/30/35, 1/1/33 - 8/31/36, 1/1/36 - 9/30/36, 1/1/37 - 10/31/37, 1933 - 1937, April 1933 - 7/1/39, 8/1/39. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, N. Bentwich, J. Bernstein, O.E. d'Avigdor Goldsmid, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, O. Schiff, M. Stephany. The HICEM was established by the HIAS and the ICA to aid in preparing refugees for emigration and in helping them to settle in other lands. It was an operating agency with no funds of its own. Its seat was in Paris. Between 1933 - 1940, the ICA, the HIAS, the British Council for German Jewry, and the JDC covered all the transportation costs and landing fees expended by the HICEM on behalf of German refugees from Europe, while the HIAS and the ICA covered the costs of administration. During W.W. II, the JDC shouldered the transportation costs in overwhelming degree, while the HIAS contributed to those costs and shouldered the administration costs in full. When W.W. II broke out, HICEM, as a French agency, was unable to transmit funds out of that country and, as a temporary measure, the Amsterdam Committee for Jewish Refugees took over its activities for Germany. Early in 1940, HICEM resumed its services out of Brussels and conducted activities until the Nazi invasion of Belgium in May. For additional materials on the HICEM, see below: EUREXCO Reports, Files 188-191. HIAS, Files 244-248. ICA, File 260. Emigration, Introduction, File 363. England, Anglo-HICEM, File 586.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, P.
Bentwich, N.
Bernstein, J.
Emigration
Germany
HIAS-ICA Emigration Association (HICEM)
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, B.
Refugees
Reports
Schiff, O.
Stephany, M.
d'Avigdor Goldsmid, O.E.
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File 675: Germany: Subject Matter, Emigration, HICEM, 1940 (Jan.-July)
Reports: HICEM activities, 1/3/40, 2/14/40. HICEM budgetary forecast for 1940, 1/5/40. Tables of emigration: 1939, 6/6/40, Tables of emigration: 1939, 6/6/40, 1/1/40 - 3/31/40, 4/15/40. HICEM overseas committees, attachment to 2/18/40. Correspondence: J. Bernstein, M.C. Goldsmith, S. Hochschild, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, R. Pilpel, I. Rosen, J.J. Schwartz, G.v. Tijn, M.C. Troper. The HICEM was established by the HIAS and the ICA to aid in preparing refugees for emigration and in helping them to settle in other lands. It was an operating agency with no funds of its own. Its seat was in Paris. Between 1933 - 1940, the ICA, the HIAS, the British Council for German Jewry, and the JDC covered all the transportation costs and landing fees expended by the HICEM on behalf of German refugees from Europe, while the HIAS and the ICA covered the costs of administration. During W.W. II, the JDC shouldered the transportation costs in overwhelming degree, while the HIAS contributed to those costs and shouldered the administration costs in full. When W.W. II broke out, HICEM, as a French agency, was unable to transmit funds out of that country and, as a temporary measure, the Amsterdam Committee for Jewish Refugees took over its activities for Germany. Early in 1940, HICEM resumed its services out of Brussels and conducted activities until the Nazi invasion of Belgium in May. For additional materials on the HICEM, see below: EUREXCO Reports, Files 188-191. HIAS, Files 244-248. ICA, File 260. Emigration, Introduction, File 363. England, Anglo-HICEM, File 586.
Index Terms:
Bernstein, J.
Emigration
Germany
Goldsmith, M.C.
HIAS-ICA Emigration Association (HICEM)
Hochschild, S.
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, B.
Pilpel, R.
Reports
Rosen, I.
Schwartz, J.J.
Tijn, G.v.
Troper, M.C.
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File 676: Germany: Subject Matter, Emigration, HICEM, 1941 (July) - 1942
Reports: Extract from the HICEM budget estimate for 1/1/42 - 6/30/42, 11/10/41. Activities of HICEM Marseille 9/1/41 - 12/31/41, 3/26/42. HICEM activities in Europe 1/1/42 - 3/26/42. Analysis of HICEM Steamship Sailings as of 4/30/42, 7/22/42. Correspondence: J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt, R. Pilpel, J.J. Schwartz. The HICEM was established by the HIAS and the ICA to aid in preparing refugees for emigration and in helping them to settle in other lands. It was an operating agency with no funds of its own. Its seat was in Paris. Between 1933 - 1940, the ICA, the HIAS, the British Council for German Jewry, and the JDC covered all the transportation costs and landing fees expended by the HICEM on behalf of German refugees from Europe, while the HIAS and the ICA covered the costs of administration. During W.W. II, the JDC shouldered the transportation costs in overwhelming degree, while the HIAS contributed to those costs and shouldered the administration costs in full. When W.W. II broke out, HICEM, as a French agency, was unable to transmit funds out of that country and, as a temporary measure, the Amsterdam Committee for Jewish Refugees took over its activities for Germany. Early in 1940, HICEM resumed its services out of Brussels and conducted activities until the Nazi invasion of Belgium in May. For additional materials on the HICEM, see below: EUREXCO Reports, Files 188-191. HIAS, Files 244-248. ICA, File 260. Emigration, Introduction, File 363. England, Anglo-HICEM, File 586.
Index Terms:
Germany
HIAS-ICA Emigration Association (HICEM)
Hyman, J.C.
Leavitt, M.A.
Pilpel, R.
Reports
Sailings
Schwartz, J.J.
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File 677: Germany: Subject Matter, Emigration, Palestine, General, 1933 - 1936
General Status: 8/9/33, 10/13/34(2), 10/16/34, 10/27/34, 10/29/34, 11/3/34(2), 11/7/34, 1/18/35 - 3/4/35 Rosenberg to Baerwald, 3/8/35 - 3/15/35 Adler to Hyman, 3/19/35, 3/21/35, 5/11/35 - 12/6/35, 3/17/36, 3/20/36 - 4/6/36, 5/21/36, 6/26/36 Statistics: Jan. 1933 - June 1934, 7/15/34; 1925 - 1934 (Oct.), 11/22/34; Comparative figures for 1933 and 1934, 12/31/34; 1933 - 1934, 3/15/35; Jan. 1933 - Sept. 1935, 1/13/36; 1/1/33 - 12/31/35, Feb. 1935 and 3/27/36 attachment to 4/10/36; 5/19/36; 1/1/33 - 6/30/36, August 1936. Reports: Summary of "Report on Jewish Immigration from Germany to Palestine in 1933 and 1934", W. Senator, 4/4/35. "The Emigration of German-Jewish Children and Youth to Palestine", Leo Baeck, 4/1/35 attachment to 4/23/35. Report #3, "Youth Emigration from Germany to Palestine", March 1935. "The Immigration of German Jews into Palestine", 3/11/36 attachment to 3/16/36. Also see: Z.A., Files 647-650. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, S. Brodetsky, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, M. Kreutzberger, G. Landauer, J.B. Lightman, E.M. Morrissey, M. Rosenblueth, Herbert Samuel, F. Warburg, W. Senator.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, P.
Brodetsky, S.
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, B.
Kreutzberger, M.
Landauer, G.
Lightman, J.B.
Morrissey, E.M.
Palestine
Reports
Rosenblueth, M.
Samuel, Herbert
Senator, W.
Warburg, F.
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File 678: Germany: Subject Matter, Emigration, Palestine, General, 1937 - 1941
General Status: 12/2/38, 6/15/39, 6/23/39, 9/27/39, 10/9/39, 11/4/39, 1/30/40, 1/15/41. Statistics: 1/1/37 - 11/30/37, 1/7/38. 1933 - 1937, Feb. 1938, 4/12/38. 1933 - 1939, 11/29/39, 3/30/40(2). 1933 - 1940, 1/16/41, Feb. 1941. Reports: Five Years Jewish Emigration from Germany and the Haavara Transfer 1933 - 1938, W. Feilchenfeld. The German Aliyah 1939, in German and Hebrew; English summary, 8/8/39. Palestine and Jewish Emigration from Germany, 1939. Also see: Reichsvertretung, File 644. Correspondence: O.E. d'Avigdor Goldsmid, J.C. Hyman, H. Katzki, B. Kahn, M.A. Leavitt, M.C. Troper, C. Weizmann, S.S. Wise.
Index Terms:
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, B.
Katzki, H.
Leavitt, M.A.
Palestine
Reports
Troper, M.C.
Weizmann, C.
Wise, S.S.
d'Avigdor Goldsmid, O.E.
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File 679: Germany: Subject Matter, Emigration, Palestine, Illegal Immigration, 1939-1940 (Aug.)
Reports and memos on illegal immigration: 6/15/39, 7/24/39, 8/22/39, 10/9/39(2), 1/25/40, 1/30/40(2), 2/8/40, 2/14/40, 2/19/40(2), 2/26/40, 2/27/40 attachment, 5/7/40, 8/30/40. JDC aid for refugees on stranded or shipwrecked vessels: $10,000 for refugees stranded on the Isle of Rhodes, 8/22/39. $10,000 for ships stranded in Rumania, 1/5/40. $55,000 for Kladovo refugees, 5/7/40. For additional materials, see: SS Rim: Italy, File 721; Kladovo: SM Archives, File 31. Correspondence: E. Ben-Horin, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, I. Millstein, J.J. Schwartz, S. Spitzer, B. Storfer, M.C. Troper, M. Ussoskin. Illegal immigration to Palestine, in groups and through private initiative, began in 1936 on the momentum of the Arab attacks on Jewish settlements. It accelerated after the Anschluss and the breakup of Czechoslovakia. During W.W. II it had its up and downs as the fortunes of war shifted. In great part, particularly in the war years, the vessels employed were ancient and decrepit tubs that were lamentably unseaworthy. Gross overcrowding was frequent, and sanctuary and cooking facilities were conspicuous for their scarcity. As a point of policy, the JDC granted no funds for illegal immigration and refused to participate in the planning, 8/11/39, 9/11/39, 10/9/39, 1/23/40 Hyman to Troper, 1/23/40 Hyman to Montor. However, when disaster struck vessels en route to Palestine which were engaged in the traffic, the JDC did provide sizeable allocations for relief aid, in many instances. The major episodes described in these files pertain to: the SS Rim and the Isle of Rhodes 1939 and following, the Kladovo affair 1939 - 1941, the SS Milo, the SS Atlantic and the SS Pacific 1940, the SS Pencho 1940, the SS Salvador 1940, and the internees on the Island of Mauritius 1941 - 1945. The latter group were on the SS Atlantic. The ship was intercepted by the British authorities when it sought to land in Palestine in Nov. 1941. The refugees were interned on the Island of Mauritius and remained there for the duration of the war in harsh circumstances. For materials on the SS Struma 1941, see: File 389. For the SS Rim and the SS Pencho, see: Italy, File 721; for the Kladovo affair; also see: SM Archives, File 31.
Index Terms:
Ben-Horin, E.
Hyman, J.C.
Illegal Immigration
Isle of Rhodes
Kahn, B.
Kladovo
Millstein, I.
Palestine
Refugees
Reports
Rumania
Schwartz, J.J.
Spitzer, S.
Storfer, B.
Troper, M.C.
Ussoskin, M.
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File 680: Germany: Subject Matter, Emigration, Palestine, Illegal Immigration
Reports and memos on illegal immigration: 10/16/40, 10/25/40 and attachment 9/24/40, 10/27/40 attachment to 10/31/40, 11/6/40 and attachments, 11/23/40 - 11/26/40, 12/3/40, 12/4/40(2) Morrissey to Troper, 12/14/40 - 12/16/40, 1/16/41(2), 1/17/41, 1/20/41, 2/6/41 - 2/13/41, 2/18/41 - 2/20/41, 3/25/41, 4/7/41, 4/17/41, 5/13/41. Correspondence: E. Ben-Horin, J. Blum, N. Goldmann, S.B. Jacobson, B. Kahn, M.A. Leavitt, J.J. Schwartz, M.C. Troper. Illegal immigration to Palestine, in groups and through private initiative, began in 1936 on the momentum of the Arab attacks on Jewish settlements. It accelerated after the Anschluss and the breakup of Czechoslovakia. During W.W. II it had its up and downs as the fortunes of war shifted. In great part, particularly in the war years, the vessels employed were ancient and decrepit tubs that were lamentably unseaworthy. Gross overcrowding was frequent, and sanctuary and cooking facilities were conspicuous for their scarcity. As a point of policy, the JDC granted no funds for illegal immigration and refused to participate in the planning, 8/11/39, 9/11/39, 10/9/39, 1/23/40 Hyman to Troper, 1/23/40 Hyman to Montor. However, when disaster struck vessels en route to Palestine which were engaged in the traffic, the JDC did provide sizeable allocations for relief aid, in many instances. The major episodes described in these files pertain to: the SS Rim and the Isle of Rhodes 1939 and following, the Kladovo affair 1939 - 1941, the SS Milo, the SS Atlantic and the SS Pacific 1940, the SS Pencho 1940, the SS Salvador 1940, and the internees on the Island of Mauritius 1941 - 1945. The latter group were on the SS Atlantic. The ship was intercepted by the British authorities when it sought to land in Palestine in Nov. 1941. The refugees were interned on the Island of Mauritius and remained there for the duration of the war in harsh circumstances. For materials on the SS Struma 1941, see: File 389. For the SS Rim and the SS Pencho, see: Italy, File 721; for the Kladovo affair; also see: SM Archives, File 31.
Index Terms:
Ben-Horin, E.
Blum, J.
Goldmann, N.
Illegal Immigration
Jacobson, S.B.
Kahn, B.
Leavitt, M.A.
Palestine
Reports
Schwartz, J.J.
Troper, M.C.
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File 681: Germany: Subject Matter, Emigration, Palestine, Illegal Immigration, 1941 (July) - 1945
Correspondence and memo on illegal immigrants interned on Island of Mauritius: 7/10/41, 9/18/41 and attachments, 10/15/41 and attachments, Interim Report 12/26/40 - 9/30/41, 4/16/42, 6/11/43, 2/5/44, 2/28/44, 3/14/44, 3/17/44, 4/3/44 - 4/19/44, 5/11/44 and attachments, 5/30/44 - 8/22/44, 9/6/44 - 9/15/44, Interim Report 10/1/43 - 9/30/44, 10/12/44, 10/17/44 - 11/27/44. Reports and memos on other illegal immigrants: 8/1/41, 9/10/41, 12/18/42. Correspondence: H.K. Buchman, M.A. Leavitt, J. Meyer, J.J. Schwartz, M. Stephany. Illegal immigration to Palestine, in groups and through private initiative, began in 1936 on the momentum of the Arab attacks on Jewish settlements. It accelerated after the Anschluss and the breakup of Czechoslovakia. During W.W. II it had its up and downs as the fortunes of war shifted. In great part, particularly in the war years, the vessels employed were ancient and decrepit tubs that were lamentably unseaworthy. Gross overcrowding was frequent, and sanctuary and cooking facilities were conspicuous for their scarcity. As a point of policy, the JDC granted no funds for illegal immigration and refused to participate in the planning, 8/11/39, 9/11/39, 10/9/39, 1/23/40 Hyman to Troper, 1/23/40 Hyman to Montor. However, when disaster struck vessels en route to Palestine which were engaged in the traffic, the JDC did provide sizeable allocations for relief aid, in many instances. The major episodes described in these files pertain to: the SS Rim and the Isle of Rhodes 1939 and following, the Kladovo affair 1939 - 1941, the SS Milo, the SS Atlantic and the SS Pacific 1940, the SS Pencho 1940, the SS Salvador 1940, and the internees on the Island of Mauritius 1941 - 1945. The latter group were on the SS Atlantic. The ship was intercepted by the British authorities when it sought to land in Palestine in Nov. 1941. The refugees were interned on the Island of Mauritius and remained there for the duration of the war in harsh circumstances. For materials on the SS Struma 1941, see: File 389. For the SS Rim and the SS Pencho, see: Italy, File 721; for the Kladovo affair; also see: SM Archives, File 31.
Index Terms:
Buchman, H.K.
Illegal Immigration
Island of Mauritius
Leavitt, M.A.
Meyer, J.
Palestine
Reports
Schwartz, J.J.
Stephany, M.
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File 682: Germany: Subject Matter, Emigration, Palestine, Youth Aliyah
General status: 3/16/36, 3/19/36, 2/27/37, 4/20/38 - 5/5/38, 6/17/38, 6/20/38, 9/16/38, 1/4/39, 1/17/39, 10/2/39, 1/9/40. Reports: Work of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft fuer Kinder und Jugend Aliyah, Dr. Leo Baeck, undated attachment to 4/23/35. Excerpt from report by B. Kahn on the Jews in Germany, 11/6/35. Publications: Youth Emigration from Germany to Palestine, Report #3, March 1935. Zur eroeffnung der Ludwig Tietz Lehrwerkstaette in Jager, 1937 (July). For other materials 1939 - 1944, see: Palestine, File 770. 1941 - 1945, SM Archives, Files 24-25. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, Leo Baeck, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, J.B. Wise.
Index Terms:
Baeck, Leo
Baerwald, P.
Germany
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, B.
Palestine
Wise, J.B.
Youth Aliyah
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File 683: Germany: Subject Matter, Emigration, United States
Between 1933 - 1941, the JDC granted annual allocations to the Reichsvertretung der deutschen Juden and its successor organizations and to the HICEM to aid in the emigration of German Jews from Europe; see above: Z.A., Files 645-651, RJD and RdJD, Files 642-644 and HICEM, Files 674-676. To aid German refugees in the U.S., between 1934 - 1944, the JDC made annual allocations to the NCC, Files 275-293, and to the NRS, Files 300-314. 1933 - 1944: Minutes of Committee on German-Jewish Immigration Policy, 1/26/34, 2/1/34, 3/20/34, 4/4/34, 1/7/36. Tables of annual immigration to the U.S. of German-born Jews 7/1/31 - 6/30/40, attachment (Page 5) to 7/15/41. Tables of annual immigration to the U.S. of Jews (without a country breakdown) 7/1/38-6/30/42, attachment (Page 5) to 12/11/42; 7/1/42 - 6/30/43, 8/24/43. Correspondence: J.C. Hyman, M.J. Kohler, M.A. Leavitt, W. Rosenwald, H. Schocken.
Index Terms:
Germany
HIAS-ICA Emigration Association (HICEM)
Hyman, J.C.
Immigration
Kohler, M.J.
Leavitt, M.A.
Reichsvertretung der deutschen Juden (RdJ)
Rosenwald, W.
Schocken, H.
United States
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File 684: Germany: Subject Matter, Emigration, Hachscharah
Hachscharah was the training or retraining of perspective young emigrants for settlement in Palestine, in the main. The Zentralausschuss conducted such training programs within Germany (Inlands-Hachscharah) and in other countries (Auslands-Hachscharah). In the wake of the Kristalnacht outbreaks, the management of the program was transferred to London and entrusted to S. Adler-Rudel, at the request of the Reichsvereinigung, see: 4/29/41. Also see: Files 630, 644, 647-50. For materials on Hachscharah programs in individual countries see reports cited above as well as in individual country files. Reports: Hachscharah Outside of Germany, 2/14/36 Training and Retraining Within and Outside of Germany, July 1936. The Year 1939, attachment to 6/27/40 Adler-Rudel to Kahn. Hachscharah Training, 1/16/42. Publications: The Plight of German Jewry and the Great Urge for Readjustment, May 1936. Hilfe und Aufbau, October 1933. Ein Jahr Hilfe und Aufbau, September 1934. 5 Jahre Hilfe u. Aufbau, Nov. 1937. Correspondence: S. Adler-Rudel, B. Kahn, E.M. Morrissey, D.J. Schweitzer, B. Slor, M. Stephany, M.C. Troper.
Index Terms:
Adler-Rudel, S.
Germany
Hachscharah
Kahn, B.
Morrissey, E.M.
Publications
Reports
Schweitzer, D.J.
Slor, B.
Stephany, M.
Troper, M.C.
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File 685: Germany: Subject Matter, Medical
The status of the medical practice in Germany of Jewish doctors and dentists, 1936 - 1939.
Index Terms:
Germany
Medical
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File 686: Germany: Subject Matter, Reconstruction
Loan Kassas: Correspondence, reports, memos, addenda. The Central Office of the Jewish Loan Kassas in Germany (Zentralstelle fuer juedische Darlehnskassen) was established on 1/12/33 and it granted loans to individuals for constructive purposes. Local offices ranged from 40-65 in number and the funds stemmed from the JDC Recon. Corp., on a matching basis. The loan kassas went into liquidation at the end of 1938, by gov't fiat, see below: 11/25/38 - 6/8/39. Also see below: Z.A. Annual Reports, Files 647-650 and Reichsvertretung, Annual Reports, File 644. Reports: Economic Structure of the Clientele of the Loan Kassas, Sept.-Oct. 1934 (German). Two Year Activity of Jewish Loan Kassas in Germany 1933 - 1934 (German) and a brief summary in English 2/27/35. Perspective of the General Development of Jewish Loan Kassas in Germany in 1936, Oct. 1936 (German). Reorganization Plan for the Jewish Loan Kassas in Germany, March 1937 (German). Annual Report for 1937 by the Central Office, undated (German). Correspondence: L. Batzner, B. Kahn, M. Kreutzberger, L. Oungre.
Index Terms:
Batzner, L.
Central Office of the Jewish Loan Kassas (Zentralstelle fuer juedische Darlehnskassen)
Germany
Kahn, B.
Kreutzberger, M.
Loan Kassas
Oungre, L.
Reconstruction
Reports
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File 687: Germany: Subject Matter, Refugees, General, 1933-1938
The data below pertains to German refugees in a number of countries. For German refugees in any single country see the appropriate country listings. For status of Polish refugees from Germany at Zbanczyn, see: Poland, Files 878-879. Status of German refugees: 10/25/33, 11/28/33, 12/1/33, 2/7/34, April (?) 1934 (undated), 5/9/34, 7/27/34, 8/22/34, 10/16/34, 5/11/35, 6/15/35, 12/31/35, Feb. (?) 1936 (undated), 5/11/36, 6/3/36, 1/24/37, 1/28/37(2), 3/3/37, 3/14/37, 4/30/37, 1/13/38. Reports: Jewish Refugees from Germany, Report on the Activities of the AJDC, 11/21/35. Survey of Overseas Countries into which Jews from Germany have Immigrated during the Last Five Years, June 1938. Also see above: File 628 and a report by B. Kahn, 11/14/34 attachment to 11/21/34. Publications: The Wandering Jew Whither Goes He, B. Kahn, 1/5/35. Aid to Refugees from Germany, JDC Annual Report 1935, Oct. 1936. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, N. Bentwich, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, M. Kreutzberger, A.A. Landesco, E.M. Morrissey, M. Warburg.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, P.
Bentwich, N.
Germany
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, B.
Kreutzberger, M.
Landesco, A.A.
Morrissey, E.M.
Publications
Refugees
Reports
Warburg, M.
#Return to Top
File 688: Germany: Subject Matter, Refugees, General, 1939-1942
The data below pertains to German refugees in a number of countries. For German refugees in any single country see the appropriate country listings. For status of Polish refugees from Germany at Zbanczyn, see: Poland, Files 878-879. Status of German refugees: 3/31/39, 5/17/39, 6/8/39, 7/5/39, 9/21/39, 3/1/40. Statistical data: 4/25/39, 5/31/39 attachment to 6/12/39, 10/11/39, 10/30/39, 12/31/39, 4/1/40, 4/13/40, 5/7/42. Correspondence: N. Bentwich, J.C. Hyman, H. Katzki, J.J. Schwartz, G.V. Tijn, M.C. Troper.
Index Terms:
Bentwich, N.
Germany
Hyman, J.C.
Katzki, H.
Refugees
Schwartz, J.J.
Tijn, G.v.
Troper, M.C.
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Record Group 4.24: Greece
File 689: Greece, General
Status of German refugees, 7/5/39. Reports on happenings in Greece, 2/10/44, 4/27/44 attachment to 10/23/44, 8/16/44. Report: The Rescue of Jews Remaining in Greece, attachment to 8/12/44. Correspondence: H. Hill, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, M.A. Leavitt.
Index Terms:
Greece
Hill, H.
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, B.
Leavitt, M.A.
Refugee Aid
Refugees
Reports
#Return to Top
Record Group 4.25: Guatemala
File 690: Guatemala
The Sociedad Israelita agreed to raise locally the funds needed for refugee aid, and to embark on a fund-raising drive on behalf of JDC relief aid in Europe, 8/8/44, 8/17/44, 9/29/44(2). Correspondence: E. Engel, E.W. Heinemann, I.H. Levy, R. Pilpel, L. Rosenthal.
Index Terms:
Engel, E.
Fund-Raising
Guatemala
Heinmann, E.W.
Levy, I.H.
Pilpel, R.
Refugee Aid
Rosenthal, L.
Sociedad Israelita de Guatemala
#Return to Top
Record Group 4.26: Haiti
File 691: Haiti, 1938-1941 (April)
On the status of refugees in Haiti: 11/5/39, 12/5/39, 12/7/39 attachment to 12/16/39, 6/12/40 attachment to 6/18/40-6/24/40, 8/2/40, 10/7/40, 3/4/41, 4/11/41, 4/16/41. Reports: W.A. Frey 10/8/39, W.J. Friedman 10/30/39. Fin. and Statistical Reports: Quarterly, Oct.-Dec. 1939; Monthly, Jan. 1940 - April 1941 (Jan. 1941 missing). Correspondence: F.W. Borchardt, W.A. Frey, J.C. Hyman, L. Koenigsberger, F.L. Mayer, L. Prinz, R. Pilpel, C. Razovsky, R. Schachne, E.J. Sparks, G.L. Warren.
Index Terms:
Borchardt, F.W.
Financial
Frey, W.A.
Haiti
Hyman, J.C.
Koenigsberger, L.
Mayer, F.L.
Pilpel, R.
Prinz, L.
Razovsky, C.
Refugees
Reports
Schachne, R.
Sparks, E.J.
Warren, G.L.
#Return to Top
File 692: Haiti, 1941-1942
Inspection trip to Haiti by Manuel Segal: 5/20/41-5/27/41(2), 6/5/41-6/11/41 Siegel - Pilpel, 6/14/41-6/24/41, 6/29/41(2), 6/30/41, 7/3/41. Other materials on the status of refugees in Haiti: 5/2/41, 6/4/41, 7/23/41, 8/9/41, 8/16/41, 12/6/41, 1/8/42, 2/25/42, 3/24/42, 4/24/42, 6/19/42, 7/27/42. Report on the JRC by M. Siegel, 6/10/41, 6/15/41. Fin. and Statistical Reports: Monthly, May 1941-Nov. 1942. Loeb and Troper Field Audits: 1939-1941, 1942. Correspondence: J. Goldstein, M.A. Leavitt, H. Lewinnek, R. Pilpel, M. Siegel.
Index Terms:
Financial
Goldstein, J.
Haiti
Leavitt, M.A.
Lewinnek, H.
Pilpel, R.
Refugees
Reports
Siegel, M.
#Return to Top
File 693: Haiti, 1943-1944
On the status of refugees in Haiti: 1/26/43, 2/23/43, 4/14/43, 4/22/43, 6/7/43, 4/15/44, 11/21/44. Fin. and Statistical Reports: Monthly, Jan. 1943-Dec. 1944 (April, June 1943 missing). Correspondence: H.D. Biele, J. Goldstein, C.H. Jordan, H. Lewinnek, J.A. Lowenstein, R. Pilpel, C. Pincherle, N. Reich, L.H. Sobel.
Index Terms:
Biele, H.D.
Financial
Goldstein, J.
Haiti
Jordan, C.H.
Lewinnek, H.
Lowenstein, J.A.
Pilpel, R.
Pincherle, C.
Refugees
Reich, N.
Reports
Sobel, L.H.
#Return to Top
Record Group 4.27: Hawaii
File 694: Hawaii
Emigration: Correspondence: M.A. Leavitt, M.C. LeVine, R. Pilpel, I. Weinstein.
Index Terms:
Emigration
Hawaii
Leavitt, M.A.
Levine, M.C.
Pilpel, R.
Weinstein, I.
#Return to Top
Record Group 4.28: Holland
Series 1: Holland: Administration
File 695: Holland: Administration, General, 1933-1940 (Sept.)
Status of Jewish refugees from Germany: 5/11/36, 10/26/38, 12/26/38, 3/3/39, 7/5/39, 2/14/40. Reports: Work Report of the Jewish Refugee Committee activities, 1/20/34. Fourth Work Rep. of the Comite 4/1/34-10/1/34, 10/31/34. Comite activities Jan.-Feb. 1938, 4/11/38; for the year 1938, 3/3/39. Refugee Problem in Connection with the General Situation in Holland, 2/29/40 and Summary, Feb. 1940. Situation of the Jewish Community in Holland, 9/23/40. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, H. van Boeyen, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, M.A. Leavitt, I. Rosen, M. Stephany, G. van Tijn, M.C. Troper.
Index Terms:
Administration
Baerwald, P.
Comite voor Bijzondere Joodsche Belangen (Committee for Special Jewish Affairs)
Holland
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, B.
Leavitt, M.A.
Refugees
Reports
Rosen, I.
Stephany, M.
Troper, M.C.
van Boeyen, H.
van Tijn, G.
#Return to Top
File 696: Holland: Administration, General, 1940 Oct. -1944; 1953
Report on Jews in the Economic Life of Holland and in the Liberal Professions according to the census of 12/31/30, Nov. 1940. Status report on Jewish Life in Holland by G. van Tijn, 5/6/41. Statistical Survey for 1939-1940 prepared by the Comite, 4/15/41. correspondence on the transfer of funds, 10/31/40-7/7/41. Statement by the Dutch Prime Minister on the Nazi Persecution of the Dutch Jews, 9/15/42. Some 285 Dutch and German refugees released from concentration camps in exchange for German nationals were interned in the Middle East, 9/17/43, 11/13/43, 3/28/44, 7/11/44, 7/13/44, 7/27/44; also see: File 697. Report, Contribution towards the History of the Jews in Holland 5/10/40 - June 1944 by G. van Tijn, 11/23/44, pp. 116-117. Statements on the Persecution of Dutch Jewry by G. van Tijn, 8/12/44 attachment to 10/7/44, 8/31/44. Statement by David Cohen of his activities in Holland during and after W.W. II, 12/27/53 attachment to 12/30/53. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, H. van Boeyen, D. Cohen, J.C. Hyman, H. Katzki, M.A. Leavitt, J.J. Schwartz, G. van Tijn, M.C. Troper, A. Wiener.
Index Terms:
Administration
Baerwald, P.
Cohen, D.
Comite voor Bijzondere Joodsche Belangen (Committee for Special Jewish Affairs)
Holland
Hyman, J.C.
Katzki, H.
Leavitt, M.A.
Refugees
Reports
Schwartz, J.J.
Troper, M.C.
Wiener, A.
van Boeyen, H.
van Tijn, G.
#Return to Top
File 697: Holland: Administration, Reports
1. Report on the Conditions of Jewish Social Work in Holland, June 1936. 2. Die Stellung der Juden in hollandischen Wirtschaftsleben und in der freien Berufen, by Eric Rosenberg (undated) Nov. 1940. 3. Contribution towards The History of the Jews in Holland 5/10/40-June 1944, by G. van Tijn, 11/23/44.
Index Terms:
Administration
Holland
Reports
Rosenberg, E.
van Tijn, G.
#Return to Top
File 698: Holland: Administration, Documents by Gertrude van Tijn.
Memoirs, August 1959, pp. 1-193 Supplementary Data to the Memoirs, undated Personal Chronical in Abbreviated Form, 5/5/68
Index Terms:
Administration
Holland
Personnel
van Tijn, G.
#Return to Top
Series 2: Holland: Organizations
The organizations listed in the following files had their seats in Amsterdam, unless noted otherwise.
File 699: Holland: Organizations, Comite voor Bijzondere Joodsche Belangen (Comite), Reports, Monthly, 1935 - 1937
1935 (Mar.-Dec.) 1936 (Jan.-Apr.) 1937 (Jan.-Dec.)
Index Terms:
Comite voor Bijzondere Joodsche Belangen (Committee for Special Jewish Affairs)
Holland
Reports
#Return to Top
File 700: Holland: Organizations, Comite voor Bijzondere Joodsche Belangen (Comite), Reports, Monthly, 1938 - 1940
1938 (Jan.-Dec.) 1939 (Mar.-Dec.) 1940 (Jan.-Feb.)
Index Terms:
Comite voor Bijzondere Joodsche Belangen (Committee for Special Jewish Affairs)
Holland
Reports
#Return to Top
File 701: Holland: Organizations, Comite voor Bijzondere Joodsche Belangen (Comite), Reports, Annual, 1934-1938
Index Terms:
Comite voor Bijzondere Joodsche Belangen (Committee for Special Jewish Affairs)
Holland
Reports
#Return to Top
File 702: Holland: Organizations, Miscellaneous
1. International Jewish Colonization Society, The Hague, 1938-1939, Correspondence: J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, M.J. Karpf, M. Waldman. 2. Jewish Central Information Office, 1934, The Information Office, headed by Dr. Alfred Wiener, was transferred to London in 1939 where it became the nucleus of the Wiener Library. For materials on the Wiener Library, see: 9/20/34, 12/31/34.
Index Terms:
Holland
Hyman, J.C.
International Jewish Colonization Society
Jewish Central Information Office
Kahn, B.
Karpf, M.J.
Waldman, M.
Weiner, A.
#Return to Top
Series 3: Holland: Subject Matter
Deportations, See: File 697.3, Report by G. van Tijn, 11/23/44.
File 703: Holland: Subject Matter, Miscellaneous
1. Children, 1938-1943: For additional materials, see: German Jewish Children's Aid, Files 233-239. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, B. Kahn, H. Katzki, E.M. Morrissey, C. Razovsky, G.v. Tijn, M.C. Troper. 2. Concentration Camps, 1933 - 1944: Vught, 1942-1944 - Report by G. van Tijn, 8/31/44, Page 2. Also see: File 697.3, Report by G. van Tijn, 11/23/44, pp. 72-74. Westerbork, 1940-1945; 1953 - Report on Westerbork, by Israel Taubes, 3/15/45. Statement by Dr. David Cohen upon his role in Holland during the war years, 12/30/53. Also see: File 697.3, Report by G. van Tijn, 11/23/44, pp. 49-51, 75-91. Correspondence: B. Kahn, H. Katzki, M.A. Leavitt, J.W. Prins, G.V. Tijn. 3. Loan Fund, 1935: Correspondence: B. Kahn, G.V. Tijn. 4. Wieringen Agricultural Training School, 1934-1941; 1968; 1982: The Wieringer Werkdorf, an agricultural training school, was opened in 1934 by the Foundation of Jewish Labor (Stichting Joodsche Arbeit) to prepare Jewish refugees from Germany coming to Holland for emigration to other countries. It carried on its functions until the Nazi authorities closed it in 1943. Reports: B. Kahn, April 1936; G.v. Tijn, 5/6/41, 9/21/68; AJR Info., Jan. 1982; also see: File 697.3, Contribution Towards the History of the Jews in Holland, 11/23/44, pp. 15-17. Correspondence: I. Rosen, G.v. Tijn, J.v. Tijn, M.C. Troper.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, P.
Children
Concentration Camps
Holland
Kahn, B.
Katzki, H.
Leavitt, M.A.
Loan Fund
Morrissey, E.M.
Prins, J.W.
Razovsky, C.
Reports
Rosen, I.
Troper, M.C.
Vught
Westerbork
Wieringen Agricultural Training School
van Tijn, G.
van Tijn, J.
#Return to Top
File 704: Holland: Subject Matter, Emigration
The Dutch Jews, as Dutch citizens, were legally eligible to emigrate to any Dutch possession. Those possessions were all in the tropics. German refugees seeking admission to those territories were subject to the restrictions imposed on all foreigners, and after the war broke out, they were treated as enemy aliens. The materials in the folder below pertain to Dutch Jews in overwhelming degree, and treat of three areas of emigration: Dutch East Indies, Jamaica (as a way station to Surinam) and Surinam (Dutch Guiana). The JDC contributed $80,800 for the maintenance in Surinam of Dutch Jews, and some $60,000 for German and Polish refugees. a. Dutch East Indies, 1940-1941: The JDC contributed $10,000, to enable some 90 Dutch refugees to settle in the Dutch East Indies and to the transportation costs of 34 others, 11/29/40, 2/21/41(3), 3/21/41, 8/18/41. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, H.F. Linder, J.J. Schwartz, A. Wiener. b. Jamaica, 1942-1943: Lists of refugee arrivals in Jamaica, 12/6/42, 3/1/43. Status of refugees in Jamaica: 2/12/43, 2/26/43, 1/3/44 and attachments, 2/22/44. Correspondence: C.H. Jordan, M.A. Leavitt, R. Pilpel, B.H. Sajet, D.L. Speiser. c. Surinam, 1940-1949; 1956-1957: Emigration to Surinam: 4/28/42, 5/6/42, 5/21/42, 8/19/42, 9/16/42(2), 10/29/42, 11/25/42, 12/24/42, 12/30/42, 1/25/43, 1/26/43(3), 2/6/43, 2/10/43-2/25/43(2), 3/5/43-3/10/43, 3/26/43, 4/6/43, 4/21/43, 6/10/43, 9/7/43-11/24/43, 12/28/43, 3/24/44, 12/15/44, 1/3/57, 2/6/57. Visit to Surinam 12/26/43-12/28/43 by L.H. Sobel, 12/28/43. Correspondence: S. Dijier, Baron van Harinxma thoe Slooten, J.C. Hyman, F. Kohn, M.A. Leavitt, R. Pilpel, J.W. Prins, B.H. Sajet, J.J. Schwartz, L.H. Sobel, H. Trobe.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, P.
Baron van Harinxma thoe Slooten
Dijier, S.
Dutch East Indies
Emigration
Holland
Hyman, J.C.
Jamaica
Jordan, C.H.
Kohn, F.
Leavitt, M.A.
Linder, H.F.
List
Pilpel, R.
Prins, J.W.
Refugees
Sajet, B.H.
Schwartz, J.J.
Sobel, L.H.
Speiser, D.L.
Surinam (Dutch Guiana)
Trobe, H.
Wiener, A.
#Return to Top
Record Group 4.29: Honduras
File 705: Honduras: Refugees, 1939-1942 (June)
Fin. and Statistical Reports: 1/1/39 - 11/30/39; Monthly from Jan. 1940 (missing: Jan. 1940). Correspondence: F.W. Borchardt, A. Gluecksmann, H. Goldmann, R. Katzenstein, H. Katzki, R. Pilpel, S.S. Schacher.
Index Terms:
Borchardt, F.W.
Financial
Gluecksmann, A.
Goldman, H.
Honduras
Katzenstein, R.
Katzki, H.
Pilpel, R.
Refugees
Reports
Schacher, S.S.
#Return to Top
File 706: Honduras: Refugees, 1942 (July) - 1944
Fin. and Statistical Reports, Monthly: July 1942-Nov. 1944 (missing: April 1943). Correspondence: H. Goldmann, R. Pilpel, S.S. Schacher.
Index Terms:
Financial
Goldman, H.
Honduras
Pilpel, R.
Refugees
Reports
Schacher, S.S.
#Return to Top
Record Group 4.30: Hungary
Series 1: Hungary: Administration
File 707: Hungary: Administration, General, 1936-1940
The Central Jewish Committee for welfare aid was established in Budapest, 1/25/39 attachment to 1/27/39, 2/11/39, 4/7/39. JDC allocations for refugee aid: 6/19/39, 7/6/39, 7/13/39, 8/14/39, 9/18/39, 10/16/39, 4/28/40-4/30/40, 10/8/40, 11/18/40(2). Status of Jews in Hungary: 3/17/39 and attachments, 5/3/39, 5/8/39, 10/3/39 - 10/10/39, 1/26/40. Correspondence: H.K. Buchman, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, M.A. Leavitt, L. Rittenberg, J.J. Schwartz, M.C. Troper, M. Ussoskin.
Index Terms:
Administration
Buchman, H.K.
Central Jewish Committee
Hungary
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, B.
Leavitt, M.A.
Refugee Aid
Rittenberg, L.
Schwartz, J.J.
Troper, M.C.
Ussoskin, M.
Welfare
#Return to Top
File 708: Hungary: Administration, General, 1941-1944
JDC allocations for refugee aid: 2/17/41, 7/23/41. Reports on the Situation of the Jews: 6/13/44 by Josef Blum, 9/29/44 by Raoul Wallenberg, 10/18/44 on Jewish children, Nov. 1944 attachment to 12/15/44 digest of various IRC reports. Correspondence: J. Blum, A. Eppler, J.W. Pehle, J.J. Schwartz, R. Wallenberg.
Index Terms:
Administration
Blum. J.
Eppler, A.
Hungary
Pehle, J.W.
Refugee Aid
Reports
Schwartz, J.J.
Wallenberg, R.
#Return to Top
Series 2: Hungary: Subject Matter
Child Care See below: Emigration, File 710a, 9/2/42 - 10/27/42.
File 709: Hungary: Subject Matter, Cultural and Religious
a. Beth Jacob Schools, 1940-1941: The 15 B.J. schools in Hungary and their enrollments, 2/28/41. Correspondence: H.K. Buchman, A. Deutsch, M.A. Leavitt. b. Jewish Gymnasium Munkacy, 1939-1941: Correspondence: H.K. Buchman, R. Illes, E.M. Morrissey. c. Rabbinical Seminary of Budapest, 1933-1941: he Seminary was established in 1877 and it is the only Rabbinical Seminary in Central and Eastern Europe that survived the Holocaust. It remains in active service to this day. Small JDC allocations for upkeep began in 1922, and continued except for a wartime break until 1950, when the JDC was expelled from the country. Aid began again in 1957 when the JDC was invited to return, and it then continued for Cult. and relig. projects until 1964, in conjunction with the Memorial Foundation for Jewish Culture. From 1965 to date, the Memorial Foundation has granted annual allocations. For materials in earlier years, see: Archives, 1921-1932, File 213a. Correspondence: L. Blau, H.K. Buchman, M. Guttmann, Wm. Hausbrunner, J.C. Hyman, d. Yeshivot, 1940-1942: A number of yeshivot were aided with small grants for upkeep, at one time or another. Correspondence: H.K. Buchman, H. Friedman, S. Fruchter, F. Grubel, S. Wiesner.
Index Terms:
Beth Jacob Schools
Blau, L.
Buchman, H.K.
Cultural and Religious
Deutsch, A.
Guttmann, M.
Hausbrunner, Wm.
Hungary
Hyman, J.C.
Illes, R.
Jewish Gymnasium Munkacy
Leavitt, M.A.
Memorial Foundation for Jewish Culture
Morrissey, E.M.
Rabbinical Seminary Budapest
Schools
Schwartz, J.J.
Smertenko, J.J.
Troper, M.C.
Yeshivot
#Return to Top
File 710: Hungary: Subject Matter, Emigration and Loan Funds
a. Emigration, General, 1939-1944: Emigration of Hungarian refugees Jan. 1939-Feb. 1942, by months, undated. Aliyah of 270 refugee children from Hungary and Rumania, 9/2/42 - 10/27/42. Correspondence: H.K. Buchman, J.C. Hyman, J.J. Schwartz, J.J. Smertenko, M.C. Troper. b. Loan Funds, 1933 - 1944: The JDC Foundation granted funds over the years in aid of the Hungarian loan kassas. Reports and Memos: 6/12/39, 1/26/40(2), 10/11/40. Correspondence: B. Kahn, M. Ussoskin.
Index Terms:
Buchman, H.K.
Children
Cultural and Religious
Emigration
Hungary
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, B.
Loan Kassas
Refugees
Schwartz, J.J.
Smertenko, J.J.
Troper, M.C.
Ussoskin, M.
#Return to Top
Record Group 4.31: India
File 711: India, General
Annual Report for 1939 by the Jewish Relief Association of Bombay, 2/17/40. Reports by the Chairman and Secretary of the Association presented at the Annual Meeting of the Association, 3/5/40. Correspondence: M.A. Leavitt, J.J. Schwartz, H. Viteles.
Index Terms:
India
Jewish Relief Association of Bombay
Leavitt, M.A.
Reports
Schwartz, J.J.
Viteles, H.
#Return to Top
Record Group 4.32: Iran
File 712: Iran, General
Status of Jewish Refugees in Teheran: 6/18/42, 9/13/42, 9/24/42 attachment to 11/16/42, 9/30/42, 10/19/42, 12/1/42, 12/10/42, 12/15/42, 1/13/43, 3/29/43, 7/29/43, 3/23/44. The movement of Bukhara Jews from Iran to Palestine: 12/9/43, 12/11/43, 1/6/44, 3/13/44-3/22/44, 5/1/44, 8/25/44, 9/3/44, 12/15/44. JDC aid to the Alliance School: 6/2/43, 6/23/43, 8/22/43, 9/2/43, 11/24/43, 5/1/44, 5/4/44, 3/28/44, 10/26/44. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, H.K. Buchman, D.B. Hurwitz, J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt, J.L. Magnus, J.J. Schwartz, Lawrence A. Steinhardt, H. Viteles.
Index Terms:
Alliance School
Baerwald, P.
Buchman, H.K.
Hurwitz, D.B.
Hyman, J.C.
Iran
Leavitt, M.A.
Magnus, J.L.
Refugees
Schools
Schwartz, J.J.
Steinhardt, Lawrence A.
Teheran
Viteles, H.
#Return to Top
File 713: Iran, Viteles Report
Harry Viteles report of his Visit to Teheran 11/11/42 - 12/2/42, plus three duplicate copies.
Index Terms:
Iran
Reports
Viteles, H.
#Return to Top
Record Group 4.33: Iraq
File 714: Iraq, General
Proposal for the settlement of German refugees in Iraq, 5/5/38, 5/15/38. The JDC Recon. Foundation offered a $60,000 loan to serve as a revolving loan fund for the use of artisans and tradesmen, 9/3/41(2), 11/17/41, 12/18/41. The Jewish community made a fin. settlement with the Iraq Gov't authorities and the loan fund was no longer needed, 1/23/42, 2/16/42, 4/7/42, 4/13/42, 12/18/42. The JDC allocated $10,000 for emigration aid from Iraq to Palestine, 9/22/43, 9/29/43. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, B. Kahn, A.A. Landesco, J.L. Magnes, H. Viteles.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, P.
Iraq
Jewish Reconstruction Foundation
Kahn, B.
Landesco, A.A.
Magnes, J.L.
Refugees
Viteles, H.
#Return to Top
Record Group 4.34: Italy
Series 1: Italy: Administration
File 715: Italy: Administration, General, 1938 - 1941
The Italian Gov't demanded that Jews of foreign nationality leave the country by 3/11/39, 9/8/38 - 12/2/38. About two-thirds left by the deadline date, and the others remained behind, 3/20/39, 8/15/39 attachment to 8/18/39. Reports on the Situation of Jews in Italy: Charles C. Gray, 11/30/38; Anonymous, Dec. 1938, Boris Smolar, 1/6/39 attachment to 1/10/39 and Resume attachment to 1/22/39; Sir Andrew McFadyean, 1/25/39 attachment to 2/22/39; Cecil Roth, 1/31/39; L.V. Valobra, Feb. 1940. Other Reports: Comitato Assistenza per gli Ebrei in Italia, 3/4/39; DELASEM, Emigrazione Dall'Italia di Ebrei Stranieri 6/1/40 - 11/30/40. Also see: SM Archives, File 47. Correspondence: A.R. Alter, A.R. Ascoli, G. Castelbolognesi, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, N. Katz, M.C. Troper, L.V. Valobra, M.C. Waldman.
Index Terms:
Administration
Alter, A.R.
Ascoli, A.R.
Castelbolognesi, G.
Hyman, J.C.
Italy
Jewish Refugee Committee Milan (Comitato Assistenza Ebrei Profughi della Germania)
Kahn, B.
Katz, N.
Reports
Troper, M.C.
Unione delle Comunita Israelitiche Italiane, Genoa (DELASEM)
Valobra, L.V.
Waldman, M.C.
#Return to Top
File 716: Italy: Administration, General, 1943 - 1945; 1961 - 1962
Reports on the Situation of Jews in Italy. P.M. Malin: 2/24/44; M.S. Perlman: 8/18/44; A. Greenleigh: 8/20/44, 9/1/44, 9/22/44 Greenleigh to JDC, 9/25/44, 10/21/44, 11/9/44, 11/11/44; S. Sorani: 7/11/44 attachment to 1/25/62 as Supplement to Hist. of Delasem after 9/8/43 - for that report, see, SM Archives, File 47. Other data on Jews in Italy: 6/7/43, 4/18/44, 6/1/44, 9/1/44(3), 12/13/44. Also see: SM Archives, Files 47-48. Correspondence: H.D. Biele, Albert Einstein, A.D. Greenleigh, J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt, P.M. Malin, Robert D. Murphy, M.S. Perlman, R.B. Resnik, J.J. Schwartz, L.H. Sobel, S. Sorani, H.H. Tittman, A. Treves.
Index Terms:
Administration
Biele, H.D.
Einstein, Albert
Greenleigh, A.D.
Hyman, J.C.
Italy
Leavitt, M.A.
Malin, P.M.
Murphy, Robert D.
Perlman, M.S.
Reports
Resnik, R.B.
Schwartz, J.J.
Sobel, L.H.
Sorani, S.
Tittman, H.H.
Treves, A.
Unione delle Comunita Israelitiche Italiane, Genoa (DELASEM)
#Return to Top
File 717: Italy: Administration, Financial
Delasem, Fin. Statements 1941 - 1944 (July): 9/5/44, 9/25/44. Communities, Fin. and Statistical Reports, 1944. Ancona: Oct. 1944 - Jan. 1945. Bari: July, 8/18/44 attachment to 9/15/44, Aug., Sept., attachment to 11/27/44, Oct. attachment to 3/9/45, Nov., 12/13/44 attachment to 3/6/45, Dec. Naples: Sept., Oct. attachment to 12/18/44, Nov. Perugia: Aug., Sept., Oct. Rome: Aug., Sept., Oct.
Index Terms:
Administration
Ancona
Bari
Communities
Delasem
Financial
Italy
Naples
Perugia
Rome
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Series 2: Italy: Subject Matter
Refugees: For Italian refugees in Switzerland, see: File 720, 10/6/43, and SM Archives, File 50 (1). For Yugoslav refugees in Italy, see: Yugoslavia, File 1,058.b
File 718: Italy: Subject Matter, Refugees, General, 1937 - 1939
Situation of refugees in Italy: 4/15/37, 4/23/37, 5/3/37, 5/10/37, 3/31/38, 9/28/38, 12/2/38, 1/10/39, 2/22/39(2). The Italian Gov't prescribed that all Jews who entered the country after 1919 must leave by 3/12/39, 9/8/38, 11/22/38, 3/15/39 memo, 3/20/39, 8/15/39 attachment to 8/18/39. Some 120 refugees booked to sail from Trieste on the Italian vessel, SS Saturnia, were stranded when it cancelled its sailing and they were required to book passage on other vessels with dollars; the JDC arranged to provide the necessary funds, 9/6/39 - 9/12/39(2), 9/25/39, 10/4/39, 10/5/39, 10/7/39, 10/14/39, 10/30/39, Oct. 1939 report attachment to 12/15/39, 11/9/39, 11/30/39. For additional materials 1938, 1939, see: EUREXCO, Files 188-191. Also see below: File 719, 2/17/40, 2/23/40, 4/3/40, 6/8/40. Reports on Refugees: A. Chapiro, 3/17/39 and summary 4/6/39; H.D. Froelich, 8/15/39 attachment to 8/18/39; L.V. Valobra, 12/27/39. Fin. Statements: Jewish Refugee Committee Milan: 1937, 12/31/37; 1938, 12/31/38; 1939, Aug. attachment to 10/12/39, Oct. attachment to 10/26/39. Correspondence: G. Castelbolognesi, C.G. Grey, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, H. Katzki, J.J. Schwartz, M.C, Troper, L.V. Valobra.
Index Terms:
Castelbolognesi, G.
Financial
Grey, C.C.
Hyman, J.C.
Italy
Jewish Refugee Committee Milan
Kahn, B.
Katzki, H.
Refugees
Reports
SS Saturnia
Schwartz, J.J.
Troper, M.C.
Valobra, L.V.
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File 719: Italy: Subject Matter, Refugees, General, 1940 - 1942
Situation of refugees in Italy: 6/12/40, 7/4/40 attachment to 7/22/40 Schwartz to N.Y., 3/31/41 and attachments, 8/21/40, 4/9/42. Reports on Refugees: A.R. Alter, 3/26/40 attachment to 4/9/40; L.V. Valobra, attachment to 9/27/40; report summary on Jewish refugees from Poland in Italy, 4/17/40. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, H. Katski, B. Long, J.J. Schwartz, G. Treves, L.V. Valobra.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, P.
Hyman, J.C.
Italy
Kahn, B.
Katzki, H.
Long, B.
Poland
Refugees
Reports
Schwartz, J.J.
Treves, G.
Valobra, L.V.
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File 720: Italy: Subject Matter, Refugees, General, 1943 - 1945
Situation of refugees in Italy: 6/7/43, 9/11/43, 2/18/44, 5/5/44, 6/1/44, 6/12/44, 6/29/44, 7/18/44, 7/25/44, 8/1/44, 8/18/44, 9/12/44, 12/13/44. Lists of concentration camps in liberated and Nazi occupied Italy, 2/28/45. Ferramonte Camp: 10/31/43 attachment to 11/18/43, 11/30/43 attachment to 3/10/44, 12/18/43, 12/28/43, 1/30/44 attachment to 2/8/44, 2/14/44, 4/20/44, 8/18/44, 10/12/44, 10/20/44 attachment to 10/30/44, 12/13/44. Correspondence: G. Cantoni, A.D. Greenleigh, C.E. Heathcote-Smith, J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt, P.M. Malin, M.S. Perlman, J.J. Schwartz.
Index Terms:
Cantoni, G.
Concentration Camps
Ferramonte Camp
Greenleigh, A.D.
Heathcote-Smith, C.E.
Hyman, J.C.
Italy
Leavitt, M.A.
List
Malin, P.M.
Perlman, M.S.
Refugees
Schwartz, J.J.
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File 721: Italy: Subject Matter, Refugees, Island of Rhodes
The materials below pertain to 3 groups of Jews; Inhabitants of the Isle of Rhodes. Rhodes belonged to Turkey until 1923, when it passed under Italian rule. Many natives were Turkish nationals and the Italian Gov't decreed their expulsion as foreign Jews when it enacted its racial legislation in 1938. See above: File 718, 11/20/38 - 6/14/39. SS Rim. The SS Rim, a small unseaworthy vessel carrying some 770 German refugees, was en route to Palestine on an illegal voyage when it burnt and sank in the harbor of Rhodes. The survivors were interned for weeks in a detention camp on Rhodes, where they received JDC aid, and were then re-embarked on another vessel bound for Palestine. See above: 7/11/39 attachment to 7/21/39 memo, 8/8/39(3), 8/22/39(2). SS Pencho. On 5/16/40, the SS Pencho, a 79 ton coastal tug-boat, sailed from Bratislava, bearing 508 refugees, on an illegal voyage to Palestine. Four months later, the SS Pencho passed thru the Black Sea and into the Aegean Sea. Food, water and fuel were all but exhausted, and the vessel was shipwrecked in a heavy gale, on a rocky uninhabited island. After a week, an Italian naval vessel spotted them and brought them to Rhodes where they were interned. In the spring of 1942, the Italian authorities transferred them to the mainland and interned them at the camp of Ferramonte/Tarsia, where they remained until they were liberated by Allied troops in late 1943. See below: 10/28/40, 10/29/40 Leavitt to Ben Horin, 11/26/40, 12/3/40, 1/22/41, 1/27/41 attachment to 3/17/41, 3/15/41, 4/8/41, 5/6/41, 5/22/41, 6/2/41 attachment to 6/23/41, 7/1/41, 8/8/41, 10/15/41, 10/29/41, 6/12/42, 4/28/44. Correspondence: J.C. Hyman, H. Katzki, L. Lasker, M.A. Leavitt, D. de Sola Pool.
Index Terms:
Bratislava
Ferramonte/Tarsia
Hyman, J.C.
Island of Rhodes
Katzki, H.
Lasker, L.
Leavitt, M.A.
SS Pencho
SS Rim
de Sola Pool, D.
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Record Group 4.35: Jamaica
File 722: Jamaica, Refugees
Lists of interned refugees, 9/8/32, 11/5/32. Correspondence: O.K. Henriques, R. Pilpel, M. Stewart.
Index Terms:
Henriques, O.K.
Jamaica
List
Pilpel, R.
Refugees
Stewart, M.
War
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Record Group 4.36: Japan
File 723: Japan: Emigration, 1939 - 1941 (March)
On the situation of the refugees: 12/11/39(2), 1/10/40, 7/11/40, 8/22/40, 9/8/40, 12/3/40, 1/13/41, 1/16/41, 1/27/41, 1/28/41(3), 2/13/41, 2/18/41(3) Kobe to JDC, 2/19/41, 2/24/41, 2/28/41, 3/5/41, 3/6/41, 3/7/41 Kahn to Monsky, 3/8/41(7), 3/14/42(2) Kobe to JDC, 3/20/41(2), 3/21/41 P. Baerwald to E. Baerwald, 3/24/41, 3/27/41, 3/28/41 Memo on Emigration from Lithuania to Palestine, 3/29/41. Fin. and Statistical Reports by Kobe Community: March 1941. Correspondence: E. Baerwald, P. Baerwald, M.W. Beckelman, M. Birman, H.K. Buchman, H. Hochheimer, B. Kahn, M.A. Leavitt, S. Meilbergen, A. Ponevejsky, S. Tarschansky.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, E.
Baerwald, P.
Beckelman, M.W.
Birman, M.
Buchman, H.K.
Emigration
Financial
Hochheimer, H.
Japan
Kahn, B.
Kobe
Leavitt, M.A.
Lithuania
Meilbergen, S.
Palestine
Ponevejsky, A.
Refugees
Reports
Tarschansky, S.
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File 724: Japan: Emigration, 1941 (Apr. - June)
On the situation of the refugees: 4/4/41 memo, 4/7/41 Leavitt to E. Baerwald, 4/9/41 Buchman to Hayes, 4/24/41 Kahn to Tartakower, 4/25/41 Zyngol to JDC, 5/2/41 Leavitt to E. Baerwald, 5/5/41 Baerwald to JDC, 5/18/41, 5/23/41 Kobe to JDC, 6/9/41 Baerwald to Leavitt. Fin. and Statistical reports by the Kobe Community: 1941 - April, May, June; also see tables: 5/5/41, 6/6/41. Correspondence: E. Baerwald, N.W. Beckelman, B. Kahn, M.A. Leavitt, K. Zyngol.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, E.
Beckelman, M.W.
Emigration
Financial
Japan
Kahn, B.
Kobe
Leavitt, M.A.
Refugees
Reports
Zyngol, K.
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File 725: Japan: Emigration, 1941 (July - Dec.)
On the situation of the refugees: 7/28/41, 8/12/41 Meibergen to JDC, 8/25/41 Leavitt to Mayerson, 8/27/41 Leavitt to Veret, 10/24/41, 11/3/41 Zien to Hayes. Statements on refugee arrivals and departures: July 1941, 8/1/41; 9/19/41 Tabatchnik to Rosner. Correspondence: W.L. Brand, H.K. Buchman, M.A. Leavitt, R. Pilpel, L. Schupakewitch, Z. Wahrhaftig.
Index Terms:
Brand, W.L.
Buchman, H.K.
Emigration
Japan
Leavitt, M.A.
Pilpel, R.
Refugees
Schupakewitch, L.
Wahrhaftig, Z.
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File 726: Japan: Emigration Lists
Lists #1-16 of refugee arrivals in Japan, Nov. 1940 - 5/5/41. Lists of refugee departures from Japan, April - July 1941.
Index Terms:
Emigration
Japan
List
Refugees
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File 727: Japan: Yeshivah and Rabbinical Groups
Summary of Meeting at JDC N.Y. to consider the situation of 450 rabbinical students and rabbis in Japan, 8/29/41, Also see: Lithuania, Files 738 - 739. Correspondence: M.W. Beckelman, H.K. Buchman, M.A. Leavitt.
Index Terms:
Beckelman, M.W.
Buchman, H.K.
Japan
Leavitt, M.A.
Rabbinical Groups
Yeshivah
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Record Group 4.37: Latvia
File 728: Latvia, Administration, Subject Matter and Localities
General, 1938 - 1945: On the Jewish situation in Latvia: 3/4/38, 5/1/39, 5/17/40. Fin. Report by Refugee Relief Committee Riga Aug. 1938 - Dec. 1939, 6/2/40. Audit Report by Refugee Relief Committee Latvia, 6/2/40. Also see: EUREXCO, Files 189-191. Subject Matter: Camps: Personal report on Riga Ghetto, Kaiserwald and Salaspilz Extermination Camps, Aug. 1945. Cult. and Religious, 1933 - 1935; 1939: The Compulsory Education Law in Latvia permitted Jewish children in the primary grades to attend either Latvian or Jewish schools. The Jewish school system was subventioned by the gov't, and was conducted by the Agudas Israel. Over the years, the JDC Cult. Committee, N.Y. made token allocations to a number of schools. Reconstruction, 1937 - 1940: The JDC Reconstruction Foundation had established in Latvia some 24 credit cooperatives which granted loans to Jews at nominal rates. They were united in a Federation of Jewish Credit Cooperatives. The grants to credit cooperatives (loan kassas) formed the largest single component among the JDC allocations. Reports: On the Jewish Credit Cooperatives, by N. Aronovici, 2/15/37; On the Activities of the Federation (Yiddish), 6/6/37, 6/19/38, 6/20/40. Refugees (Polish), 1939: Cables and correspondence, 9/18/39 - 10/25/39. Localities: Ludze (Lutzin), 10/7/38 - 2/27/39. Riga, 1943. Skaistkalne, 1933; 1939 - 1940. Correspondence: N. Aronovici, H.K. Buchman, J.C. Hyman, I. Joffe, P. Mintz, E.K. Schwartz, H. Storch.
Index Terms:
Administration
Aronovici, N.
Buchman, H.K.
Concentration Camps
Cultural and Religious
Financial
Hyman, J.C.
Joffe, I.
Kaiserwald
Latvia
Ludze
Mintz, P.
Reconstruction
Refugee Relief Committee
Refugees
Report
Reports
Riga
Riga Ghetto
Salaspilz
Schools
Schwartz, E.K.
Skaistkalne
Storch, H.
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Record Group 4.38: Libya - Tripoli
File 729: Libya - Tripoli, General
Correspondence, memos, reports and addenda. Reports: Situation of the Jewish Communities in Libya, 12/28/42. Note on Tripolitanian Refugees in Tunisia, extract from report by J.J. Schwartz, 7/18/43. Situation of the Jewish Community in Tripoli, H. Nahum, 8/13/43. Notes on Tripolitanian and Cirenaican Jews in French North Africa, 9/17/43 attachment to 9/28/43. The Jewish Community of Tripoli, a Moral and Economic Report for 1943, undated. Report on Tripoli trip, Max Perlman, 2/22/44. Correspondence: C. Adler, J.C. Hyman, H. Katzki, M.A. Leavitt, H. Nahum, R. Pilpel, J. Raubitschek, J.J. Schwartz, A. Treves.
Index Terms:
Adler, C.
Hyman, J.C.
Katzki, H.
Leavitt, M.A.
Libya
Nahum, H.
Pilpel, R.
Raubitschek, J.
Reports
Schwartz, J.J.
Treves, A.
Tripoli
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Record Group 4.39: Lithuania
Series 1: Lithuania: Administration
File 730: Lithuania: Administration, General, 1937 - 1940 (May)
M.W. Beckelman went to Vilna as the JDC representative following its annexation by Lithuania, 10/13/39, 10/26/39 - 10/30/39, 11/8/39. Beckelman letters and cables: 10/17/39, 10/31/39, 11/2/39, 11/11/39, attachment to letter #P 41, 11/22/39, 1/24/40, 2/14/40, 2/15/40, 2/18/40, 2/25/40, 2/25/40 attachment to 3/20/40, 5/7/40, 5/9/40, 5/28/40. JDC Vilna Bulletins: #1, 2/15/40; #2, 3/15/40. JDC relationship with the Bund in Vilna, 1/12/40, 2/1/40(2), 2/2/40 Schwartz to N.Y., 2/18/40, 2/23/40. Reports: "The Position during 1939" as of 12/31/39, but undated and author not given. "The Refugee Problem in Lithuania," by M.W. Beckelman, Feb. 1940, "Our Refugee Problem in Lithuania," by M.C. Troper (Yiddish), 4/19/40. Memo: Distribution of Funds in Lithuania, by H.K. Buchman, 5/22/40. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, M.W. Beckelman, H.K. Buchman, M.M. Fagen, J.C. Hyman, I. Rosen, J.J. Schwartz, W.C. Taylor, M.C. Troper.
Index Terms:
Administration
Baerwald, P.
Beckelman, M.W.
Buchman, H.K.
Fagen, M.M.
Hyman, J.C.
Lithuania
Reports
Rosen, I.
Schwartz, J.J.
Taylor, W.C.
Troper, M.C.
Vilna
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File 731: Lithuania: Administration, General, 1940 (June - Sept.)
Reports on refugees in various towns, 4/14/40 attachment to 6/2/40, 5/6-7/40 attachment to 6/26/40. The JDC supported some 11,000 refugees per month, 7/7/40. The JDC Foundation authorized the use of its reconstruction funds in Lithuania for refugee aid, 7/11/40. The U.S. froze fin. holdings in the U.S. of citizens of Baltic states, and Lithuania retaliated on U.S. holdings, 7/19/40, 7/24/40. Beckelman informed the JDC that his usefulness in Lithuania was nearing the end, and that he was ready to leave for the U.S.; the JDC advised him to remain as long as possible but left the ultimate decision to him, 7/31/40(2). Beckelman agreed to remain until further notice, 8/8/40 cable Beckelman to JDC. Memo on the status of JDC remittances to Lithuania, 8/22/40. Beckelman informed the JDC that to stay was useless if it failed to transmit funds to him while non-Jewish welfare agencies were receiving them via Switzerland, 8/26/40(4). The JDC asked Beckelman to stay and to wind up its affairs, 9/18/40 cable JDC to Schwartz. Correspondence: M.W. Beckelman, G. Bider, M.A. Leavitt, J.J. Schwartz, M.C. Troper.
Index Terms:
Administration
Beckelman, M.W.
Bider, G.
Leavitt, M.A.
Lithuania
Refugee Aid
Refugees
Schwartz, J.J.
Troper, M.C.
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File 732: Lithuania: Administration, General, 1940 (Oct.) - 1944
Status of refugee emigration from Vilna, 11/9/40, 11/29/40, 12/3/40; also see below: Files 738-739, Committee on Lithuanian Yeshivoth. Statements on the situation in Lithuania, by G. Bider, 11/27/40(2), 12/23/40. Beckelman informed the JDC that his position was untenable and the time to leave has come, 12/9/40 - 12/13/40. The Lithuanian Gov't ordered the JDC office to close as of 12/31/40, 1/3/41, 1/9/41. Memo on the JDC obligation to the Lithuanian Gov't, M.W. Beckelman, 5/27/41. Report: Rescue Operations through Vilna, Yehuda Bauer, 1973. For additional materials on Beckelman, see: File 123b. Correspondence: M.W. Beckelman, G. Bider, J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt, I. Rosen, J.J. Schwartz, M.C. Troper.
Index Terms:
Administration
Beckelman, M.W.
Bider, G.
Emigration
Hyman, J.C.
Leavitt, M.A.
Lithuania
Refugees
Reports
Rosen, I.
Schwartz, J.J.
Troper, M.C.
Vilna
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File 733: Lithuania: Administration, Financial
Audit Oct. - Dec. 1939. Monthly Statements of Cash Receipts and Expenditures of JDC Vilna, Feb. - Dec. 1940 (Nov. missing). Statement of Isaac claims, 7/17/40. Note: Most of the Statements are accompanied by cover letters of explanation by M.W. Beckelman.
Index Terms:
Administration
Beckelman, M.W.
Financial
Lithuania
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Series 2: Lithuania: Organizations
Association for Assistance to Poor Sick Jews, "Miszmeres/Chojlim," Vilna Medical Aid, File 734. Association for Orphan Assistance and Child Protection "Centros," Vilna Child Care, File 734. Association "Hilf durch Arbet," Vilna Vocational Training, File 734. Association of Jewish Women, Vilna Vocational Training, File 734. Association of Jewish Writers and Journalists in Vilna Refugees, File 741.1. Association "Toz," Vilan Medical Aid, File 734. Central Jewish Refugee Committee, Kaunas Refugees, File 741.4. Committee on Lithuanian-Polish Yeshivoth Emigration, Files 738-739. Ezro Relief Committee, Kaunas Refugees, File 741.2 File 741.4, Vilna Kehillah Refugee Committee, 5/15/40 - 5/20/40. Javneh, Kaunas Cult. and Religious, File 736. Jewish Commerz Gymnasium, Kaunas Cult. and Religious, File 736. Jewish Culture League, Kaunas Cult. and Religious, File 736. Jewish Local Committee "Ikopo," Vilna Refugees, File 741.3. Jewish Orphanage, Kaunas Child Care, File 734. Society for the Help and Protection of the Poor Jewish Children in Lithuania, Kaunas Child Care, File 734. Society of Lovers of Knowledge, Kaunas See: Jewish Culture League. Tarbuth, Kaunas Cult. and Religious, File 736. Verband juedischer Volksbanken, Kaunas Reconstruction, File 740. Vilna Kehilla Refugee Relief Committee Refugees, File 741.4. Yeshivot Cult. and Religious, File 737.
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Series 3: Lithuania: Subject Matter
Cultural and Religious -- Over the years, JDC aid went to Jewish elementary and secondary schools as well as to yeshivot. Elementary and secondary schools came in three categories: Tarbut. Zionist oriented; Hebrew was the language of instruction. Yiddishist. Socialist oriented; Yiddish was the language of instruction. Javneh. Religious traditional; Hebrew was the language at some schools and Yiddish at others. Jewish elementary schools often received some aid from the Lithuanian Gov't but the yeshivoth were entirely dependent upon private support. The yeshivot received the greater share of JDC aid for Cult. and Relig. Education. For JDC emigration assistance to yeshiva groups, see: Files 738-739. Note: Following the occupation of Vilna by Lithuania in Oct. 1939, JDC allocations were also granted to Jewish schools in Vilna. Emigration -- Following the Russian demarche into Lithuania in Aug. 1940, representatives of leading Jewish organizations, among them the JDC, the AJC, the B'nai B'rith, the HIAS, the WJC, ZOA and the Agudas Harabonim, met to consider the strategy for the rescue of yeshiva and rabbinical groups in Lithuania. Paul Baerwald presided. He appointed two sub-committees: Political (Chairman: Dr. Stephen Wise) to deal with U.S. Gov't officials. Finance (Chairman: Dr. Bernhard Kahn) to supervise the distribution of funds. The emigration route lay by way of Moscow and the Trans-Siberian R.R. to Vladivostok, and thence to Japan and to overseas countries. For the initial transportation costs to Japan the JDC allocated $10,000, the B'nai B'rith $7,500, the HIAS, $5,000, while the Agudas Harabonim undertook to cover one-half the costs. Subsequently, the JDC granted $51,680 more for transportation costs. The emigrants usually lacked acceptable visas to overseas lands and they had to stay over in Japan for months, while the necessary visas were sought. In major part, the JDC shouldered the heavy stopover costs in Japan, as well as the additional transportation costs to overseas countries. On 1/1/41, the authorities in Lithuania issued a decree requiring refugees to apply for Soviet citizenship by 1/25/41, or else be declared stateless. Exit visas were obtainable by those able to leave. The decree greatly spurred the attempts of Jewish refugees to emigrate. For an account of JDC aid to refugee yeshiva and rabbinical groups from Poland, see below: File 739, Memo 2/4/44. For additional data on the movement of these groups, see: Lithuania, Files 730-732 Japan, File 727 Vaad Hahatzalah, Files 360-362. Medical Aid, 1940 -- Note: Materials are in the same file with Child Care. Monthly statistical reports of Association "TOZ", Vilna, April - June 1940. Fin. report of Association for Assistance to Poor Sick Jews, "Miszmeres Chojlim", Vilna. Vocational Training -- Note: Materials are in the same file with Child Care/ In 1939/40, the JDC granted small allocations to two Jewish vocational schools in Vilna - the Association "Hilf durch Arbet", and the Association of Jewish Women in Vilna. The JDC had also contributed in 1927 to the purchase and equipment of its school building. Memo on the Association "Hilf durch Arbet" 9/9/40 attachment to 6/5/40, Activities report for 1939/40 of the Association of Jewish Women School, attachment to 7/12/40.
Index Terms:
Cultural and Religious
Lithuania
Schools
Yeshivot
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File 734: Lithuania: Subject Matter, Child Care
JDC allocations for child care came to $42,200 between 1933 - 1940 and were granted mostly following the annexation of Vilna (1939 = $9,881, 1940 = $19,130). The materials in the file stem mostly from the last named period.
Index Terms:
Child Care
Lithuania
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File 735: Lithuania: Subject Matter, Cultural and Religious, General
Analyses of aid granted to Lithuanian and Polish refugee yeshivoth 11/15/39 - 4/12/40, 5/23/40. Report on Jewish elementary schools in the city and province of Vilna, 4/19/40 attachment to 5/24/40. Fin. Reports of the Central Educational Committee Vilna Jan. - May 1940, attachment to 7/8/40. Statistics of yeshiva students in Vilna, 12/4/39. Correspondence: M.W. Beckelman, H.K. Buchman, M.M. Fagen, M.A. Leavitt.
Index Terms:
Beckelman, M.W.
Buchman, H.K.
Cultural and Religious
Fagen, M.M.
Financial
Leavitt, M.A.
Lithuania
Reports
Schools
Vilna
Yeshivot
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File 736: Lithuania: Subject Matter, Cultural and Religious, Elementary and Secondary Schools
Javneh, Kaunas, 1937 - 1939. Jewish Commerz Gymnasium, Kaunas, 1935 - 1939: This was a Jewish commercial secondary school, and the language of instruction was Yiddish. JDC allocations came to $965 all told, between 1935 - 1939. Ten Year Report of Activities, 1926 - 1936 attachment to 2/21/38. Jewish Culture League, Kovno, 1933 - 1939 and Society of Lovers of Knowledge, Kovno, 1939 - 1940: The League conducted elementary schools and nurseries in Kaunas and in rural regions of Lithuania. Yiddish was the language of instruction. Between 1933 - 1940, the JDC granted $1,608 in all. Tarbuth, 1933 - 1940: The Tarbuth institutions were in the front rank of Jewish schools in Lithuania. Between 1933 - 1940, JDC aid came to $4,300 all told.
Index Terms:
Javneh
Jewish Commerz Gymnasium
Jewish Culture League
Lithuania
Schools
Society of Lovers of Knowledge
Tarbuth
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File 737: Lithuania: Subject Matter, Cultural and Religious, Yeshivot
1. Ponevetz, 1936 - 1940: Between 1933 - 1939, JDC allocations reached $2,738 in all. For a thumbnail account of the yeshiva, see: 6/6/40. 2. Slabodka, 1939 - 1941: Between 1934 - 1938, JDC aid came to $985 in all. 3. Talmudical Academy Kollel, Kovno, 1939 - 1941: Between 1936 - 1939, JDC aid reached $2,000 all told. 4. Telsiai, 1935 - 1944: Between 1933 - 1940, JDC aid amounted to $7,089. The greatest part came between 1937 - 1939 when it included allocations for relief aid to German refugee students enrolled at the yeshiva. The Telsiai yeshiva was renowned throughout the Jewish world. Numbers of teachers and students at the yeshiva succeeded in emigrating to the U.S. in 1940 - 1941, in considerable part with JDC aid. On 10/28/41 they opened in Cleveland a transplanted yeshiva, the Rabbinical College of Telshe. The yeshiva has remained in active service down to the present day. For accounts of the yeshiva, see: 12/5/33 attachment to 12/8/33, Information on European Yeshivoth March 1939, Bulletin of the Rabbinical College of Telshe January 1944.
Index Terms:
Lithuania
Ponevetz
Relief Aid
Schools
Slabodka
Talmudical Academy Kollel
Telsiai
Yeshivot
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File 738: Lithuania: Subject Matter, Emigration, Yeshivah and Rabbinical Groups, 1940 - 1941 (Jan.)
Committee meetings dealing with the emigration of the yeshiva groups: 8/8/40, 9/9/40, 10/10/40, 10/21/40, 11/7/40, 12/26/40, 1/6/41, 1/15/41. Other data on the emigration of those groups: 12/16/40, 12/18/40, 12/20/40, 1/9/41 JDC Lisbon to N.Y., 1/16/41, 1/17/41 Memo, 1/27/41, 1/29/41. Memo on Fin. Problems in re Lithuanian Emigration, 1/8/41. Correspondence: J.L. Bernstein, M. Bisgyer, H.K. Buchman, I. Hershfield, B. Kahn, M.A. Leavitt, H. Monsky, A. Teitelbaum, Stephen Wise.
Index Terms:
Bernstein, J.L.
Bisgyer, M.
Buchman, H.K.
Emigration
Hershfield, I.
Kahn, B.
Leavitt, M.A.
Lithuania
Monsky, H.
Rabbinical Groups
Teitelbaum, A.
Wise, Stephen
Yeshivah
#Return to Top
File 739: Lithuania: Subject Matter, Emigration, Yeshivah and Rabbinical Groups, 1941 (Feb.) - 1944; 1947
On the emigration of the yeshiva groups: 2/14/41, 2/19/41 Leavitt to Hayes, 3/7/41, 3/14/41, 3/21/41 Buchman to Veret, 3/28/41, 4/7/41 Memo, 4/14/41(2), 6/10/41, 8/27/41, 9/2/41, 9/29/41, 1/22/42 Kahn to Wasserman, 6/18/42, 2/4/44. Correspondence: H.K. Buchman, W. Gold, S. Hayes, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, M.A. Leavitt, El. Silver.
Index Terms:
Buchman, H.K.
Emigration
Gold, W.
Hayes, S.
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, B.
Leavitt, M.A.
Lithuania
Rabbinical Groups
Silver, El.
Yeshivah
#Return to Top
File 740: Lithuania: Subject Matter, Reconstruction
Loan Kassas: A network of Jewish loan kassas (Volksbanken) was created in the 1920's with JDC aid. They were united in the Verband juedischer Volksbanken (Verband). The loan kassas suffered heavy losses during the depression years, and in 1937 - 1938 they were reorganized with the aid of allocations by the JDC Recon. Foundation. All were nationalized on 8/31/40, following the Russian demarche upon Lithuania. Foundation representative N. Aronovici recommended the reorganization of the loan kassas, 2/15/37. Minutes of the meeting between directors of the Foundation and the Verband, 3/12 - 3/13/37. Verband report for 1937 (Yiddish) and Resolutions adopted by it, 5/22 - 5/23/37 attachment to 5/31/38. Fin. reports on inspections of individual loan kassas, Jan. - April 1940. Fin. statements and explanations by various kassas, May 1940. Balance sheet of the Verband for 1939, which listed kassas in 93 cities and towns for which they were the clearing bank, 5/28/40. Balance sheet in Lithuania of the JDC Foundation as of 9/1/40, attachment to 9/8/40. Correspondence: N. Aronovici, M. Beckelman, B. Kahn, M. Katz, L. Oungre, D.J. Schweitzer.
Index Terms:
Aronovici, N.
Beckelman, M.
Kahn, B.
Katz, M.
Lithuania
Loan Kassas
Oungre, L.
Reconstruction
Schweitzer, D.J.
Verband juedischer Volksbanken (Verband)
#Return to Top
File 741: Lithuania: Subject Matter, Refugees
Note: Materials on the activities of refugee organizations in Vilna are contained in this file. For all other materials on refugees in Lithuania, see above: Files 730-732. For materials on the yeshiva and rabbinical groups, see: Files 738-739. Organizations: 1. Association of Jewish Writers and Journalists, Vilna: Report on expenditure of JDC funds, 1/30/40(2). 2. Central Jewish Refugee Committee, Kaunas Ezra Refugee Committee, Kaunas: Report of audit of Ezra Refugee Committee for the year 1939, undated. Fin. and statistical reports, monthly, June - Sept. 1940. Also see below: Kehillah Refugee Committee, Vilna, 5/15/40 - 5/20/40. 3. Kehilla Refugee Committee, Vilna: Report of audit for the year 1939, undated. Kehilla Narrative Reports: Nov./Dec. 1939, 1/5/40; Jan. 1940 undated, and summary attachment to 5/9/40; Feb./March 1940 attachment to 5/24/40. Organizations and groups receiving Passover aid 1940, April 1940. Memos on the Kehillah by M.W. Beckelman, 4/9/40, 5/20/40 and attachment, 5/24/40. Kehillah Fin. Reports: Oct. 1939 - May 1940 attachment to 6/21/40; monthly reports 1940: March attachment to 5/28/40, April attachment to 5/30/40, July.
Index Terms:
Association of Jewish Writers and Journalists
Central Jewish Refugee Committee
Ezra Refugee Committee
Financial
Jewish Local Committee "Ikopo"
Kaunas
Kehilla Refugee Committee
Lithuania
Refugees
Reports
Vilna
Vocational Training
#Return to Top
Record Group 4.40: Luxemburg
File 742: Luxemburg: Emigration
In Aug. and Oct. 1940, some 200 Jews were brought from Luxemburg to Portugal and finally were admitted there conditionally, 11/14/40(2), 10/15/40, 11/2/40, 11/15/40, 3/12/41. In Nov. 1940, the Nazis expelled 290 Luxemburg Jews and sent them to Portugal, whence they were sent to France and placed in a detention camp near Bayonne, 11/16/40, 11/18/40, 11/21/40, 11/26/40 attachment to 11/29/40, 11/30/40, 12/14/40 (list of persons in the transport), 1/30/41, 3/12/41. Some 130 Luxemburg Jews arrived in Barcelona as attempts were made to get them visas for overseas lands, 10/20/41 JDC Lisbon to N.Y., 10/25/41 - 11/13/41, 11/21/41 Memo, 12/5/41 12/31/41 - 3/1/42. Reports and memos on the situation in Luxemburg: M.S. Tchernick, 8/3/38; Centrale Israelite de Prevoyance Social (Ezra), 7/31/39, 2/18/40; R. Serebrenik, 9/16/40 attachment to 10/30/40, undated [end of November 1941]; A. Nussbaum, attachments to 9/28/40 and 10/15/40; M.C. Troper, 11/21/40; L.S. Trone, 3/12/41. Correspondence: V. Bodson, B. Kahn, M.A. Leavitt, B. Long, A. Nussbaum, J.J. Schwartz, R. Serebrenick, M.C. Troper, S. Trone.
Index Terms:
Bayonne
Bodson, V.
Emigration
France
Kahn, B.
Leavitt, M.A.
List
Long, B.
Luxemburg
Nussbaum, A.,
Portugal
Reports
Schwartz, J.J.
Serebrenick, R.
Trone, S.
Troper, M.C.
#Return to Top
Record Group 4.41: Mexico
File 743: Mexico: Refugees, 1938 - 1941
Memos by B. Kahn: "The Jewish Community in Mexico", 9/5/39 and a "J.T.A. Report on Jewish Colonization in Mexico" 1/22/41. Fin. and Statistical Reports by the Comite Central: 1940, Jan., Feb., March. Correspondence: S. Arons, S. Coons, M. Glikowsky, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, S.C. Kohs, F. Lisker, M.A. Leavitt, E.I. Nathan, R. Pilpel, J.J. Schwartz, A. Wolfowitz.
Index Terms:
Arons, S.
Coons, S.
Glikowsky, M.
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, B.
Kohs, S.C.
Leavitt, M.A.
Lisker, F.
Mexico
Nathan, E.I.
Pilpel, R.
Refugees
Schwartz, J.J.
Wolfowitz, A.
#Return to Top
File 744: Mexico: Refugees, 1942 - 1944
Reports and memos on visits to the Comite Central: M. Beckelman, 6/1/42 attachment to 6/8/42, 6/12/42, 6/21/42(2), 6/22/42; N. Weisman, 10/15/42; B. Gebiner, 11/28/43, 12/23/43. The JDC agreed in principle to guarantee maintenance for the duration of the war of up to 500 refugees who would be granted asylum in Mexico, 11/5/42, 11/6/42, 2/17/43, 3/12/43, 3/19/43, 3/31/43, 5/19/43, 7/2/43, 9/17/43, 1/2/44. Fin. Statements by Comite Central: 1942 - Feb., May, July, 10/1/42 - 9/30/43, Oct. 1943; 10/1/42 - 12/24/43, 2/21/44. Correspondence: S. Arons, M.W. Beckelman, L. Behar, H.D. Biele, J. Ciechanowski, B. Gebiner, M. Glikowsky, B. Kahn, H. Katzki, M.A. Leavitt, R. Pilpel, S. Sulkes, M.C. Troper, N. Weisman.
Index Terms:
Arons, S.
Beckelman, M.W.
Behar, L.
Biele, H.D.
Ciechanowski, J.
Comite Central Israelita de Mexico
Gebiner, B.
Glikowsky M.
Kahn, B.
Katzki, H.
Leavitt, M.A.
Mexico
Pilpel, R.
Refugees
Refugees
Reports
Sulkes, S.
Troper, M.C.
Weisman, N.
#Return to Top
Record Group 4.42: Morocco
File 745: Morocco, General
Correspondence, memos, reports, addenda. Memo on the situation in Morocco, M.A. Leavitt, 4/8/41. Reports: Situation of refugees still in Morocco, R. Spanien, 10/9/41. General situation of the Jews in North Africa, 11/13/42, Moroccan trip of inspection, J.J. Schwartz, 7/19/43. Report on N. Africa November 1943, D.B. Hurwitz, Fin. Statements: 1/1/43 - 6/30/43, 1/1/43 - 12/31/43. Correspondence: H. Benatar, C. Goold, D.B. Hurwitz, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, H. Katzki, M.A. Leavitt, R. Pilpel, J.J., Schwartz.
Index Terms:
Benatar, H.
Goold, C.
Hurwitz, D.B.
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, B.
Katzki, H.
Labor Camps
Leavitt, M.A.
Morocco
Pilpel, R.
Refugee Relief
Reports
Schwartz, J.J.
#Return to Top
Record Group 4.43: Norway
#Return to Top
Record Group 4.44: Palestine
Series 1: Palestine: Administration
File 746: Palestine: Administration, General, 1933 - 1939
On JDC aid to Palestine: 12/14/36, 5/5/37, 11/9/37, 10/18/38, 7/28/39, 9/12/39, 10/25/39, 11/1/39. Also see: JDC Committee on Palestine, File 99. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, M.B. Hexter, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, J.L. Magnes, E.A. Norman, D.W. Senator, D.R. Travis, M.C. Troper.
Index Terms:
Administration
Baerwald, P.
Hexter, M.B.
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, B.
Magnes, J.L.
Norman, E.A.
Palestine
Relief
Senator, D.W.
Travis, D.R.
Troper, M.C.
#Return to Top
File 747: Palestine: Administration, General, 1940 - 1942
On JDC aid to Palestine: 1/15/40 Kahn to Nagnes, 1/22/40, 2/20/40, 3/17/40, 4/1/40, 4/11/40, 5/8/40, 10/23/40, 1/15/41, 6/25/41, 8/31/42; the JDC granted $200,000 for aid to families of soldiers, 7/21/42 - 7/29/42, 8/4/42 - 8/18/42, 8/31/42, 9/10/42, 9/19/42, 10/20/42. Reports: "Jewish Colonization in Palestine", by W.C. Lowdermilk attachment to 11/20/40. Also see above: File 99. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, D. Ben-Gurion, E.M. Friedman, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, M.A. Leavitt, S. Lowenstein, J.L. Magnes, I. Rosen, J.J. Schwartz, J. Simon, P. Warburg, E.M.M. Warburg.
Index Terms:
Administration
Baerwald, P.
Ben-Gurion, D.
Friedman, E.M.
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, B.
Leavitt, M.A.
Lowenstein, S.
Magnes, J.L.
Palestine
Relief
Reports
Rosen, I.
Schwartz, J.J.
Simon, J.
Warburg, E.M.M.
Warburg, P.
#Return to Top
File 748: Palestine: Administration, General, 1943 - 1944; 1945
On JDC aid to Palestine: The JDC granted $50,000 to the Histadruth for social welfare and refugee retraining activities in Palestine, 11/10/43, 12/4/43. The JDC granted $80,000 per month to the Jewish Agency between Dec. 1943 - Oct. 31, 1944 for special relief needs in Palestine, 12/7/43, 1/14/44, 3/28/44, 4/5/44, 4/25/44, 5/23/44, 5/27/44, 7/28/44, 9/9/44 Leavitt to Pilpel, 9/25/44, 9/29/44, 10/18/44. Magnes proposed the appointment of a JDC representative for the Middle East, 4/13/43, 4/15/43, 4/22/43, 9/7/43, 9/30/43, 10/4/43, 10/10/43, 12/15/43, 1/20/44, 1/21/44, 3/28/45. Magnes proposed the formation of a JDC Advisory Committee in Palestine for the consideration of JDC activities in that country, 5/14/43, 6/10/43, 6/25/43, 7/13/43, 9/30/43 - 10/6/43, 10/12/43, 10/14/43(2), 10/20/43 Cable #236, 11/4/43, 3/21/44, 8/21/44, 9/7/44, 12/19/44, 2/7/45. Meetings of the Advisory Comm: 11/1/43, 11/29/43, 1/3/44, 1/5/44, 1/19/44, 1/25/44, 2/6/44, 2/9/44, 3/6/44, 3/27/44, 4/18/44, 5/8/44, 5/19/44, 5/21/44, 5/22/44, 7/23/44 7/24/44, 8/7/44. Report: Report of Activities Feb. 1944 - 3/21/44, by R.B. Reznik. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt, J.L. Magnes, R. Pilpel, Wm. Rosenwald, J.J. Schwartz, H. Viteles.
Index Terms:
Administration
Baerwald, P.
Hyman, J.C.
Leavitt, M.
Magnes, J.L.
Palestine
Pilpel, R.
Relief
Reports
Rosenwald, Wm.
Schwartz, J.J.
Viteles, H.
Welfare
#Return to Top
File 749: Palestine: Administration, General, Palestine Partition Proposal
In July 1937, a British Royal Commission (Peel Commission) proposed the partition of Palestine into three segments: a Jewish State, an Arab State and a British Zone under a permanent mandate. Early in August 1937, Felix M. Warburg led a delegation of non-Zionists to a meeting of the Council of the Jewish Agency in Zurich, Switzerland, in an effort to seek a peaceful solution to the Palestine problem and to avert partition if possible. Discussions between Jewish bodies and the British authorities stretched over a considerable span, but ultimately the partition scheme fell through. Correspondence: C. Adler, J.C. Hyman, M.J. Karpf, H. Katzki, J.L. Magnes, J.N. Rosenberg, S.M. Strook.
Index Terms:
Adler, C.
Administration
Hyman, J.C.
Karpf, M.J.
Katzki, H.
Magnes, J.L.
Palestine
Palestine Partition Proposal
Rosenberg, J.N.
Strook, S.M.
Switzerland
Zurich
#Return to Top
File 750: Palestine: Administration, Financial
Fin. Statements of JDC Funds Administered by Dr. Magnes; monthly and cumulative, with many omissions, 1942 - 1944.
Index Terms:
Administration
Financial
Magnes, J.L.
Palestine
#Return to Top
Series 2: Palestine: Organizations
Note: For a report on 22 organizations in Palestine by the CJFWF, see below: File 752, "Palestinian Yeshivoth and Charitable Agencies" Nov. 1938. Alumah, Jerusalem, see: File 762.2 American Committee for the Relief and Resettlement of Yemenite Jews, see: Files 767-769.
File 751: Palestine: Organizations, Miscellaneous 1
American Econ. Committee for Palestine, New York, 1933 - 1936. For materials see: 8/10/33 - 10/18/33, 7/3/34. American Friends of the Hebrew Univ., see: Files 759-760. Beth Joseph Zvi, Jerusalem, see: File 762.2. Central Agudath Israel of Eretz Israel, Jerusalem, see: File 757. Central Bank of Cooperative Institutions in Palestine, see: Files 774-775. Central Beth Jacob Board of Trustees for Palestine, Jerusalem, see: File 757. Central Bureau for the Settlement of German Jews of the Jewish Agency for Palestine, Jerusalem, see: Files 765-766. Central Committee for the Relief of Refugee Rabbis from Nazi Countries, see: File 778.. Central Relief for Refugee Rabbis in Tel Aviv (Ezrath Thorah); see: File 778.. Chatam Sofer-Ketab-Sofer, Jerusalem, see: File 762.2. Committee for the Relief of Refugee Rabbis from Russia, etc., see: File 778. Council of the Ashkenazi Jewish Community, Jerusalem (Waad Hair), 1939 - 1944, see:. Diskin Orphan Asylum, Jerusalem, see: File 754.2. For earlier materials, see: Archives 1921 - 1932, File 267. Doresh Zion School, Jerusalem, see: File 758. Federated Council of Palestine Institutions, New York, 1940 - 1944. For materials see: 7/7/43; also see: 9/7/40, 9/18/40, 4/6/43. Federation of Palestine Jews of America, 1934. For materials see: 6/27/34, 7/5/34, 7/16/34. General Council of the Jewish Community of Palestine, see: File 752, Vaad Leumi. General Federation of Jewish Labor in Palestine, Tel Aviv, see: Files 748, 758.c. General Israel Orphan Home for Girls (Weingarten Orphanage), Jerusalem, see: File 754.b. For earlier materials, see: Archives 1921 - 1932, File 267. Gymnasium "ATID", Tel Aviv, see: File 758.b. Hapoel Hamizrachi, Tel Aviv, see: File 762. Hebrew Teachers College, Jerusalem, see: File 761. Hebrew Technical Institute, Haifa, see: File 758.d. Hebrew University, Jerusalem, see: File 759-760. Histadrut, see: General Federation of Jewish Labor in Palestine. Hitachdut Olej Germania, Tel Aviv, see: American Econ. Committee for Palestine. Jewish Hospital "Shaare Zedek", Jerusalem, 1939 - 1942, For materials see: 9/13/39, 4/3/40, 10/28/40. For earlier years, see: Archives 1921 - 1932, File 293. Junior Agudist Organization, Tel Aviv, see: File 757. Koheleth Trust, Jerusalem, see: File 762. Kupat Milve, Jerusalem, see: Files 774-775. Merkaz Chinuch Ha-Torah Be-Eretz Israel, Tel Aviv, see: Files 758.e, 762. Ohel Jacob Kindergarten and Day Nurseries, see: File 754.2. Palestine Advisory Committee, see: File 777. Palestine Economic Corp. (PEC), see: Files 771-773.. For earlier years, see: Archives 1921 - 1932, Files 316-320. Rabbinical College Qol Thora, Jerusalem, see: File 762.2. United Talmud Torahs "Beney Zion", Jerusalem, see: File 758.f. United Yemenite Organization of Palestine, Tel Aviv, see: Files 767-769.
Index Terms:
American Economic Committee for Palestine
Federated Council of Palestine Institutions
Federation of Palestine Jews of America
Histadrut
Hitachdut Olej Germania
Jerusalem
Jewish Hospital "Shaare Zedek"
New York
Palestine
Tel Aviv
#Return to Top
File 752: Palestine: Organizations, Miscellaneous 2
Vaad Leumi (General Council of the Jewish Community of Palestine), 1936 - 1940: For materials see: 4/2/37, 6/18/37, 4/8/38, 5/4/38, 11/25/38, 11/1/39, 4/2/40 Weingarten Orphanage, see: General Israel Orphan Home for Girls
Index Terms:
Palestine
Vaad Leumi (General Council of the Jewish Community of Palestine
Weingarten Orphanage
#Return to Top
File 753: Palestine: Organizations, Miscellaneous 3
Women's International Zionist Organization, (WIZO), Tel Aviv, 1940 - 1941; 1943: For materials see: 6/24/40, 8/1/41 Yemenite Organization in Palestine, Tel Aviv, see: Files 758.g, 752, Report Sept. 1938
Index Terms:
Palestine
Tel Aviv
Women's International Zionist Organization (WIZO)
Yemenite Organization in Palestine
#Return to Top
Series 3: Palestine: Subject Matter
Cultural and Religious -- allocations came to some $679,000 in all, a major source of income for Palestine. The overwhelming share of the funds were granted in the war years, and most notably in 1943 - 1944. Yeshivot and other institutions of higher learning, including the Hebrew University, were the major beneficiaries, and in the later years, refugee rabbis also received substantial sums. Except for the allocations to the Hebrew University the funds came via the JDC Cultural Committee Chairman: Cyrus Adler until his death in 1940, and Leo Jung thereafter. Annual allocations took the following pattern: (Year: Cult. Committee/Hebrew Univ./Total): 1933: $2,000/$--/$2,000; 1934: 2,000/25,213/27,213; 1935: 2,000/12,500/14,500; 1936: 5,500/12,500/18,000; 1937: 8,500/13,000/21,500; 1938: 8,700/13,000/21,700; 1939: 27,775/12,500/40,275; 1940: 43,205/12,500/55,705; 1941: 40,895/12,500/53,395; 1942: 50,551/12,500/63,051; 1943: 145,790/12,500/158,290; 1944: 191,000 (Est.)/12,500/203,500 (Est.); Decade Totals: $527,916/$151,213/$679,129. Hebrew University -- The Hebrew University was opened on 4/1/25 as a research institution for graduate studies, but in the next years, new departments were added and undergraduate studies followed. The establishment of the university and its departments was privately financed, and Felix Warburg played a leading role therein (he was also Chairman of the JDC at the time). After his death in 1937, his widow Freda Schiff Warburg carried on in his stead as an active supporter of the institution. In 1926 and in the following years the JDC allocated funds for the establishment and support of the H.U.'s Dept. of Hygiene and Bacteriology which became renowned the world over. Between 1934 - 1944, the JDC made annual allocations to the H.U., which reached $151,000 all told and also aided in the absorption on the faculty of refugee professors and other scholars. Between 1933 - 1944, Chaim Weizmann served as Chairman of the Board of Governors. Judah L. Magnes served as Chancellor, and from 1935 onwards as President. The American Friends of the Hebrew University, New York (Pres.: A.S.M. Rosenbach, Exec. Dir., S.B. Finkel), has been the most active body outside of Israel in raising funds for the H.U. For earlier materials, see: JDC Archives 1921 - 1932, File 281. Reconstruction -- Palestine Economic Corp. (PEC), New York: The PEC was organized in 1925 by a merger of the assets in Palestine of the JDC Recon. Committee and the Pal. Cooperative Co., so as to aid in the economic development of the country along productive lines. The JDC also contributed $1,200,000 in cash to the PEC between 1926 - 1928, and subsequently contributed an equity in a Loan Bank to a value of over $300,000. Bernard Flexner became the Pres. and subsequently Chairman of the Board, a post he held until the end of 1944. Julius Simon served as Pres. between 1933 - 1944. The PEC was the parent company with a number of Palestine subsidiaries, among them the Central Bank of Cooperative Institutions in Palestine (File 774), the Palestine Mtg. and Credit Bank and the Bayside Land Corp. For PEC materials covering the years 1925 - 1932, see: Archives 1921 - 1932, Files 316-320.
Index Terms:
Adler, C.
Cultural and Religious
Hebrew University
JDC Cultural Committee
Palestine
Rabbis
Refugees
War
Yeshivot
#Return to Top
File 754: Palestine: Subject Matter, Child Care
1. Child Feeding, 1934; 1939 - 1940: In 1940, the JDC granted funds for child feeding in Palestine, at a time when the war had cut off established sources of funds for that activity in Europe. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, B. Kahn, J.L. Magnes, S. Lowenstein, E.M.M. Warburg. 2. Organizations: The JDC made small, occasional grants, directly or indirectly to the three organizations listed below. For additional materials on the first two organizations, see: Archives 1921 - 1932, File 267 a. Diskin Orphan Asylum, Jerusalem, 1940 - 1943 b. General Israel Orphan Home for Girls (Weingarten Orphanage), Jerusalem, 1940 - 1942, see: File 752, Report Nov. 1938, Child Care c. Ohel Jacob Kindergarten and Day Nurseries, 1938 - 1944
Index Terms:
Baerwald, P.
Child Care
Child Feeding
Diskin Orphan Asylum
General Israel Orphan Home for Girls (Weingarten Orphanage)
Jerusalem
Kahn, B.
Lowenstein, S.
Magnes, J.L.
Ohel Jacob Kindergarten and Day Nurseries
Palestine
Warburg, E.M.M.
#Return to Top
File 755: Palestine: Subject Matter, Cultural and Religious, General, 1935; 1939 - 1942
Lists of cult. organizations in Palestine aided by the JDC - 1938: 11/2/39; 1939: 2/14/40; 1941: 4/15/42. Bulletin by the CJFWF on Palestine yeshivot and welfare institutions, 10/18/40 attachment to 10/23/40. Restrictions on JDC cultural allocations owing to the shortage of funds, 10/23/39. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, H.K. Buchman, I. Herzog, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, M.A. Leavitt, J.L. Magnes, I. Rosen, A. Teitelbaum.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, P.
Buchman, H.K.
Council of Jewish Federation and Welfare Funds (CJFWF)
Cultural and Religious
Herzog, I.
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, B.
Leavitt, M.A.
List
Magnes, J.L.
Palestine
Rosen, I.
Teitelbaum, A.
Yeshivot
#Return to Top
File 756: Palestine: Subject Matter, Cultural and Religious, General, 1943 - 1945
Lists of cult. organizations in Palestine aided by the JDC - 1942: 12/19/44; 1943: 12/31/43; 1944 (1st 9 months): 12/19/44. Report on the Palestine yeshivot affiliated with the Vaad Hayeshivot, by Prof. I.J. Kligler, 2/6/44. The JDC allocated $50,000 to all the yeshivot for food and clothing subsidies, 3/30/44. Progress report on nutrition in the yeshivot aided by the JDC, 12/14/44. Correspondence: H.K. Buchman, I. Herzog, A. Horowitz, J.C. Hyman, L. Jung, I.J. Kligler, M.A. Leavitt, J.L. Magnes, I. Norman, J.J. Schwartz, L.H. Sobel.
Index Terms:
Buchman, H.K.
Clothing
Cultural and Religious
Food
Herzog, I.
Horowitz, A.
Hyman, J.C.
Jung, L.
Kligler, I.J.
Leavitt, M.A.
List
Magnes, J.L.
Norman, I.
Palestine
Schwartz, J.J.
Sobel, L.H.
Yeshivot
#Return to Top
File 757: Palestine: Subject Matter, Cultural and Religious, Agudath Israel Schools (Agudath)
The JDC Cult. Committee granted annual allocations to the Agudath organizations listed below, in the years cited. For materials in earlier years, see: Archives 1921 - 1932, File 270. a. Central Agudath Israel of Eretz Israel, Jerusalem, 1933 - 1944: Lists of Agudath schools in Palestine, attachments to: 11/29/35, 11/30/36, 12/20/37, 10/16/41, 10/14/43, 3/14/44, 10/11/44. Correspondence: M. Blau, H.K. Buchman, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, J. Rosenheim b. Central Beth Jacob Board of Trustees for Palestine, Jerusalem, 1940 - 1944: Report on the Beth Jacob schools by the Vaad Leumi, April 1942. Annual reviews of Beth Jacob activities for the years: 5702 (1941/42), 1/25/43; 5703 (1942/43), 11/15/43. Summary Review of Beth Jacob Movement in Palestine at the beginning of 5705 (Sept. 1944), undated. c. Junior Agudist Organization Palestine, Tel Aviv, 1943 - 1944: Brief Report of Activities, attachment to 3/15/44.
Index Terms:
Agudath Israel Schools (Agudath)
Blau, M.
Buchman, H.K.
Central Agudath Israel of Eretz Israel
Central Beth Jacob Board of Trustees for Palestine
Cultural and Religious
Education
Hyman, J.C.
Jerusalem
Junior Agudist Organizations Palestine
Kahn, B.
List
Palestine
Reports
Rosenheim, J.
Tel Aviv
#Return to Top
File 758: Palestine: Subject Matter, Cultural and Religious, Miscellaneous Elementary and Secondary Education
a. Doresh Zion School, Jerusalem, 1939 - 1943: Allocations were granted between 1939 - 1941. b. Gymnasium "ATID", Tel Aviv, 1939 - 1945: Allocations were granted between 1940 - 1945. Statistical Reports: 1941-42, 3/25/42; 1942-43, 5/26/43; Statistical and Fin. Reports, 9/43-8/44. c. General Federation of Jewish Labor in Palestine, Tel Aviv, 1933 -1941: JDC Allocations: 1933: $280; 1934: 280; 1935: 340; 1936: 514; 1937: 550; 1938: 900; 1939: $1,875; 1940: 2,750; 1941: 3,000; 1942: 8,000; 1943: 10,700; 1944: 24,631; Total: $53,820. Between 1940 - 1944, the major share of the grants stemmed from the allotments of the People's Relief Committee (PRC), and those funds in turn stemmed from JDC cultural funds. Correspondence: H.K. Buchman, J.C. Hyman, I. Mereminski, Goldie Myerson. d. Hebrew Technical Institute (at the Haifa Institute of Technology), Haifa, 1933; 1936; 1939 - 1940: Correspondence: P. Baerwald, D.M. Bressler, H.K. Buchman, Albert Einstein, J.C. Hyman, S. Kaplansky, F. Warburg. e. Mercaz Chinuch Ha-Torah Be-Eretz Israel, Tel Aviv, 1937; 1940 - 1946: Token allocations were granted in 1940, 1944. f. United Talmud Torahs "Beney Zion", Jerusalem, 1939 - 1944: Allocations were granted between 1940 - 1944. Statistical and Fin. Reports, 8/15/43 - 2/15/44. g. Yemenite Organizations in Palestine, Tel Aviv, 1939 - 1944: Allocations for Yemenite schools were granted in 1933 and 1939 - 1944. For other materials on the Yemenites, see: Files 767-769, Reports on Yemenite schools, 4/9/41, 6/7/43. Correspondence: H.K. Buchman, S. Gridi, I. Mereminski
Index Terms:
Baerwald, P.
Bressler, D.M.
Buchman, H.K.
Cultural and Religious
Doresh Zion School
Education
Einstein, Albert
Financial
General Federation of Jewish Labor in Palestine
Gridi, S.
Gymnasium "ATID"
Haifa
Hebrew Technical Institute
Hyman, J.C.
Jerusalem
Kaplansky, S.
Mercaz Chinuch Ha-Torah Be-Eretz Israel
Mereminski, I.
Myerson, Goldie
Palestine
Reports
Tel Aviv
United Talmud Torahs "Beney Zion"
Warburg, F.
Yemenite Organizations in Palestine
#Return to Top
File 759: Palestine: Subject Matter, Cultural and Religious, Hebrew University (H.U.), 1934 - 1939
Minutes of the H.U.'s Board of Governors Meeting at Lucerne, Switz. 9/8/35 - 9/9/35, attachment to 12/9/35. Notes on the same meeting by J.C. Hyman, 9/20/35. CJFWF Bulletins on the American Friends: Nov. 1936, March 1939. Also see below: File 779.a Correspondence: P. Baerwald, S.B. Finkel, J.C. Hyman, H. Katzki, Wm. Rosenwald, S. Schocken, J.J. Schwartz, R.W. Straus, F.M. Warburg.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, P.
Council of Jewish Federation and Welfare Funds (CJFWF)
Cultural and Religious
Education
Finkel, S.B.
Hebrew University (H.U.)
Hyman, J.C.
Katzki, H.
Lucerne
Minutes
Palestine
Rosenwald, Wm.
Schocken, S.
Schwartz, J.J.
Straus, R.W.
Switzerland
Warburg, F.M.
#Return to Top
File 760: Palestine: Subject Matter, Cultural and Religious, Hebrew University (H.U.), 1940 - 1945
CJFWF Bulletins on the American Friends: July 1940, May 1944. Correspondence: N. Bentwich, S.B. Finkel, J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt, J.L. Magnes, A.S.M. Rosenbach, D.W. Senator, E.M.M. Warburg.
Index Terms:
Bentwich, N.
Council of Jewish Federation and Welfare Funds (CJFWF)
Cultural and Religious
Education
Finkel, S.B.
Hebrew University (H.U.)
Hyman, J.C.
Leavitt, M.A.
Magnes, J.L.
Palestine
Rosenbach, A.S.M.
Senator, D.W.
Warburg, E.M.M.
#Return to Top
File 761: Palestine: Subject Matter, Cultural and Religious, Hebrew Teacher's College, Jerusalem
Allocations were granted in 1940. For earlier materials, see: Archives 1921 - 1932, File 272. Correspondence: H.K. Buchman, J.L. Magnes, D. Yellin.
Index Terms:
Buchman, H.K.
Cultural and Religious
Education
Hebrew Teacher's College
Hebrew University (H.U.)
Jerusalem
Magnes, J.L.
Palestine
Yellin, D.
#Return to Top
File 762: Palestine: Subject Matter, Cultural and Religious, Yeshivot
1. General: Also see: File 752, Palestine Yeshivoth and Charitable Agencies, Nov. 1938 a. HaRoel Hamizrachi, Tel Aviv b. Koheleth Trust, Jerusalem, (K.T.) 1938 - 1941 The K.T. was a foundation established for the grant of stipends to selected students at the Palestine yeshivot. The JDC cultural Committee allocated funds over a number of years. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, M. Berlin, H.K. Buchman. c. Merkaz Chinuch Hatorah B'Eretz Yisroel Correspondence: C. Adler, H.K. Buchman, J.C. Hyman, E.M. Morrissey, D.R. Travis. 2. Individual: a. Alumah, Jerusalem, 1940 b. Beth Joseph Zvi, Jerusalem, 1939 - 1944 c. Chatam Sofer-Ketab Sofer, Jerusalem, 1939 - 1943 d. Rabbinical College Qol Thora, Jerusalem, 1939 - 1944 (Agudas Yisroel)
Index Terms:
Adler, C.
Alumah
Baerwald, P.
Berlin, M.
Beth Joseph Zvi
Buchman, H.K.
Chatam Sofer-Ketab Sofer
Cultural and Religious
Education
Hapoel Hamizrachi
Hyman, J.C.
Jerusalem
Koheleth Trust
Merkaz Chinuch Hatorah B'Eretz Yisroel
Morrissey, E.M.
Palestine
Rabbinical College Ool Thora
Tel Aviv
Travis, D.R.
Yeshivot
#Return to Top
File 763: Palestine: Subject Matter, Immigration, General, 1934 - 1944 (Feb.)
Distribution of Jewish immigration to Palestine: 1933 - Oct. 1934, 11/4/34; 1934 - 1938, 3/28/39; 1939 - 1940, 1/14/41 - 1/17/41, 2/25/41, 4/4/41, 5/8/41, 8/1/41, UPA 1941 Yearbook: 1941 - 1943, 1/28/42, 9/30/42, 10/9/42, 3/5/43, 4/8/43, 4/15/43. Refugee absorption in Palestine, memo 6/23/39, 10/9/39, 11/4/39, 1/30/40, 4/19/43. Memos and statements on aspects of immigration: 11/15/35, 10/6/36, 5/18/37, 3/18/38, 7/7/38, 1/6/39, 3/31/43, 5/21/43. JDC expenditures in preparation for and transportation to Palestine: May 1940, 2/15/41, Feb. 1941, 2/27/41, 4/15/43, 1/3/44, 1/12/44, 1/19/44, 1/25/44, 1/27/44, 2/4/44. Proposal to evacuate 4,000 - 5,000 children from the Balkans to Palestine, 9/3/43, 10/26/43, 12/23/43. Lists of immigrants to Palestine from Yugoslavia (Kladovo): 6/6/41, 8/6/41; N. Africa: 2/3/44. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, Ch. Barlas, H.K. Buchman, M.B. Hexter, D.B. Hurwitz, J.C. Hyman, W. Israel, B. Kahn, H. Katzki, M.A. Leavitt, R. Pilpel, M. Rosenblueth, J.J. Schwartz, Ch. Weizmann.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, P.
Balkans
Barlas, Ch.
Buchman, H.K.
Children
Hexter, M.B.
Hurwitz, D.B.
Hyman, J.C.
Immigration
Israel, W.
Kahn, B.
Katzki, H.
Leavitt, M.A.
List
Palestine
Pilpel, R.
Refugees
Rosenblueth, M.
Schwartz, J.J.
Transportation
Weizmann, Ch.
Yugoslavia
#Return to Top
File 764: Palestine: Subject Matter, Immigration, General, 1944 (Mar.-Dec.)
Distribution of Jewish immigration to Palestine:1/1/44 - 6/2/44, 6/30/44, 10/26/44 Hyman to Bauling, summary report on immigration activities of the Jewish Agency (9/1/39 - 8/31/43) by J.N. Behar, attachment to 11/14/44. JDC expenditures for transportation to Palestine: 6/25/44, 7/25/44, 7/27/44, 8/11/44, 9/5/44, 9/6/44, 9/21/44, 9/28/44, 9/29/44, 10/5/44, 10/11/44, 11/4/44 Schwartz to Magnes, 11/16/44, 11/25/44, 12/7/44, 12/19/44 Leavitt to Lisbon, 12/20/44. Proposal to evacuate refugee children from the Balkans to Palestine: 3/20/44. Lists of immigrants to Palestine from: Rumania: 5/2/44; Southern Italy: May 1944 attachment to 7/31/44; 8/1/44. Exchanges (for German Nationals), 6/8/44 attachment to 7/6/44, 7/27/44, 9/14/44, SS Guine Lisbon to Haifa, 10/23/44. Correspondence: Ch. Barlas, J.N. Behar, J.C. Hyman, El. Kaplan, M.A. Leavitt, J.L. Magnes, R. Pilpel, M. Rosenblueth, J.J. Schwartz.
Index Terms:
Balkans
Barlas, Ch.
Behar, J.N.
Children
Hyman, J.C.
Immigration
Italy
Kaplan, El.
Leavitt, M.A.
List
Magnes, J.L.
Palestine
Pilpel, R.
Refugees
Rosenblueth, M.
Rumania
SS Guine
Schwartz, J.J.
Transportation
#Return to Top
File 765: Palestine: Subject Matter, Immigration, German Jews
Reports, Narrative: Oct.-Dec. 1933, 1/25/34; Oct. 1933 - March 1934, 3/31/34; Oct. 1933 -April 1934, attachment to 5/31/34; Oct. 1933 - June 1934, 7/15/34. Reports, Statistical: 1933 - 1934, 12/12/34, 3/15/35, 4/4/35; Jan. 1933 - Sept. 1935, Nov. 1935, 1/23/36; Jan. 1933 - Dec. 1935, 3/27/36. Correspondence: F.M. Warburg, Chaim Weizmann. The immigration of German Jews to Palestine was aided by the Central Bureau for the Settlement of German Jews in Palestine, of the Jewish Agency for Palestine (Central Bureau), Jerusalem, Chairman: Chaim Weizmann. For other materials on the immigration of German Jews, see: Germany: Files 657-664, 666, 674-676, 677-682, 684; HIAS: Files 244-248; ICA: Files 259-262; Jewish Agency for Palestine: Files 257-258.
Index Terms:
Central Bureau for the Settlement of German Jews in Palestine (Central Bureau)
Immigration
Palestine
Reports
Warburg, F.M.
Weizmann, Ch.
#Return to Top
File 766: Palestine: Subject Matter, Immigration, German Jews
Memos by the Central Bureau on German immigration and settlements: attachments to 10/14/36, 3/1/37, 10/30/41. Reports: "Jewish Immigration into Palestine from Germany 1933 - 1938", Feb. 1939. "Die Umschichtung der Juedischen Einwanderer aus Deutschland zu staedtischen Berufen in Palaestina", Ina Britschgi-Schimmer, 1936. Correspondence: B. Kahn, N. Katz, G. Landauer, M. Rosenblueth, M. Stephany. The immigration of German Jews to Palestine was aided by the Central Bureau for the Settlement of German Jews in Palestine, of the Jewish Agency for Palestine (Central Bureau), Jerusalem, Chairman: Chaim Weizmann. For other materials on the immigration of German Jews, see: Germany: Files 657-664, 666, 674-676, 677-682, 684; HIAS: Files 244-248; ICA: Files 259-262; Jewish Agency for Palestine: Files 257-258.
Index Terms:
Central Bureau for the Settlement of German Jews in Palestine (Central Bureau
Immigration
Kahn, B.
Katz, N.
Landauer, G.
Palestine
Reports
Rosenblueth, M.
Stephany, M.
#Return to Top
File 767: Palestine: Subject Matter, Immigration, Yemenite Jews, 1934 - 1940
The ERC allocated $750 for needy Yemenite Jews in Aden, 6/29/34, 7/6/34(3), 10/3/34 - 11/6/34, 3/1/35, 12/4/36, 12/18/36. Report: "Jewish Refugees from Yemen in and near Aden" by Werner Senator, 1/25/37, 3/29/37. The ERC allocated $600 for Yemenite refugees in Aden, 3/4/38, 4/5/38, 4/12/38, 5/10/38. CJFWF preliminary report on the American Committee for the Relief of Yemenite Jews, attachment to 3/7/39. The JDC Palestine Committee discussed aid for Yemenite Jews, 1/22/40, 1/25/40, 5/29/40. Also see: File 752, Vaad Leumi, Report Nov. 1938. Correspondence: D.M. Bressler, H.K. Buchman, M.B. Hexter, J.C. Hyman, El. Kaplan, H. Katzki, I. Rosen, W. Senator. During most of the 1930's, numbers of Jewish refugees from Yemen reached the British Protectorate of Aden, where they subsisted under difficult conditions, for the most part. Appeals for aid reached the JDC from 1933 onward, and it obtained small grants on their behalf in 1934, 1938 and 1944 from the Emergency Committee on Jewish Refugees, (File 116). The JDC had been a large contributor to that Committee in the 1920's. In addition, the JDC Cult. Committee granted allotments in aid of Yemenite schools in Palestine, see: File 758.g The Yemenite exodus to Aden accelerated in 1943 - 1944 on the momentum of famine, cholera and dysentery outbreaks in Yemen, and substantial JDC allocations followed for emergency relief in Aden and for transportation to Israel. They reached $66,900 in 1943 Transportation $54,240, Emergency Relief $11,460 and Yemenite schools in Palestine $1,200, and some $133,000 in 1944 Emergency Relief $24,000, Maintenance $60,000, Immigration $40,000 and Hostels and Equipment $8,280. The best overview of the Yemenite exodus and the sojourn in Aden will be found in the reports listed in Files 767-768. For later materials on the Yemenite exodus to Palestine and on Operation Magic Carpet in 1949/50, see:
Index Terms:
Bressler, D.M.
Buchman, H.K.
Council of Jewish Federation and Welfare Funds (CJFWF)
Emergency Rescue Fund (ERC)
Hexter, M.B.
Hyman, J.C.
Kaplan, El.
Katzki, H.
Palestine
Reports
Rosen, I.
Senator, W.
Yemenite Jews
#Return to Top
File 768: Palestine: Subject Matter, Immigration, Yemenite Jews, 1941 - 1945
JDC contributions 1942 - 1944: $1,000 towards the transportation of 51 Yemenites from Port Sudan to Palestine, 7/30/42, 8/31/42, 10/5/42; $25,000 towards the transportation of 600 Yemenites from Aden to Palestine, 2/10/43 - 4/12/43; $42,000 towards transportation and relief, 9/17/43; $60,000 for emergency relief of 1,600 Yemenites in Aden and $40,000 to cover one-half of the transportation costs to Palestine, 2/23/44. Summary of allocations 1943 - 1944, 3/3/44. Reports: "On Visit to Aden to Investigate the Position of Jewish Refugees 12/9/43 - 12/17/43" by Harry Viteles, attachment to 1/16/44, and July 1944 For a copy of the complete report, see: the next file. "Report on My Visit to Aden" by J.N. Behar, attachment to 5/16/43 and 11/1/43. "Report on Visit to Aden 2/19/44 - 3/3/44" by Israel J. Kligler, 3/14/44. "On the Yemenite Refugee Camp in Aden" by Th. D. Ullmann, 10/26/44 attachment to 11/14/44. Correspondence: J.N. Behar, M.B. Hexter, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, I.J. Kligler, M.A. Leavitt, J.L. Magnes, R. Pilpel, J.J. Schwartz, H. Viteles. During most of the 1930's, numbers of Jewish refugees from Yemen reached the British Protectorate of Aden, where they subsisted under difficult conditions, for the most part. Appeals for aid reached the JDC from 1933 onward, and it obtained small grants on their behalf in 1934, 1938 and 1944 from the Emergency Committee on Jewish Refugees, (File 116). The JDC had been a large contributor to that Committee in the 1920's. In addition, the JDC Cult. Committee granted allotments in aid of Yemenite schools in Palestine, see: File 758.g The Yemenite exodus to Aden accelerated in 1943 - 1944 on the momentum of famine, cholera and dysentery outbreaks in Yemen, and substantial JDC allocations followed for emergency relief in Aden and for transportation to Israel. They reached $66,900 in 1943 Transportation $54,240, Emergency Relief $11,460 and Yemenite schools in Palestine $1,200, and some $133,000 in 1944 Emergency Relief $24,000, Maintenance $60,000, Immigration $40,000 and Hostels and Equipment $8,280. The best overview of the Yemenite exodus and the sojourn in Aden will be found in the reports listed in Files 767-768. For later materials on the Yemenite exodus to Palestine and on Operation Magic Carpet in 1949/50, see:
Index Terms:
Aden
Behar, J.N.
Hexter, M.B.
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, B.
Kligler, I.J.
Leavitt, M.A.
Magnes, J.L.
Palestine
Pilpel, R.
Port Sudan
Relief
Reports
Schwartz, J.J.
Transportation
Viteles, H.
Yemenite Jews
#Return to Top
File 769: Palestine: Subject Matter, Immigration, Yemenite Jews, Report
Report: Of Visit to Aden to Investigate the Position of Jewish Refugees in Aden 12/9/43 - 12/17/43, by Harry Viteles. Complete report. During most of the 1930's, numbers of Jewish refugees from Yemen reached the British Protectorate of Aden, where they subsisted under difficult conditions, for the most part. Appeals for aid reached the JDC from 1933 onward, and it obtained small grants on their behalf in 1934, 1938 and 1944 from the Emergency Committee on Jewish Refugees, (File 116). The JDC had been a large contributor to that Committee in the 1920's. In addition, the JDC Cult. Committee granted allotments in aid of Yemenite schools in Palestine, see: File 758.g The Yemenite exodus to Aden accelerated in 1943 - 1944 on the momentum of famine, cholera and dysentery outbreaks in Yemen, and substantial JDC allocations followed for emergency relief in Aden and for transportation to Israel. They reached $66,900 in 1943 Transportation $54,240, Emergency Relief $11,460 and Yemenite schools in Palestine $1,200, and some $133,000 in 1944 Emergency Relief $24,000, Maintenance $60,000, Immigration $40,000 and Hostels and Equipment $8,280. The best overview of the Yemenite exodus and the sojourn in Aden will be found in the reports listed in Files 767-768. For later materials on the Yemenite exodus to Palestine and on Operation Magic Carpet in 1949/50, see:
Index Terms:
Aden
Palestine
Reports
Viteles, H.
Yemenite Jews
#Return to Top
File 770: Palestine: Subject Matter, Immigration, Youth Aliyah
The youth aliyah got its start in Germany in 1933, with the aim of preparing teenagers for emigration to Palestine and settling in agricultural pursuits. In 1935, and thereafter the Hadassah shouldered responsibility for the care, upkeep and education in Palestine of aliyah candidates, for a two-year stretch following their arrival. The guarantee was needed to obtain the necessary immigration certificates from the British Mandate. The JDC provided most of the funds needed to cover the transportation costs to Palestine as well as for support, maintenance and training in Europe prior to the departure for Palestine. For materials on youth Aliyah in Germany, see: Germany, File 682. In the war years, several thousand youth aliyah candidates reached Palestine with JDC aid, but the largest single project to bring over 4,000 - 5,000 children from Bulgaria and other Balkan lands, materialized on but a small scale owing to difficulties in securing exit permits. Correspondence: Ch. Barlas, H.K. Buchman, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, M.A. Leavitt, J.L. Magnes, M.C. Troper, J.B. Wise.
Index Terms:
Barlas, Ch.
Buchman, H.K.
Children
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, B.
Leavitt, M.A.
Magnes, J.L.
Palestine
Troper, M.C.
Wise, J.B.
Youth Aliyah
#Return to Top
File 771: Palestine: Subject Matter, Reconstruction, General
Prospectus "$1,500,000 Common Stock of the PEC" 4/22/35. JDC Sub-Committee appointed to consider proposals for the capital readjustment of the PEC, and the status of the JDC interest in the organization, 6/4/36; for the activities of the sub-Committee, see: File 97.b. Memo on the Proposed Recapitalization of the PEC and the JDC interest therein, 11/10/37. Memo: the PEC and the JDC, by B. Kahn, undated (Jan. 1938?). Summary of PEC-JDC relationship over the years, 7/8/41 Flexner to Warburg and 8/20/41. B. Flexner requested to be relieved of his duties as Chairman, 11/1/44. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, A. Baroway, R.F. Colin, B. Flexner, B. Kahn, H. Katzki, M.A. Leavitt, E.M. Morrissey, J. Simon, H. Viteles, E.M.M. Warburg.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, P.
Baroway, A.
Colin, R.F.
Flexner, B.
Kahn, B.
Katzki, H.
Leavitt, M.A.
Morrissey, E.M.
Palestine
Palestine Economic Corporation (PEC)
Reconstruction
Simon, J.
Viteles, H.
Warburg, E.M.M.
#Return to Top
File 771a: Palestine: Subject Matter, Reconstruction, Bayside Land Corp.
In 1940, the REC and the PEC agreed to advance matching sums for the creation of revolving loan funds-$90,000 for the construction of dwellings and of factory and warehouse facilities in Haifa, and $60,000 for dwellings in Tel Aviv and Jerusalem. Over the years, turnover in the loan funds was heavy and many of the later loans were made out of repayment proceeds by earlier borrowers. The PEC supervised the management of the loans.
Index Terms:
Bayside Land Corporation
Haifa
Jerusalem
Palestine
Palestine Economic Corporation (PEC)
Reconstruction
Tel Aviv
#Return to Top
File 771b: Palestine: Subject Matter, Reconstruction, Sharon Water Co.
In 1940, the REC and the PEC agreed to advance $50,000 each to construct and operate a new water co. to serve the recently established farm colonies of European refugees on the Sharon plain. The venture met a proven need over the years.
Index Terms:
Palestine
Palestine Economic Corporation (PEC)
Reconstruction
Sharon Water Company
#Return to Top
File 772: Palestine: Subject Matter, Reconstruction, Reports (Annual)
Reports (Annual), 1933 - 1944 (1943 missing)
Index Terms:
Palestine
Palestine Economic Corporation (PEC)
Reconstruction
Reports
#Return to Top
File 773: Palestine: Subject Matter, Reconstruction, Reports (other)
a. Shareholder's Meeting, 10/31/34. b. Report of Activities Presented to the Palestine Royal Commission, 1936. c. Brief Outline of Ten Years of Activities of the PEC (1926 - 1935), 1936.
Index Terms:
Palestine
Palestine Economic Corporation (PEC)
Reconstruction
Reports
#Return to Top
File 774: Palestine: Subject Matter, Reconstruction, Central Bank of Cooperative Institutions in Palestine, Jerusalem, General
Annual Report for 1939, 12/31/39, 3/28/40. Also see: File 772, PEC Annual Reports. Correspondence: D.M. Bressler, B. Kahn, A.A. Landesco, P. Singer, H. Viteles. The Central Bank was established in 1922 by the JDC, the ICA, and the Palestine Development Council (PDC) for the development of a cooperative movement in the country. The Bank granted loans to cooperative societies, which in turn made grants to their members. It was a subsidiary of the PEC and the great bulk of its share capital and long-term resources stemmed from the parent company. In 1935 - 1936, the JDC Recon. Found. extended it a credit of B6,000 ($24,000) for the grant of loans to refugees. By 1941, the Bank had repaid B4,000, but wartime conditions had seriously depleted its funds. In Aug. 1941, the JDC Found. agreed to refund the B4,000 in repayments for the duration of the war and to suspend the collection of further installments for the same interval.
Index Terms:
Bressler, D.M.
Central Bank of Cooperative Institutions in Palestine
Jerusalem
Kahn, B.
Landesco, A.A.
Palestine
Palestine Economic Corporation (PEC)
Reconstruction
Reports
Singer, P.
Viteles, H.
#Return to Top
File 775: Palestine: Subject Matter, Reconstruction, Central Bank of Cooperative Institutions in Palestine, Jerusalem, Minutes
Palestine Advisory Committee Minutes on Short and Intermediate Term Loans of the Central Bank, 5/17/39 - 4/30/40; 10/8/42. The Central Bank was established in 1922 by the JDC, the ICA, and the Palestine Development Council (PDC) for the development of a cooperative movement in the country. The Bank granted loans to cooperative societies, which in turn made grants to their members. It was a subsidiary of the PEC and the great bulk of its share capital and long-term resources stemmed from the parent company. In 1935 - 1936, the JDC Recon. Found. extended it a credit of B6,000 ($24,000) for the grant of loans to refugees. By 1941, the Bank had repaid B4,000, but wartime conditions had seriously depleted its funds. In Aug. 1941, the JDC Found. agreed to refund the B4,000 in repayments for the duration of the war and to suspend the collection of further installments for the same interval.
Index Terms:
Central Bank of Cooperative Institutions in Palestine
Jerusalem
Minutes
Palestine
Palestine Economic Corporation (PEC)
Reconstruction
#Return to Top
File 776: Palestine: Subject Matter, Reconstruction, Housing
Memo: Immigrant Housing Fund for Palestine, H. Viteles, 3/13/44. The JDC agreed to contribute $400,000 to the Immigrants Housing Fund for Palestine provided the ICA also participated, 10/4/44, 10/25/44, 1/16/45, 3/16/45, 3/23/45. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, H.K. Buchman, B. Kahn, M.A. Leavitt, J. Magnes, J.J. Schwartz, H. Viteles.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, P.
Buchman, H.K.
Central Bank of Cooperative Institutions in Palestine
Housing
Jerusalem
Kahn, B.
Leavitt, M.A.
Magnes, J.
Palestine
Palestine Economic Corporation (PEC)
Reconstruction
Schwartz, J.J.
Viteles, H.
#Return to Top
File 777: Palestine: Subject Matter, Reconstruction, Small Loans, Kupath Milveh (KP)
The Kupath was created during W.W.I by the JDC for the grant of small productive loans to persons who were not credit-worthy at commercial banks. In 1924, it was reorganized on business principles, and in 1932 it was transferred to the PEC. 1936 - 1944: In 1935, the PEC decided to discontinue the grant of K.P. loans on the ground they had outlived their usefulness, 7/21/36, 8/6/36; also see: File 772, PEC Annual Reports 1935, 1936. Proposals for reopening the K.P. so as to aid newcomer refugees to become creditworthy, 1/10/40 - 10/7/43. For materials on the K.P. in earlier years, see: Archives 1921 - 1932, Files 297-300, 309-311. Correspondence: B. Kahn, G. Landauer, E.M. Morrissey.
Index Terms:
Central Bank of Cooperative Institutions in Palestine
Jerusalem
Kahn, B.
Kupath Milveh
Landauer, G.
Morrissey, E.M.
Palestine
Palestine Economic Corporation (PEC)
Reconstruction
#Return to Top
File 777a: Palestine: Subject Matter, Reconstruction, Huleh Reclamation
In 1936 the REC/ECF contributed $7,491 to the costs of preparing a feasibility study on the drainage of the Huleh swamps. In 1937 the REC agreed to extend a loan of $250,000 towards the execution of the project, provided that the Palestine Gov't contributed a large sum as well. For political reasons, the Palestine Gov't dragged its feet in putting up the funds until the outbreak of W.W.II tied its hands financially. The REC was thereupon relieved of responsibility for putting up its share of the funds [Note: the Huleh drainage project was ultimately carried out in the 1950s by the Israeli Gov't].
Index Terms:
Huleh Reclamation
Jerusalem
Palestine
Reconstruction
#Return to Top
File 778: Palestine: Subject Matter, Refugees, Rabbis
Refugee rabbis in Palestine stemmed from Germany, Austria, Czechoslovakia, Poland and Russia in the main. Many who had come from Germany and Austria were in receipt of gov't pensions, but their payments were cut off the moment war broke out. JDC allocations ran well beyond $150,000 all told by the time the war ended. They began in 1938, but the vast bulk was granted between 1940 - 1944, and took the following pattern: 1940: $16,500; 1941: 25,000; 1942: 25,000; 1943: $31,000; 1944: 50,000 (Est.); Total: $147,500 The fragmentation of Jewish religious life in Palestine has no better illustration anywhere than in the hassle which developed on the committee of rabbis in that country charged with the distribution of JDC funds to refugee rabbis. For details, see the correspondence below, 4/16/40 - 9/26/40. It was only after Dr. Magnes joined the committee as the JDC representative that peace was restored and working cooperation began. Correspondence: C. Adler, M. Berlin, M. Blau, H.K. Buchman, I. Herzog, A. Horowitz, J.C. Hyman, L. Jung, B. Kahn, M.A. Leavitt, J.L. Magnes, H. Pick, M.C. Troper.
Index Terms:
Adler, C.
Berlin, M.
Blau, M.
Buchman, H.K.
Herzog, I.
Horowitz, A.
Hyman, J.C.
Jung, L.
Kahn, B.
Leavitt, M.A.
Magnes, J.L.
Palestine
Pick, H.
Rabbis
Refugees
Troper, M.C.
War
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File 779: Palestine: Subject Matter, Refugees, Miscellaneous
a. Scholars, 1933 - 1939: In 1933, the JDC granted $12,500 to the Hebrew University to aid in the employment of refugee scholars from Germany. Matching allotments also came from the American Palestine Campaign of the Jewish Agency and the Central British Fund. In 1937, the JDC allocated $7,500 for the same purpose as a matching grant with the Council for German Jewry. Correspondence: D.M. Bressler, J.C. Hyman, E.M. Morrissey. b. Students (Hungarian), 1941-1944: In 1941, the Hungarian National Bank approved a clearing arrangement with the JDC for the maintenance of Hungarian students residing abroad. The funds were chargeable to the JDC budget for Hungary. In 1941, the JDC transmitted $7,598 for the maintenance of Hungarian students in Palestine schools, and in 1942 $5,000. Correspondence: J.L. Magnes, L. Rosner, A. Schneerson. c. Union of Former Teachers, Cantors and Community Officials from Germany Now in Palestine, Haifa, 1941-1944: The members of the Union were recipients of pensions from the German Gov't, as retired officials. The German Gov't had forwarded their pension payments to Israel, following aliyah, The payments ceased, once the war broke out, and the pensioners fell into dire need. In the course of the war years, JDC aid to the group ran as follows: 1940: $500; 1941: 1,450; 1942: 2,000; 1943: $7,250; 1944: 7,200; Total: $18,400. Correspondence: H.K. Buchman, Albert Einstein, A. Jacobus, M.A. Leavitt, J.L. Magnes, D. Mannheim.
Index Terms:
Bressler, D.M.
Buchman, H.K.
Einstein, Albert
Hebrew University (H.U.)
Hungarian National Bank
Hyman, J.C.
Jacobus, A.
Leavitt, M.A.
Magnes, J.L.
Magnes, J.L.
Mannheim, D.
Morrissey, E.M.
Palestine
Refugees
Rosner, L.
Schneerson, A.
Scholars
Students
Union of Former Teachers, Cantors, and Community Officials from Germany Now in Palestine
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Record Group 4.45: Panama
File 780: Panama: Refugees, 1938-1939 (July)
The JDC agreed to make monthly grants to match local collections for refugee aid, as well as $2,500 to serve as a revolving loan fund for refugees, 3/1/39 and 3/15/39 Bressler to Lindo, 3/24/39. The release into quarantine of refugees from the SS Orbita, 6/12/39 Pilpel to Witkin, 6/16/39, 6/21/39, 7/3/39(2), 7/12/39, 7/13/39, 7/21/39, 7/28/39. Reports: On establishing agricultural settlements for refugees, by J.S. Joffe, 4/12/39, on refugees in Panama and the C.Z. - by Nathan Witkin 12/22/38, 2/23/39, 5/2/39 attachment to 5/10/39 Hyman to Weltmer; by A.J. Lindo, 1/11/39 attachment to 1/27/39, 2/17/39; by D.M. Bressler, 2/11/39. Correspondence: D.M. Bressler, E.A. Fidanque, J.C. Hyman, J.S. Joffe, L. Kraft, A.J. Lindo, R. Pilpel, C. Razovsky, R. Toledano, A.M. Weltmer, N.Witkin.
Index Terms:
Bressler, D.M.
Fidanque, E.A.
Hyman, J.C.
Joffe, J.S.
Kraft, L.
Lindo, A.J.
Panama
Pilpel, R.
Razovsky, C.
Refugee Aid
Refugees
Reports
SS Orbita
Toledano, R.
Weltmer, A.M.
Witkin, N.
#Return to Top
File 781: Panama: Refugees, 1939 (Aug.-Dec.)
On the status of the refugees at the Quarantine Station: /3/39, 8/4/39 Pilpel to Witkin, 8/15/39, 8/25/39, 9/1/39, 9/5/39(2), 9/12/39 Razovsky to Witkin, 9/20/39, 9/26/39, 10/11/39, 11/1/39, 11/17/39, 11/21/39, 11/27/39, 11/30/39, 12/7/39. M.D. Goldsmith, JDC representative in Cuba made a study trip to Panama, 9/20/39, 9/26/39, 10/6/39, 10/20/39. Reports, Narrative: Situation in Panama, by M.D. Goldsmith 10/20/39 and Summary; Fin. and Statistical: 1939 monthly: Aug., Sept., Nov., Dec. Correspondence: L. Arosemena, D.M. Bressler, B. Fidanque, M.D. Goldsmith, A. Lebowitz, A.J. Lindo, R. Pilpel, C. Razovsky, N. Witkin.
Index Terms:
Arosemena, L.
Bressler, D.M.
Fidanque, B.
Financial
Goldsmith, M.D.
Lebowitz, A.
Lindo, A.J.
Panama
Pilpel, R.
Razovsky, C.
Refugees
Reports
Witkin, N.
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File 782: Panama: Refugees, 1940 (Jan. -Sept.)
On the status of the refugees at the Quarantine Station: /15/40, 2/1/40, 2/16/40, 4/10/40, 4/22/40, 5/17/40, 7/9/40, 7/12/40(2), 7/23/40, 8/6/40, 8/22/40, 9/4/40, 9/11/40, 9/12/40, 9/17/40(3), 9/20/40, 9/23/40(5), 9/26/40(2). Reports: Fin. and Statistical, monthly, 1940: Jan.-Sept. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, A. Jaretzki Jr., A.J. Lindo, R. Pilpel, N. Witkin.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, P.
Financial
Jaretzki Jr., A.
Lindo, A.J.
Panama
Pilpel, R.
Refugees
Reports
Witkin, N.
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File 783: Panama: Refugees, 1940 (Oct.) - 1944
On the status of refugees passing thru Panama: 0/30/40, 11/2/40, 11/8/40, 12/20/40, 3/27/41, 9/11/41. On the status of refugees interned in the Canal Zone: 1/13/42, 1/15/42, 1/26/42. Reports: Fin and Statistical, monthly, 1940: Nov.; 1941: Jan., Aug.; Audit Report on Hebrew Benevolent Society, Panama City, 7/1/41. Correspondence: A.J. Lindo, L. Meyer, R. Pilpel, N. Witkin
Index Terms:
Financial
Hebrew Benevolent Society
Lindo, A.J.
Meyer, L.
Panama
Pilpel, R.
Refugees
Reports
Witkin, N.
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Record Group 4.46: Philippines
Series 1: Philippines: Administration
File 784: Philippines: Administration, General
On the status of Jewish refugees in the Philippines: 2/1/38, 12/27/38, 6/23/39(2), 12/14/39, 12/19/39, 2/17/40, 6/21/40, 7/3/40, 10/8/40, 11/7/40, 4/9/41, 10/17/41, 12/16/43 - 1/25/44. Reports: On the Activities of the Refugee Relief Committee by A. Frieder, 5/7/40; "Refugee Immigration to the Philippines", 10/17/41. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, A. Frieder, H.S. Frieder, P.S. Frieder, J.C. Hyman, H. Katzki, E.H. Komloss, M.A. Leavitt, C.J. Liebman, R. Pilpel.
Index Terms:
Administration
Baerwald, P.
Frieder, A.
Frieder, H.S.
Frieder, P.S.
Hyman, J.C.
Katzki, H.
Komloss,E.H.
Leavitt, M.A.
Liebman, C.J.
Philippines
Pilpel, R.
Refugees
Reports
#Return to Top
File 785: Philippines: Administration, General
#Return to Top
File 786: Philippines: Administration, Financial
Fin. and Statistical Reports, Monthly - 1940: Jan.; 1941: Jan.-Oct. Fin. Statements - 1940: Jan. 31, Feb. 29, March 31; 1941; May 31, Oct. 31.
Index Terms:
Administration
Financial
Philippines
Reports
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Series 2: Philippines: Subject Matter
File 787: Philippines: Subject Matter, Loan Fund
The REC granted $10,000 to the Jewish Committee Manila for providing refugees with small business loans. Forty-one loans were granted.
Index Terms:
Jewish Committee Manila
Philippines
Refugee Economic Corporation (REC)
Refugees
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File 787a: Philippines: Subject Matter, Resettlement
Mindanao Project, 1939-1942: On the progress of the Mindanao project: 2/9/39 - 8/18/39, 11/16/39, 1/5/40 - 6/21/40, 11/1/40(2), 11/8/40, 11/15/40, 9/10/41 - 11/28/41, 1/13/42, 1/15/42, 3/6/42. Report: "Mindanao Exploratory Commission", attachment to 1/16/39. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, P.S. Frieder, P.E. Hoffman, J.C. Hyman, H. Katzki, M.A. Leavitt, C.J. Liebman, E.M. Morrissey, Manuel L. Quezon, R. Pilpel, J.N. Rosenberg.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, P.
Frieder, P.S.
Hoffman, P.E.
Hyman, J.C.
Katzki, H.
Leavitt, M.A.
Liebman, C.J.
Mindanao Project
Morrissey, E.M.
Philippines
Pilpel, R.
Quezon, Manuel L.
Reports
Resettlement
Rosenberg, J.N.
#Return to Top
Record Group 4.47: Poland
Series 1: Poland: Administration
The Publicity files contain publicity materials issued by the JDC, press materials attacking the JDC or praising it and other materials which have a bearing on JDC activities and personalities. Many of the attacks on the JDC by organizations and individuals were political in character. These groups and persons were largely motivated by sectarian considerations, and rejected the JDC principle of non-political and community-wide aid. Attacks on the JDC occurred with greater frequency in the Yiddish press, where factionalism was rife, than elsewhere.
File 788: Poland: Administration, General, 1933 - 1935 (May)
The JDC granted $10,000 to the non-sectarian Polish (Flood) Relief Commission, 7/25/34 - 8/20/34 Hyman to Caiserman; 10/6/34, report on floods in Galicia; 10/31/34, actual expenditures for flood relief. In 1933, the JDC granted $20,650 for the aid of German refugees in Poland, 4/12/34, 10/31/34, while in 1934 it granted 25,000 zlotys as a matching grant along with the CBF, 8/20/34, 8/30/34, 10/31/34, 11/12/34. The JDC granted $50,000 for aid in Poland in connection with the inspection trip to that country by B. Kahn, 2/15/35, 2/25/35, 2/27/35 Hyman to Kaplan. JDC expenditures in Poland for 1933 and 1934, 3/8/35 Hyman to Brown. Report: "Journey to Austria, Poland and Danzig 8/15/34 - 8/31/34" by Neville Laski, 9/24/34. "The Tragic Story of Polish Jewry" by J.C. Hyman, 4/1/35. Condensed report on Poland by B. Kahn 5/6/35, 5/11/35 and a summary of the report 5/31/35. Also see: File 817, Commission for Poland Relief. File 820, Polish Women's Relief Committee South African Board of Deputies and United British Appeal of Polish Jewry. File 818, Bund. Correspondence: C. Adler, P. Baerwald, C. Hoffman, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, N. Laski, L.M. Rubinow, D.J. Schweiter
Index Terms:
Adler, C.
Baerwald, P.
Central British Fund (CBF)
Hoffman, C.
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, B.
Laski, N.
Poland
Polish (Flood) Relief Commission
Refugees
Reports
Rubinow, L.M.
Schweiter, D.J.
#Return to Top
File 789: Poland: Administration, General, 1935 (June-Dec.)
JDC appropriations Jan.-June 1935 by major categories, 6/12/35, 7/9/35. Notes on B. Kahn's Observations of Jewish Conditions in Poland, 7/1/35. Special Meeting of the JDC Exec. Committee, Verbatim Minutes 7/10/35. A Special JDC Committee on Poland was appointed (Chairman: Alexander Kahn), 7/11/35(2). Verbatim Minutes of the Special JDC Committee Meeting, 7/17/35. The JDC Foundation allocated $100,000 in aid of Jewish loan kassas in Poland, 7/25/35. Notes on an informal Conference on Poland held in Lucerne, Switzerland by JDC leaders, Sept. 1935. The Allocations Committee of the United British Appeal for Polish Jewry appropriated b 30,000 for aid to Polish Jewry, to be distributed by the JDC under the direction of B. Kahn, 11/6/35. Report on the Condition of the Jews in Poland and Eastern Europe by A. Kahn, 11/22/35, 12/5/35. Correspondence: C. Adler, P. Baerwald, D.A. Brown, J.C. Hyman, A. Kahn, B. Kahn, N. Laski, E.M. Morrissey, M.D. Waldman.
Index Terms:
Adler, C.
Allocations Committee of the United British Appeal for Polish Jewry
Baerwald, P.
Brown, D.A.
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, A.
Laski, N.
Loan Kassas
Minutes of Meetings
Morrissey, E.M.
Poland
Waldman, M.D.
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File 790: Poland: Administration, General, 1936
JDC expenditures in Poland 1915 - 1935, 3/5/36, 3/9/36, 3/13/36; expenditures in 1935, 3/6/36, 6/16/36; appropriations in 1936, 12/31/36. The Polish Gov't granted a loan of 1 million zlotys for productive purposes in Jewish communities, 4/8/36 Kahn to Hyman. The United British Appeal for Polish Jewry distributed ? 15,750 via the JDC in aid of Polish Jews, 4/27/36. Reports - by B. Kahn: "Situation of the Jews in Poland", 3/11/36; Report on Poland, 8/3/36. "Poland." JDC Bulletins 1-2, April 1936. Relief aid for towns suffering from pogroms, terrorism and boycotts, attachment to 9/2/36. "Notes on a Recent Trip to Germany and Poland" by D.J. Schweitzer, Nov. 1936. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, J.C. Hyman, A. Kahn, B. Kahn, H.B. Kallen, N. Laski, D.J. Schweitzer.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, P.
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, A.
Kahn, B.
Kallen, H.B.
Laski, N.
Poland
Relief
Reports
Schweitzer, D.J.
United British Appeal for Polish Jewry
#Return to Top
File 791: Poland: Administration, General, 1937 (Jan.-Aug.)
A wave of anti-Jewish excesses and demonstrations throughout Poland drove many Jews from villages into cities, 6/9/37 and attachments, 7/21/37, 8/31/37. JDC allocations for the first quarter of 1937, 2/21/37, 2/23/37 memo by J.C. Hyman, 2/25/37. Reports: JDC Warsaw Monthly Report Nov. 1936, 1/5/37. Applications for Assignments and Assignments Made", 3/10/37; "Review of JDC Work in Poland" by J.C. Hyman, 3/26/37; "Situation of the Jews in Poland" by Sholem Asch, 6/23/37; "A Year of JDC Work in Europe", July 1937; Report on Poland by N. Aronovici, 8/7/37. Correspondence: N. Aronovici, S. Asch, P. Baerwald, H.K. Buchman, J.C. Hyman, A. Kahn, B. Kahn, N. Katz, N.J. Laski, D.J. Schweitzer.
Index Terms:
Aronovici, N.
Asch, S.
Baerwald, P.
Buchman, H.K.
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, A.
Kahn, B.
Katz, N.
Laski, N.J.
Poland
Reports
Schweitzer, D.J.
#Return to Top
File 792: Poland: Administration, General, 1937 (Sept.-Dec.)
Verbatim Minutes of the General Meeting of JDC Officers, 9/30/37. Minutes of the meeting in Warsaw of JDC officials, 11/1/37, 11/2/37. JDC allocations to Poland 1914 - 1937, 11/20/37, Dec. 1937; expenditures 1/1/37 - 9/30/37, attachment to 12/2/37; expenditures for the year 1937, 12/31/37. Reports: "On Poland" by Alexander Kahn, Oct. 1937 attachment to 11/16/37 and Summary, attachment to 12/29/37. "On the Activities of the JDC Office in Poland" Sept.-Oct. 1937, 10/31/37. "Activities and plans of the JDC in Poland" by the JDC Paris, 12/11/37. Local contributions in zloti to JDC programs and beneficiaries for 1937, 12/20/37. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, N. Gerstenfeld, J.C. Hyman, A. Kahn, B. Kahn, N. Katz, B.C. Vladeck.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, P.
Gerstenfeld, N.
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, A.
Kahn, B.
Katz, N.
Minutes of Meetings
Poland
Reports
Vladeck, B.C.
Warsaw
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File 793: Poland: Administration, General, 1938
Meetings of the Committee on Poland, Verbatim Minutes and Summary, 4/11/38. Memo on Poland and the Situation of the Jewish Population, 4/28/38. Situation of the Jews in Eastern Europe by JDC Paris, June, 1938. The Work of the JDC in Poland 1/1/38 - 6/30/38 by Mark Wischnitzer, 8/25/38. A digest of the JDC Warsaw Report Jan. thru July 1938, 8/26/38. Summary of Discussions of the JDC Work in Poland held at JDC N.Y. 9/30/38. Report on Poland by M.C. Troper, 11/30/38 attachment to 12/24/38. Situation of the Jews in Poland by Boris Smolar, attachment to 12/2/38 and Summary Memo 12/19/38. A General Survey of Political and Economic Conditions in Poland in 1938 by M. Wischnitzer, 12/13/38. Summaries of Monthly Reports by JDC Warsaw: July and August, 11/30/38; Sept. attachment to 12/22/38; Oct. 10/31/38; Nov. 11/30/58. For Zbaszyn refugees, see below: Files 878-879. Correspondence: H.K. Buchman, J. Giterman, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, N. Katz, D.J. Schweitzer, M.C. Troper.
Index Terms:
Buchman, H.K.
Giterman, J.
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, B.
Katz, N.
Minutes of Meetings
Poland
Schweitzer, D.J.
Troper, M.C.
#Return to Top
File 794: Poland: Administration, General, 1939 (Jan.-June)
Reports and statements to the JDC Exec. Committee by A. Kahn, 1/26/39, 2/23/39, 4/19/39. Minutes of the JDC Committee on Poland, 2/8/39, 4/11/39 and Summary, 5/10/39 and Summary, 5/15/39 Buchman to Troper. Minutes of the JDC Committee on Poland, 2/8/39, 4/11/39 and Summary, 5/10/39 and Summary, 5/15/39 Buchman to Troper. Minutes of the Joint Meeting, Committee on Poland and JDC Foundation 4/11/39. Report: "The Polish Gov't and its 'Jewish' Policy", 3/20/39. Summary reports of JDC activities in Poland and Eastern Europe, April 1939, 5/10/39. Proposals for the organization of a Polish Jewish Central Committee, 2/3/39, 4/11/39, 6/10/39, 6/22/77. Jewish Defense Loan for Poland, 6/9/39. For Zbaszyn refugees, see below: Files 878-879. Correspondence: H.K. Buchman, A. Kahn, D.L. Schweitzer, M.C. Troper.
Index Terms:
Buchman, H.K.
Kahn, A.
Minutes of Meetings
Poland
Polish Jewish Central Committee
Reports
Schweitzer, D.J.
Troper, M.C.
#Return to Top
File 795: Poland: Administration, General, 1939 (July-Sept.)
Proposals for the organization of a Polish Jewish Central Committee and for changes in the JDC Administration for Poland, 7/1/39(2), 7/8/39, 7/22/39, 7/25/29, 7/31/39 Kahn to Troper, 8/28/39. Verbatim Minutes of the Committee on Poland and Summaries, 7/7/39, 7/25/39. Report on Poland to the JDC Exec. Committee by A. Kahn, 8/31/39. Statement by the JDC on its organization for the war emergency, 9/19/39. A Short Background of the Situation in Poland by B. Kahn, 9/30/39. Memo on American members of the JDC staff available for possible wartime service with American agencies, attachment to 9/25/39. Report of activities Sept.-Dec. 1939 by JDC Warsaw. Correspondence: H.K. Buchman, A. Kahn, B. Kahn, Robert D. Murphy, M.C. Troper.
Index Terms:
Buchman, H.K.
Kahn, A.
Kahn, B.
Minutes of Meetings
Murphy, Robert D.
Poland
Polish Jewish Central Committee
Troper, M.C.
#Return to Top
File 796: Poland: Administration, General, 1939 (Oct.-Dec.)
Verbatim Minutes and Summary of the JDC Committee on Poland, 10/11/39, 10/12/39. On Happenings in Poland: 10/13/39 Memo by H.K. Buchman, 10/18/39 Long to Razovsky, 11/2/39 Memo by H.K. Buchman, 11/13/39 Memo, 11/13/39 Troper to JDC, 11/17/39, 11/19/39, 11/23/39, 11/24/39 Cable Vilna-Paris-N.Y., 12/4/39, 12/11/39, 12/18/39 Buchman to Engel, 12/22/39. M.W. Beckelman, JDC representative, enters Vilna with first Lithuanian detachment to that city, 10/26/39 JDC to Zadeikis and Baerwald to Pell, 10/30/39 Troper to JDC, 10/31/39 Memo M.W. Beckelman, Memos by M.W. Beckelman on activities in Vilna: 10/24/39 dated 11/3/39, 11/8/39(2), 11/11/39, 11/20/39. Short Statement by D. Guzik and L. Neustadt on their activities in Poland for the JDC Sept.-Oct. 1939, 11/12/39. Polish Relief Extended by ARC, Quakers, Pate Commission, et al: 10/16/39 Memo H. Katzki, 10/17/39 Baerwald to Davis, 11/2/39 Memo I. Rosen, 11/6/39, 11/8/39 Davis to Baerwald, 11/15/39 Statement by P. Baerwald, 11/19/39, 11/20/39, 11/25/39 Memo - 12/1/39, 12/8/39 Hyman to Davis, 12/27/39. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, M.W. Beckelman, H.K. Buchman, Norman H. Davis, D. Guzik, Herbert Hoover, J.C. Hyman, L. Neustadt, I. Rosen, J.J. Schwartz, M.C. Troper.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, P.
Beckelman, M.W.
Buchman, H.K.
Davis, Norman H.
Guzik, D.
Hoover, Herbert
Hyman, J.C.
Minutes of Meetings
Neustadt, L.
Poland
Rosen, I.
Schwartz, J.J.
Troper, M.C.
Vilna
#Return to Top
File 797: Poland: Administration, General, 1940 (Jan.-March)
Verbatim Minutes and Summary of Meetings of the JDC Committee on Poland, 1/10/40, 1/11/40 Memo, 3/6/40. JDC Activities in Poland: 2/5/40, Summary of Activities of the JDC Warsaw 9/1/39 - 12/30/39, 2/19/40, 2/24/40, 3/26/40 Troper to JDC N.Y. Report by M.W. Beckelman, 1/30/40 attachment to 2/15/40. On Happenings in Poland: 1/10/40 Summary, 1/12/40 Troper to N.Y., 1/15/40(3), 1/24/40, 2/20/40 Baerwald - Troper phone conversation, 2/26/40 Hyman to Bronfman, 2/27/40 Hyman to Hayes, 2/28/40 Summary. Polish Relief Extended by the ARC, the Quakers, the Pate Commission, et al: 1/2/40(2), 1/19/40, attachment to 1/22/40, 1/26/40 Memo, 1/26/40 Hyman to Davis, 1/29/40 Troper to Baerwald, 1/31/40(2), 2/7/40, 2/14/40, 2/26/40, 3/20/40 Memo, 3/29/40. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, M.W. Beckelman, H.K. Buchman, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, L. Rajchman, J.J. Schwartz, L.L. Strauss, M.C. Troper.
Index Terms:
American Red Cross (ARC)
Baerwald, P.
Beckelman, M.W.
Buchman, H.K.
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, B.
Minutes of Meetings
Pate Commission
Poland
Rajchman, L.
Schwartz, J.J.
Strauss, L.L.
Troper, M.C.
Warsaw
#Return to Top
File 798: Poland: Administration, General, 1940 (April-Aug.)
Minutes of Meetings of the JDC Committee on Poland, 4/11/40, 6/5/40. Memo by M.W. Beckelman: 4/9/40. JDC Activities in Poland, 4/4/40 Summary of cables, 4/27/40, 7/5/40, 7/16/40. Polish Relief Extended by the ARC, the Quakers, the Pate Commission, et al: 4/4/40, 4/24/40 - 5/2/40, 5/22/40, 5/27/40, 5/31/40 - 6/3/40, 7/8/40. Correspondence: M.W. Beckelman, H.K. Buchman, J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt, M. Pate, M.C. Troper.
Index Terms:
American Red Cross (ARC)
Beckelman, M.W.
Buchman, H.K.
Hyman, J.C.
Leavitt, M.A.
Minutes of Meetings
Pate Commission
Pate, M.
Poland
Troper, M.C.
#Return to Top
File 799: Poland: Administration, General, 1940 (Sept.-Dec.)
JDC Activities in Poland: 9/4/40, 9/6/40, 9/10/40 cable, 9/11/40, 11/18/40, 11/22/40, 12/12/40, 12/13/40 Draft Memo. Report on German Occupied Poland, 10/25/40. Notes on the Report of JDC Activities 1/1/40 - 9/30/40 (Note: The report itself is not in the files). Fin. Reports: JDC Warsaw 1/1/40 - 12/31/40, JDC Cracow Dec. 1940, 4/7/41. Correspondence: J. Blum, S.B. Jacobson, A. Jaretzki, Jr., E.M. Morrissey, J.J. Schwartz, M.C. Troper.
Index Terms:
Blum, J.
Financial
Jacobson, S.B.
Jaretzki, Jr., A.
Morrissey, E.M.
Poland
Reports
Schwartz, J.J.
Troper, M.C.
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File 800: Poland: Administration, General, 1941 - 1942 (Aug.)
JDC Activities in Poland: 1/3/41 (Communities receiving JDC aid), 6/24/41, 9/11/41, 9/28/41, 11/13/41, 1/12/42 Memo, 2/13/42 Addendum to Report, 4/1/42 Hyman to Sievers, 5/29/42, 6/4/42, 6/25/42, 7/23/42, 7/24/42. Reports: A. Kahn - "Binding a Nation's Wounds", 4/4/41 and "The Truth About Relief for Polish Jews", 11/28/41 attachment to 12/3/41; Elders Council of Jewish Communities in East Upper Silesia - 2/24/41; M.C. Troper - 11/4/41. Fin. Reports - JDC Warsaw 1941; Jan., Feb, Sept. Correspondence: H.K. Buchman, A. Kahn, J.C. Hyman, M.B. Leavitt, J.J. Schwartz, S. Strakacz, M.C. Troper.
Index Terms:
Buchman, H.K.
Financial
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, A.
Leavitt, M.B.
Poland
Reports
Schwartz, J.J.
Troper, M.C.
Warsaw
#Return to Top
File 801: Poland: Administration, General, 1942 (Sept.) - 1943
Schemes for shipping food packages to Poland Board of Deputies, London: 9/23/42, 11/13/42 attachment to 12/11/42, 5/18/43, 6/8/43, 9/2/43, 11/17/43. World Jewish Congress: 11/6/42, 11/13/42, 11/18/42, 11/20/42, 11/27/42, 10/6/43 Hyman to Long. JDC Portugal: 9/29/42, 11/4/42, 11/17/42(2), 12/7/42, 12/11/42, 12/13/42, 1/6/43, 2/1/43, 3/6/43, 3/8/43, 3/18/43, 3/23/43, 5/4/43, 6/4/43, 6/24/43, 7/9/43, 8/2/43, 8/3/43, 8/19/43, 9/10/43(2), 11/2/43; also see: SM Archives File 51(1). Correspondence: P. Baerwald, H.K. Buchman, J.C. Hyman, H. Katzki, M.A. Leavitt, I.M. Minkoff, L. Osborne, M.L. Perlzweig, J.J. Schwartz, S.S. Wise.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, P.
Buchman, H.K.
Food
Hyman, J.C.
Katzki, H.
Leavitt, M.B.
Minkoff, I.M.
Osborne, L.
Perlzweig, M.L.
Poland
Portugal
Schwartz, J.J.
Wise, S.S.
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File 802: Poland: Administration, General, 1944
The U.S. Treasury authorized JDC remittances of $12,000 per month for food parcels from Portugal to individual recipients in Poland, 3/20/44 U.S. License - 3/29/44, 6/26/44, 7/19/44. The JDC extended aid to Jewish refugees in Poland via Dr. Emil Sommerstein of the Polish Committee of National Liberation, 5/24/44 attachment to 9/12/44, 7/5/44, 7/6/44, 8/16/44(2), 8/17/44(3), 8/21/44, 8/22/44, 8/31/44. JDC Weekly Digest - 9/8/44, 9/18/44, 10/10/44, 10/12/44, 10/14/44, 10/17/44(2), 10/19/44, 10/27/44 Weekly Review, 11/6/44 Hayes to Leavitt, 11/11/44 Cable to Winant, 11/28/44 Cable to U.S. Consulate Jerusalem, 11/30/44 Magnes to Leavitt, 12/15/44. The JDC requested Soviet permission to send a representative to liberated parts of Poland, 8/3/44, 8/9/44, 9/12/44 Cable, 9/14/44, 9/22/44 Gromyko to Baerwald, 10/2/44, 10/17/44 Leavitt to Parkridge, 11/16/44(2), 12/26/44. Report: "Review of Pre-War Poland, Polish Jewry and "JDC Activities" by N. Aronovici, 8/29/44 attachment to 9/5/44. Also see: SM Archives, File 51(1). Correspondence: P. Baerwald, H.K. Buchman, A. Gromyko, J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt, C. Passman, K. Pilpel, L.H. Sobel, J.J. Schwartz, S. Strakacz.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, P.
Buchman, H.K.
Food
Gromyko, A.
Hyman, J.C.
Leavitt, M.B.
Passman, C.
Pilpel, K.
Poland
Refugees
Remittances
Reports
Schwartz, J.J.
Sobel, L.H.
Strakacz, S.
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File 803: Poland: Administration, General, Galicia
Proposals for regional JDC aid to Galicia: 4/1/37, 4/12/37, 5/10/37, 10/14/37, 1/9/38, 9/14/38, 10/20/38, 2/2/39, 3/7/39, 4/16/39. Also see below: File 820, WUZET. Correspondence: H.K. Buchman, I. Giterman, J.C. Hyman, S. Low, L. Neustadt, M.C. Troper.
Index Terms:
Buchman, H.K.
Galicia
Giterman, I.
Hyman, J.C.
Low, S.
Neustadt, L.
Poland
Troper, M.C.
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File 804: Poland: Administration, General, Fund-Raising Campaigns Overseas for Aid to Poland
Following the Nazi invasion of Poland, Jewish communities and groups in a number of overseas countries launched fund-raising drives on behalf of the Jewish victims. The funds raised were forwarded to the JDC for transmission to Poland. The most successful in that group were: Argentina $18,000, Canada $50,000 Cuba $2,400, and Mexico $13,000. 1. Argentina, 1940 - 1941: Some $18,000 were raised by an ad hoc group, Organismo de Ayuda a Las Victimas Judias de la Guerra en Polonia Buenos Aires, 1/10/40 attachment to 1/31/40, 2/15/40, 2/23/40, 2/28/40(2), 3/5/40, 3/7/40, 3/8/40, 3/9/40, 3/13/40, 3/15/40, 3/19/40, 4/19/40, 4/25/40, 7/13/40, 10/29/40, 11/22/40, 2/14/41, 3/21/41 - 4/14/41, 6/20/41, 9/16/41. Correspondence: J. Hellmann, M.F. Helman, A. Hirsch, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, L. Lapaco, M.A. Leavitt, R. Pilpel, J.J. Schwartz. 2. Australia, 1940. 3. Brazil, 1940 - 1941. 4. Canada, 1940: Correspondence S. Hayes, J.C. Hyman. 5. Cuba, 1940 - 1941: See: 2/16/40, 2/28/40, 3/21/41, 6/4/41. Correspondence: H. Chervony, R. Pilpel, J.J. Schwartz. 6. Mexico, 1933 - 1944: The Relief Committee for Jewish War Sufferers raised over $13,000 for Polish Relief. See: 2/6/40, 2/16/40, 3/2/40, 3/7/40, 3/8/40, 5/13/40, 5/22/40, 7/23/40 Rafalin to the JDC. Correspondence: J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, M.A. Leavitt, R. Pilpel, D.S. Rafalin, M. Rubinstein, J.J. Schwartz.
Index Terms:
Argentina
Australia
Brazil
Canada
Chervony, H.
Cuba
Fund-Raising
Hayes, S.
Hellmann, J.
Helman, M.F.
Hirsch, A.
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, B.
Lapaco, L.
Leavitt, M.A.
Mexico
Pilpel, R.
Poland
Rafalin, D.S.
Relief Committee for Jewish War Sufferers
Rubinstein, M.
Schwartz, J.J.
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File 805: Poland: Administration, Financial, Claims Against the JDC
The claims originated in Poland following the Nazi invasion, and were based on sums advanced by individuals to David Guzik, the JDC representative in that country. The JDC had authorized Guzik beforehand to promise lenders that the funds would be repaid after the war, or in an overseas country before then, should the latter step prove financially feasible. The individuals paid the funds to Guzik in Polish zlotys and JDC repayment was to be effected in dollars. Guzik used the money in Poland to continue with the JDC aid program, at a time when funds from abroad could no longer be received. Following the Nazi invasion, the Polish zloty immediately lost a great part of its value domestically and all of its value internationally. Subsequently, when disputes over the settlement of claims arose, the bone of contention turned principally on what represented a fair exchange rate for the zloty at the time the advances were made. a. List of persons holding Guzik claims. b. Abram Glickson. c. Elizabeth Palcew. d. Manes Front. e. Baruch Rozenthal. f. N. Prywes. g. Michael Slobodnik. h. Abraham Weiss.
Index Terms:
Administration
Claims
Financial
Front, Manes
Glickson, Abram
Guzik, David
List
Palcew, Elizabeth
Poland
Prywes, N.
Rozenthal, Baruch
Slobodnik, Michael
Weiss, Abraham
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File 806: Poland: Administration, Financial, Statements, Budgets, et al, 1937 - 1938
a. Statement of Sums Appropriated in 1937, Schedules A-H. b. Economic Work, Proposed Budget for Poland, 1938. c. General Budget for 1938, L. Neustadt.
Index Terms:
Administration
Financial
Neustadt, L.
Poland
#Return to Top
File 807: Poland: Administration, Financial, Statements, Budgets, et al, 1939
7/1/39 - 12/31/39
Index Terms:
Administration
Financial
Poland
#Return to Top
File 808: Poland: Administration, Financial, Statements, Budgets, et al, 1939 - 1941
Fin. Statements, Schedules and Memos: March 1939, 7/1/39, 7/17/39, 7/31/39, 8/1/39, 8/25/39, 11/22/39, 1/12/40, 2/19/40, 4/9/40, 11/4/41.
Index Terms:
Administration
Financial
Poland
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File 809: Poland: Administration, Financial, JDC Transfer of $40,000 Allocation to Warsaw Discount Bank
On 8/30/39, on the very eve of hostilities, the Chase Bank acting for the JDC cabled $40,000 to the Warsaw Discount Bank. The funds were to be transmitted to the JDC Warsaw office, but it never reached there. The file records the unsuccessful efforts to recover the funds made by the JDC.
Index Terms:
Administration
Financial
Poland
Warsaw Discount Bank
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File 810: Poland: Administration, Publicity, General, 1933 - 1937 (April)
JDC Publicity Releases on Poland: 6/7/36, 1/21/37. Article: A Word to Poles -- Brother Polish Citizen, by Sholem Asch. Correspondence: A. Horowitz, J.C. Hyman, A. Kalin, B. Kahn, H.J. Seligman.
Index Terms:
Administration
Horowitz, A.
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, B.
Kalin, A.
Poland
Publicity
Seligman, H.J.
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File 811: Poland: Administration, Publicity, General, 1937 (May) - 1942; 1944
JDC Publicity Releases on Poland: 8/30/37, 11/3/39, 2/3/40, 5/10/40 (Yiddish), 5/12/42, 5/29/42, 6/8/42. JDC Brochures: Lifeline, 2/16/41 (Report of JDC's National Meeting in N.Y.); How the JDC Does It, by E.M.M. Warburg, Feb. 1941 (tells how the JDC aided Jews in occupied Europe without helping the German economy or breaking the British blockade). Other publicity materials: Jewish Daily Forward, 2/23/40 (rotogravure page on Poland); Berliner Illustrierte Zeitung, 12/5/40 (Picture Section on the Lublin Ghetto); L. Schupakevitch attack on the JDC and its rebuttal, 10/17/41 - 12/16/41; News from Poland (Unser Tsait), monthly publication of the American Representation of the General Jewish Workers Union of Poland, 1942: Feb.-Aug. (2). Correspondence: J.C. Hyman, N. Katz, M.A. Leavitt, L. Schupakevitch, M.C. Troper.
Index Terms:
Brochures
Hyman, J.C.
Katz, N.
Leavitt, M.A.
Poland
Publicity
Schupakevitch, L.
Troper, M.C.
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File 812: Poland: Administration, Publicity, JDC Bulletins
a. Bulletins on Poland, 2/1/39 - 8/1/39: #1-14 (#11 missing) The Bulletins were issued by the JDC Office in Poland for the information of the JDC N.Y. They were scheduled to appear at 10-day intervals, but sometimes skipped an interval or two under the pressure of events. They focused most heavily on refugee and reconstruction activities and on organizational events. b. Present Activities of the JDC, 10/1/39 - 12/2/40: #1-10 (#1, #7 missing) These Bulletins were issued by the JDC N.Y. They appeared originally at fortnightly intervals and then stretched out to monthly and finally to quarterly intervals. The sections dealing with individual countries were more general in character than the Bulletins on Poland. Most issues were multi-themed, but a few dealt with only a single theme, e.g. Poland and Refugees from Poland.
Index Terms:
Bulletins
Poland
Publicity
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File 813: Poland: Administration, Reports, Jewish Social Work in Poland
by L. Neustadt, June 1936. Yiddish.
Index Terms:
Neustadt, L.
Poland
Reports
Social Work
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File 814: Poland: Administration, Reports, Relief Activities for the Jews in Poland
by Emanuel Pat, March 1941, English and Yiddish copies, with an English duplicate. The report was based on data published in the Krakau "Yiddischer Zeitung" and included information from the monthly reports that Kehillas and other Jewish institutions were required to submit to the Nazi authorities. The report covered the span from Sept. 1940 to Dec. 1941.
Index Terms:
Asch, S.
Bienenstock, T.
Buell, R.L.
Cohen, I.
Cohen, M.R.
Duker, A.G.
Isserman, F.M.
Lishinski, J.
Mendelsohn, S.
Pat, Emanuel
Poland
Relief
Reports
Smolar, B.
Spizman, L.
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File 815: Poland: Administration, Reports, Brief Reports, 1935 - 1939
These reports were written by non-JDC personalities mostly, and covered a fairly wide range of topics. The reports include those written by S. Asch, T. Bienenstock. R. L. Buell, I. Cohen, M.R. Cohen, A.G. Duker, F.M. Isserman, J. Lishinski, S. Mendelsohn, B. Smolar and L. Spizman. Other reports were issued by various organizations but with no authorship attributed. During the war years, underground and eyewitness accounts predominated. Brief reports by JDC personalities will be found above in Poland, General.
Index Terms:
Asch, S.
Bienenstock, T.
Buell, R.L.
Cohen, I.
Cohen, M.R.
Duker, A.G.
Isserman, F.M.
Lishinski, J.
Mendelsohn, S.
Pat, Emanuel
Poland
Relief
Reports
Smolar, B.
Spizman, L.
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File 816: Poland: Administration, Reports, Brief Reports, 1940 - 1944
These reports were written by non-JDC personalities mostly, and covered a fairly wide range of topics. The reports include those written by S. Asch, T. Bienenstock. R. L. Buell, I. Cohen, M.R. Cohen, A.G. Duker, F.M. Isserman, J. Lishinski, S. Mendelsohn, B. Smolar and L. Spizman. Other reports were issued by various organizations but with no authorship attributed. During the war years, underground and eyewitness accounts predominated. Brief reports by JDC personalities will be found above in Poland, General.
Index Terms:
Asch, S.
Bienenstock, T.
Buell, R.L.
Cohen, I.
Cohen, M.R.
Duker, A.G.
Isserman, F.M.
Lishinski, J.
Mendelsohn, S.
Pat, Emanuel
Poland
Relief
Reports
Smolar, B.
Spizman, L.
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Series 2: Poland: Organizations
(General List) The references to the organizations listed below will all be found in the files on Poland, except for those preceded by an asterisk. The latter, referring to the category Organizations, will be found in the section which directly follows this list. Also see: Files 849-873 for data on individual loan kassas, arranged by localities. Aid Committee of the Grand Rabbinat, Istanbul, see: File 886.e. Agudas Israel, see: File 828. *Ahawath Chesed, Lemberg, see: File 819. American Friends Service Committee, Wash., D.C. see: Files 796-798. American Red Cross, Wash., D.C., see: General, Files 795, 797, 798. *Bank dla Spoldzielni, Warsaw, see: File 819. *Belgian Red Cross, Brussels, see: File 819. Beth Jacob Schools, see: File 829. *Beth Lechem Institutions, Lemberg, see: File 819. Board of Deputies of British Jewry, London, see: File 801. *Bund (Yiddischer Arbeiter Wirtschafts Komite), Warsaw, see: File 818. CEKABE, Warsaw (Central Society for Interest-Free Loans and for the Fostering of Production Work Among the Jewish Population of Poland), see: File 848.. CENTOS, Warsaw, see: File 822. Central Jewish Educational Committee, Vilna, see: File 826. Central Jewish School Organ., Warsaw, see: File 828. *Central Refugees Committee, Warsaw, see: File 819. Child Care Association "CENTOS", Warsaw, see: File 822. Chorev, Warsaw, see: File 828. *Commission for Polish Relief, see: File 817. *Committee for Polish Jewish Affairs, New York, see: File 819. Federation of Polish Jews in America, New York, see: Files 225 - 232. *Fund for Jewish Refugee Writers, New York, see: File 819. General Aid Committee for Jewish Refugees from Germany in Poland, see: File 874, 874a. HICEM Poland, see: File 838. *Jewish Colonization Committee in Poland, Warsaw, see: File 819. Jewish Relief Association, Bombay, see: Refugees, File 883. Juedische Soziele Selbsthilfe, Krakau) see: SM Archives, Juedische Unterstuetzungs Stelle, Krakau) File 51(1). Juedisches Spital, Lublin, see: File 840. *Jewish Women's Association of Wilno,see: File 819. Kehilla Refugee Relief Committee, Vilna, see: File 875. Medem Sanitorium, Miedzeszyn/Warsaw, see: Medical Care, File 840. Nurses Training School, Warsaw, see: File 840. Ohel Sara, see: File 828. Organismo de Ayuda a Los Victimes Judias de la Guerra en Polonia, Buenos Aires, see: File 804.1. ORT Poland, Warsaw,see: File 819. Pate Commission, Washington, D.C., see: Files 796-798. Polish (Flood) Relief Commission, see: General, File 788. *Polish Women's Relief Committee, New York, see: File 820. Relief Campaign for Jewish War Sufferers, Mexico City,see: File 804.6. Sanatorium "Jehudys", Warsaw, see: File 841. Society for the Preservation of Health Among the Jews in Poland (TOZ), Warsaw, see: File 840. *South African Board of Deputies, Johannesburg, see: File 820. Szul-Kult, Warsaw, see: File 828. Tarbuth Schools, Warsaw, see: File 830. TOZ, Warsaw, see: Medical Care, File 840. Union of Cooperative Kassas in Poland (Verband), Warsaw, see: File 845. *United British Appeal for Poland, London, see: File 826. *United British Appeal for Polish Jewry, London, see: File 820. United Galician Jews of America, New York, see: File 338. Warsaw Discount Bank, see: Poland, Fin., File 809. World Jewish Congress, N.Y., see: Files 346-348. *WUZET, Lwow, see: File 820. Yavneh Schools, Warsaw, see: File 831. Yeshivot and Other Institutions of Higher Learning. Baranowicz, Ohel Torah, see: File 833. Bialystok, Beth Meir, see: File 833. Bobowa, Etz Chaim, see: File 833. Brzesc (Brisk), Torath Chesed, see: File 833. Grodno, Shaar Hatora, see: File 833. Kamenitz-Litovsk, Kneseth Beth Isaac, see: File 833. Kletzk, Etz Chaim, see: File 833. Kobryn, Yeshivot Kobryn, see: File 833. Lomza, Rabbinical Yeshiva of Lomza, see: File 833. Lublin, Chachmei Lublin, see: File 834. Lwow, Teachers Seminary, see: File 835. Mir, Mirrer Yeshiva, see: File 836. Nowogrodek, Beth Joseph, see: File 835. Radun, Chofetz Chaim, see: File 835. Sokolow/Podl, Beth Israel, see: File 835. Stolin, Beth Israel, see: File 835. Warsaw, Institute for Judaistic Sciences, see: File 835. Warsaw, Mechanim Seminar, see: File 835. Warsaw, Tomchei-Tmimim (Lubavitch), see: File 837. Warsaw, Torat Chaim, see: File 835. Warsaw, Yeshiva Umesifta, see: File 835. Warsaw, Yeshivot Govoha "Emek Halacha", see: File 835. Wilno (Vilna), Rameiles, see: File 835. Wilno (Vilna), Tachkemoni Seminary, see: File 835. Wolozin, Etz Chaim, see: File 835. *Yiddischer Arbeiter Wirtschaft Komite (Bund), Warsaw, see: File 818. *Youth Theatre Project of Warsaw, see: File 820.
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File 817: Poland: Organizations, Commission for Polish Relief (CPR)
The CPR was formed in Sept. 1939 to distribute non-sectarian relief in Poland and among Polish refugees in neighboring countries. (Chairman: Henry McCracken, Vice Chairman and active head, Maurice Pate). In the first year of operations, it distributed relief in the value of $901,000, of which some $372,000 went for use in German occupied Poland, and the rest for Polish refugees in Lithuania, France, Romania and Hungary, in the main. The JDC contributed $20,000 to the CPR in Sept. 1940. Activities of the CPR and the JDC: 10/15/39, 10/19/39, 11/13/39, 11/14/39, 11/19/39, 11/20/39, 11/21/39(3), 12/6/39, 1/24/40, 1/26/40, 2/7/40, 2/21/40, 4/10/40, 5/3/40, 6/14/40, 6/15/40, 7/8/40, 9/20/40, 11/29/40, 12/19/40, 1/31/41. CPR News Bulletins: #1, 10/20/39; #2, 10/29/30; #3, 11/10/39; #4, 11/22/39; #5, 12/29/39; #6, 2/10/40. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, M.W. Beckelman, H.K. Buchman, Norman H. Davis, J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt, C. McCormick, M. Pate, C.E. Pickett, J.J. Schwartz, L.L. Strauss.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, P.
Beckelman, M.W.
Buchman, H.K.
Bulletins
Commission for Polish Relief (CPR)
Davis, Norman H.
Hyman, J.C.
Leavitt, M.A.
McCormick, C.
Pate, M.
Pickett, C.E.
Poland
Relief
Schwartz, J.J.
Strauss, L.L.
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File 818: Poland: Organizations, Yiddischer Arbeiter Wirtschafts Komite (Bund), Warsaw
The Polish Bund represented the Jewish socialist labor movement in Poland. Until the outbreak of W.W. II it went its own way and refused to cooperate with Zionist or religious groups. During the Nazi occupation it played an active role in the Jewish resistance movement. Relations Between the JDC and the Bund: 6/10/39, 7/3/39, 7/7/39 - 8/7/39, 9/22/39, 10/16/39(2), 11/20/39, 12/28/39(2), 1/12/40, 2/1/40 - 3/22/40, 4/9/40, 4/16/40, 7/11/40, 9/5/40, 10/21/41, 11/12/41. Correspondence: M.W. Beckelman, H.K. Buchman, I. Giterman, J.C. Hyman, A. Kahn, B. Kahn, I. Minkoff, S. Mendelson, E. Novogrodski, J. Pat, J.J. Schwartz, M.C. Troper.
Index Terms:
Beckelman, M.W.
Buchman, H.K.
Giterman, I.
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, A.
Mendelson, S.
Minkoff, I.
Novogrodski, E.
Pat, J.
Poland
Schwartz, J.J.
Troper, M.C.
Yiddischer Arbeiter Wirtschafts Komite (Bund)
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File 819: Poland: Organizations, Miscellaneous 1
a. Ahawath Chesed, Lemberg, 1937 - 1938: A Gemiloth Chesed Kassa. JDC Allocations: 1938 - $500. Correspondence: H.K. Buchman, A. Kahn, B. Kahn. b. Bank dla Spoldzielni, Warsaw, 1938 - 1939: Correspondence: O.E. d'Avigdor Goldsmid, B. Kahn, L. Oungre, R. Szereszowski. c. Belgian Red Cross, Brussels, 1940. d. Beth Lechem Institutions, Warsaw (BLI), 1936 - 1941: The BLI Warsaw was a relief organization distributing bread, fuel and clothing in the main to needy persons. In the 1930's, the JDC granted them over $3,000 in all, most of it for Passover supplies. Correspondence: N. Ben-Horin, H.K. Buchman, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, M.A. Leavitt, E.A. Swift. e. Central Refugees Committee, Warsaw, 1939: JDC Allocations as of 3/16/39 ZI 159,000. Report by the Committee including tables: refugees in individual cities and towns, contributions from abroad and sums remitted by local committees, 3/22/39. f. Fund for Jewish Refugee Writers, New York, 1940 - 1942, In 1940, the JDC granted $1,250 to the Fund to aid refugee writers and scholars in Eastern Europe who were in need. Correspondence: Sholem Asch, H.K. Buchman, W. Edlin, M.A. Leavitt. g. Jewish Colonization Committee in Poland (JCC), Warsaw, 1938 - 1939: In 1938, at the instance of the Polish Gov't, the JCC was organized (Chairman: Prof. Moses Schorr) to aid in expediting Jewish emigration from Poland. Ambitious plans were put forward, but nothing came of them. Correspondence: C. Adler, P. Baerwald, H.K. Buchman, I. Giterman, M.C. Troper. h. Jewish Women's Association of Wilno, 1937: JDC Allocations: 1934 - 1936, $1,545. i. ORT Poland, Warsaw, 1935 - 1940: Fin. Report ORT Poland 1936, 12/31/36. Fin. Report ORT Union, Paris (including Poland) 1936, 12/31/36. Correspondence: I. Giterman, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn.
Index Terms:
Adler, C.
Ahawath Chesed
Asch, S.
Baerwald, P.
Bank dla Spoldzielni
Belgian Red Cross
Ben-Horin, N.
Beth Lechem Institutions
Brussels
Buchman, H.K.
Buchman, H.K.
Buchman, H.K.
Buchman, H.K.
Central Refugees Committee
Edlin, W.
Fund for Jewish Refugee Writers
Giterman, I.
Giterman, I.
Hyman, J.C.
Jewish Colonization Committee (JCC)
Jewish Women's Association of Wilno
Kahn, A.
Kahn, B.
Kahn, B.
Kahn, B.
Leavitt, M.A.
Leavitt, M.A.
Lemberg
New York
Organization of Rehabilitation through Training (ORT)
Oungre, L.
Poland
Swift, E.A.
Szereszowski, R.
Troper, M.C.
Warsaw
d'Avigdor Goldsmid, O.E.
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File 820: Poland: Organizations, Miscellaneous 2
a. Polish Women's Relief Committee, New York, 1942 - 1944: The Committee was formed in 1940 to send relief parcels to Polish PW's in Nazi captivity. The aid was distributed on a non-sectarian basis. JDC Allocations -- 1942: $ 5,400; 1943: 3,000; 1944: 2,600; Total: $11,000. Fin. Statements by the Committee: 9/30/42, 2/9/43; Nov. 1939 - June 1943, July 1943 Publication White Eagle. Correspondence: J.C. Hyman, A. Strakacz, A. Znamiecki. b. South African Board of Deputies, Johannesburg (S.A.), 1936 - 1940; 1944, JDC Allocations: 1938, $12,500 to match the contribution of the S.A. B. of D. for Polish relief, 6/21/38; 1939/1940, $75,000 to match a comparable sum contributed by the S.A. B. of D. 12/13/39 - 2/14/40. For other materials on the S.A. B. of D., see: Union of South Africa, Files 1,053 - 1,054. Correspondence: M.W. Beckelman, A. Brotman, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, E. Saron. c. United British Appeal for Polish Jewry (UBA), London, 1935 - 1940: In 1935/1936, the UBA allocated $190,000 for Polish Jewry and the funds were distributed via the JDC and with the guidance of B. Kahn, 11/6/35(2), 2/3/36. In 1939, the JDC allocated L 12,500 in aid of Polish refugees to match an allotment by the UBA in the same sum, 1/9/40. Report: UBA L 5,000 Assignment for Gemiloth Chesed Kassas, Feb. 1937. Also see: Files 789-790. Correspondence: A. Horwitz, B. Kahn, N. Laski. d. WUZET, Lwow, 1938 - 1939: The WUZET is the association for vocational training in Galicia. The JDC allocations in 1938 - 1939 were matching sums to those granted by the United Galician Jews of America, New York. JDC Allocations -- 1938: $7,500; 1939: $2,500; Total: $10,000. List of organizations in Galicia supported by the WUZET, 12/16/37. Correspondence: H.K. Buchman, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, L. Neustadt. e. Youth Theatre Project of Warsaw, 1938: JDC Allocation: $250.
Index Terms:
Beckelman, M.W.
Brotman, A.
Buchman, H.K.
Galicia
Horwitz, A.
Hyman, J.C.
Johnnesburg (S.A.)
Kahn, B.
Kahn, B.
Laski, N.
List
London
Lwow
Neustadt, L.
New York
Poland
Polish Women's Relief Committee
Saron, E.
South African Board of Deputies
Strakacz, A.
United British Appeal for Polish Jewry (UBA)
WUZET
Youth Theatre Project of Warsaw
Znamiecki, A.
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Series 3: Poland: Subject Matter
Child Care -- Between 1933 - 1940, the JDC allocated $1,020,000 in all for child care aid in Poland. A great share of the funds were distributed via the Child Care Association "Centos", and to a smaller degree by the medical organization "TOZ". The distribution ran as follows: 1933: $50,064; 1934: 74,291; 1935: 128,590; 1936: 193,598; 1937: 196,735; 1938: $152,122; 1939: 150,150; 1940: 75,000; Total: $1,020,550. In addition, between 1932 - 1940 a Baltimore philanthropist, Jacob Epstein, earmarked over $100,000 all told, for child care aid in Poland. The funds were distributed by the JDC. Materials on the Epstein gifts will be found below in File 821, CENTOS, File 822, and TOZ, File 840. Cultural and Religious -- Between 1933 - 1940, JDC expenditures in aid of Jewish cult. and religious institutions, organizations and activities reached some $302,000 in all. In addition, about $17,900 went to Jewish institutions and organizations following their flight to Lithuania in 1939/40, in the aftermath of the Nazi invasion of Poland. 1933: $1,965; 1934: 3,819; 1935: 20,907; 1936: 41,953; 1937: $58,181; 1938: 54,147; 1939: 121,387; 1940: 249; Total: $302,608. In the main, the funds aided Jewish primary and secondary schools and yeshivot and other institutions of higher learning. The JDC Cult. Committee allocated most of the funds at its disposal to the three original constituent committees of the JDC for distribution - the American Jewish Relief Committee (AJRC), the Central Relief Committee (CRC) and the People's Relief Committee (PRC). For the general scope of the arrangement, see: File 89, Introduction. The primary and secondary schools in Poland fell into three broad categories, and JDC aid was extended to all three: (1) Religious, (2) Yiddish, secular, (3) Hebrew, secular. For detailed data, see below: Files 826, 827. For data on earlier years, see: Archives 1921 - 1932, Files 344-352. Yeshivot -- JDC aid to yeshivot in Poland fell into several broad categories: - Maintenance. - Building repairs (where the gov't threatened to close the schools in question unless bldg. repairs were carried out) - Transplanting a number of Polish yeshivot to overseas lands (via Lithuania, Russia and Japan), by underwriting transportation costs of teachers and students, e.g. Mir, Tomchei Tmimim, Warsaw, et al. For additional data, see: Yeshivot, Files 356-362. Lithuania, Files 738-739. Japan, File 727. China, File 462. For materials on aid to yeshivot in earlier years, see: JDC Archives 1921 - 1932, Files 353-355. Medical Care -- JDC allocations for medical care between 1933 - 1941 came to $661,461 in all, and were distributed via the TOZ, in over-whelming degree. The TOZ (Society for the Preservation of Health Among the Jews in Poland) was the Polish affiliate of the OSE. It was organized in 1922 as a national Jewish health organization to conduct med. activities and institutions established originally by the JDC, along with programs in public health education. It received large JDC appropriations over the years. JDC allocations for medical care took the following pattern: 1933: $25,187; 1934: 25,471; 1935: 31,800; 1936: 47,409; 1937: 94,047; 1938: $93,253; 1939: 86,994; 1940: 157,300; 1941: 100,000; Total: $661,461. Reconstruction -- JDC allocations for reconstruction activities in Poland were granted for loan kassas and credit cooperatives, in over-whelming degree. Direct allocations, most of which stemmed from the JDC Foundation, reached $738,860, all told, and were second in size only to child care allocations. They took the following pattern: 1934: $765; 1935: -- ; 1936: 104,762; 1937: 289,769; 1938: $176,775; 1939: 137,200; 1940: 29,589; Total: $738,860. But in those years, JDC aid to the Kassas and cooperatives was several fold greater, in reality. Large-scale JDC allocations to those organizations dated back to 1926. The allocations were used in revolving funds, and when individual loans were repaid, the funds were available for fresh loans. The JDC never withdrew any of the funds. For other materials, see above: File 819, Ahawath Chesed, Lemberg, and Bank dla Spoldzielni, Warsaw. Loan Kassas -- The Loan Kassas granted small, personal, short-term, interest-free loans, in contrast with the Loan and Savings Kassas which granted larger, interest-bearing loans, both short and long-term. Also see: File 819, Ahawath Chesed. For a list of loan kassas arranged by localities, see below: File 849-873. Refugees -- Between 1933 - Oct. 1938, some 6,000 refugees arrived in Poland from Germany. All but a handful were Polish citizens who had been expelled by the Nazi Gov't. In the night of Oct. 27-28, 1938, the Nazi authorities abruptly expelled en masse about 16,000 Polish Jews in Germany across the German-Polish frontier. The refugees had no belongings and literally lacked everything - money, food, shelter and warm clothing. The JDC moved into the breach and was followed by other Jewish agencies. Local Jewish communities also collected substantial sums in aid. For details, see below: Files 878-879. Between Jan.-July 1939, the refugees were joined by another 4,000 family members coming from Germany. Other refugees also came to Poland from Czechoslovakia in the wake of the Munich Pact. Following the Nazi invasion of Poland, scores of thousands of Jews fled to adjoining lands - Russia, Lithuania, Hungary and Romania, and many emigrated to Palestine and overseas lands. For Polish refugees in overseas lands, see: Files 880-886. JDC Allocations for Refugee Aid and Repatriation in Poland: 1933: $6,340; 1934: 7,653; 1935: --; 1936: 4,000; 1937: $27,043; 1938: 39,421; 1939: 186,109; Total: $270,566. But the sum of $270,566 was only a fragment of the totality for the aid of Polish refugees that the JDC expended. In addition, large sums aided Polish refugees in other countries and were charged to other budgets where refugee outlays were all intermingled. In many instances, the segments for Polish refugees can no longer be segregated from the others. Moreover, the JDC granted $375,000 for non-sectarian relief to Polish refugees, among whom the number of Jewish refugees was high. The sum included $350,000 expended via the Free Polish Gov't, $20,000 via the Commission for Polish Relief and $5,600 via the Polish Women's Relief Committee For other materials, see above: File 819, Fund for Refugee Writers. Polish Jews in Poland became refugees only after the Nazi invasion in Sept. 1939. Polish Jews elsewhere - e.g. Germany, Austria, Czechoslovakia, could become refugees already in pre-war days, as a result of some Nazi political action, e.g. the annexation of Austria, the signing of the Munich Pact and the like. In wartime emigration, unexpected delays en route were a commonplace and refugees often found themselves marooned for long stretches at a single place. Hence, in the case of refugees traveling to overseas lands via the Trans-Siberian R.R., materials may also be found below under Japan, China, Burma and India; or in the case of refugees traveling to Palestine from Italy, materials may also be found under Turkey.
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File 821: Poland: Subject Matter, Child Care, General
Over the years, Jacob Epstein's gifts for child care in Poland were received at the rate of $1,000 per month, on the average, and the distribution ran as follows: 1932: $9,000; 1933: 4,400; 1934: 10,000; 1935: 12,000; 1936: 12,000; 1937: $12,000; 1938: 12,000; 1939: 13,000; 1940: 12,000; 1941: 5,000; Total: $101,400. Report: JDC Expenditures for Child Care in 1937, 12/31/37. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, H.K. Buchman, J. Epstein, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, E.M. Morrissey, J.N. Rosenberg.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, P.
Buchman, H.K.
Child Care
Epstein, J.
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, B.
Morrissey, E.M.
Poland
Reports
Rosenberg, J.N.
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File 822: Poland: Subject Matter, Child Care, Child Care Association CENTOS
The CENTOS was an association of the major Jewish child care organizations in Poland and its existence dated back to 1924. It supervised a wide range of activities, stretching from orphan care to summer camps, to vocational training, and until the latter 1930's it was able to cover locally a large share of its budget. Reports: Organization for Child Protection and Aid for Orphans in Poland and tables of activities 1926 - 1934, 1/1/36. Tables of activities and fin. statements 1926 - 1935, 3/31/36. The Plight of the Jewish Children in Ostrog, Oct. 1937. CENTOS application for JDC allocation and fin. statements, 7/28/37. JDC Report, CENTOS Child Care Work in Poland, 1937 - 1938, August 1938. Fin. Statement 9/6/39 - 12/31/39, 1/21/40. Correspondence: H.K. Buchman, J.C. Hyman, S.B. Jacobson, B. Kahn.
Index Terms:
Buchman, H.K.
Child Care
Child Care Association CENTOS
Hyman, J.C.
Jacobson, S.B.
Kahn, B.
Poland
Reports
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File 823: Poland: Subject Matter, Child Care, Summer Camps, 1936 - 1937
JDC Reports: Summer Colonies Initiated and Supported by the AJDC, narrative and photos, 1936. The Summer Colonies in Poland 1937, by L. Neustadt.
Index Terms:
Neustadt, L.
Poland
Reports
Summer Camps
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File 824: Poland: Subject Matter, Child Care, Summer Camps, 1938 - 1939
JDC Report: The Summer Colonies in Poland, 1938, by L. Neustadt, Dec. 1938. Preliminary Statement on Summer Camp Activities in 1938, 1/26/39.
Index Terms:
Neustadt, L.
Poland
Reports
Summer Camps
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File 825: Poland: Subject Matter, Concentration Camps
Auschwitz (Oswiecim) and Birkenau were two nearly adjoining concentration camps in Upper Silesia to which Jews from many countries, including Poland, were sent. When Auschwitz was opened following the Nazi invasion of Poland, it was initially billed as a place of resettlement for the Jews of Silesia and a "central emigration bureau" was established there. There were no recorded cases of emigration from Auschwitz in the accepted meaning of the word. Reports: The Mass Extermination of Jews in German Occupied Poland by the Gov't of Poland, 12/10/42; Report on Auschwitz Crematorium, undated and without authorship, Jan. 1944 (?). List of Interned Persons at Birkenau, 4/27/44; German Extermination Camps - Auschwitz and Birkenau, Nov. 1944; Jewish Survivors Report - 18 months in the Oswiecim Extermination Camp, May 1945; Concentration Camp Auschwitz-Birkenau, Aug. 1945. Also see: SM Archives, Files 52-53.
Index Terms:
Auschwitz (Oswiecim)
Birkenau
Concentration Camps
List
Poland
Reports
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File 826: Poland: Subject Matter, Cultural and Religious, General
JDC cultural activities in Poland: 5/22/35, 9/11/36(2), 9/28/36, 2/24/37 Adler to Kahn, 3/16/37, 4/5/37, 4/29/37, 6/10/37, 6/18/37, 6/25/37, 10/14/37, 12/14/37, 1/21/39, 11/21/39, 11/9/39, 12/13/39, 1/15/40, 3/11/40 Paris Cable-4/16/40, 5/1/40, 5/10/40, 10/18/40. United British Appeal for London allotted funds for distribution in Poland by the JDC: L 3,000, 3/13/36-4/27/36; L 2,500, 9/30/38. JDC subsidies for equipment and repair of schools: 1936, 8/13/36, 12/31/36; 1937, 12/31/37; 1938, 12/27/38 attachment to 1/20/39; 1939, 3/15/39-3/26/39, 4/3/39, 5/24/39, 6/13/39(3)-6/22/39(3), 7/18/39, 8/23/39. Reports: Educational and Cultural Institutions Subventioned by the JDC in 1936, 12/31/36; Structure of Jewish School Organizations in Poland, 4/22/37; Fin. Condition of the School Organizations in Poland, 1/14/39 attachment to 1/17/39; Proposal for a Survey of Cultural Institutions in Poland by M.W. Beckelman, 8/22/39 attachment to 8/27/39; Present Situation of Elementary and Other Schools in Vilna City and Province, 3/20/40 attachment to 4/19/40. Correspondence: C. Adler, M.W. Beckelman, H.K. Buchman, A. Horowitz, J.C. Hyman, Cordell Hull, L. Jung, B. Kahn, M.A. Leavitt, E.M. Morrissey, J.J. Schwartz, M.C. Troper.
Index Terms:
Adler, C.
Beckelman, M.W.
Buchman, H.K.
Cultural and Religious
Horowitz, A.
Hull, Cordell
Hyman, J.C.
Jung, L.
Kahn, B.
Leavitt, M.A.
Morrissey, E.M.
Poland
Reports
Schools
Schwartz, J.J.
Troper, M.C.
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File 827: Poland: Subject Matter, Cultural and Religious, Elementary and Secondary Schools, Reports
Yiddish Schul-Wesen in Poilen 1934 - 1935, April 1936. Applications for Assignments and Assignments Made 3/10/37, see: File 791. Jewish Private Public Instruction in Poland by L. Neustadt, 5/12/37. Jewish Schools in Poland (JDC), August 1938. Survey of Activities of Jewish School Organizations in Poland by L. Neustadt, July 1939. The Bldg. and Equipment Campaign as Carried on by the Jewish School Organizations in Poland by L. Neustadt, 8/4/39.
Index Terms:
Cultural and Religious
Neustadt, L.
Poland
Reports
Schools
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File 828: Poland: Subject Matter, Cultural and Religious, Elementary and Secondary Schools, Miscellaneous
a. Agudas Israel, 1935 (Religious): For materials on earlier years, see: Archives 1921 - 1932, File 346. Correspondence: C. Adler, J.C. Hyman. b. Central Jewish Education Committee, Vilna, 1934 - 1940 (Yiddish, Secular). JDC Allocations: 1934: $350; 1935: 60; 1936: 102; 1937: $170; 1938: 200; 1939: 300; Total: $1,182. Correspondence: H.K. Buchman, J.C. Hyman, A. Kahn. c. Central Jewish School Organ., Warsaw (CISCHO), 1938 - 1940 Yiddish, Secular). JDC Allocations: 1933: $1,440; 1934: 3,015; 1935: 5,350; 1936: 8,113; 1937: $10,300; 1938: 16,983; 1939: 18,400; Total: $63,601. For materials on earlier years, see: Archives, 1921 - 1932, File 351. Correspondence: D.M. Bressler, H.K. Buchman, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, S. Mendelson, E.M. Morrissey, J. Pat, B.C. Vladeck. d. Chorev Schools, 1937 - 1941 (Religious). JDC Allocations: 1936: $5,000; 1937: 5,000; 1938: $6,800; 1939: 10,150; Total: $26,150. Correspondence: M. Beckelman, H.K. Buchman, J.C. Hyman. e. Ohel Sara, 1938 - 1939 (Religious, Beth Jacob). JDC Allocations: 1938: $100; 1939; Total: $400. f. Szul-Kult, Warsaw, 1937 - 1939 (Secular). JDC Allocations: 1936: $1,000; 1937: 2,600; 1938: $3,300; 1939: 5,600; Total: $12,500. Correspondence: C. Adler, M.W. Beckelman, H.K. Buchman, S. Gourary, Ch. O. Grodzienski, A. Horowitz, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, E.M. Morrissey.
Index Terms:
Adler, C.
Agudas Israel
Beckelman, M.
Bressler, D.M.
Buchman, H.K.
Central Jewish Education Committee
Central Jewish School Organization (CISCHO)
Chorev Schools
Cultural and Religious
Gourary, S.
Grodzienski, Ch. O.
Horowitz, A.
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, A.
Kahn, B.
Mendelson, S.
Morrissey, E.M.
Ohel Sara
Pat, J.
Poland
Schools
Szul-Kult
Vilna
Vladeck, B.C.
Warsaw
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File 829: Poland: Subject Matter, Cultural and Religious, Elementary and Secondary Schools, Beth Jacob Schools
(Religious, Girls) JDC Allocations: 1933: $320; 1934: 420; 1935: 760; 1936: 5,966; 1937: $8,833; 1938: 8,125; 1939: 3,932; 1940: 250; Total: $28,606. Activities report by L. Deutschlaender, April 1935. List of Beth Jacob Schools in Poland, 4/24/37. A Holocaust Document, 8/11/42. Also see: File 828, Ohel Sara. For materials on earlier years, see: Archives 1921 - 1932, Files 347-347a. Correspondence: C. Adler, H.K. Buchman, L. Deutschlaender, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, L. Jung, L. Rosenbaum.
Index Terms:
Adler, C.
Beth Jacob Schools
Buchman, H.K.
Cultural and Religious
Deutschlaender, L.
Hyman, J.C.
Jung, L.
Kahn, B.
List
Poland
Reports
Rosenbaum, L.
Schools
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File 830: Poland: Subject Matter, Cultural and Religious, Elementary and Secondary Schools, Tarbuth Schools
(Hebrew Language and Culture) JDC Allocations: 1933: 700; 1934: 1,050; 1935: 3,450; 1936: 3,950; 1937: $2,400; 1938: 15,150; 1939: 3,880; Total: $30,580. Tarbuth Publications (Hebrew): Tarbuth 1934: July, Dec,; Mesiloth 1935 - 1936. For materials on earlier years, see: Archives 1921 - 1932, Files 348-350. Correspondence: C. Adler, H.K. Buchman, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn.
Index Terms:
Adler, C.
Buchman, H.K.
Cultural and Religious
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, B.
Poland
Schools
Tarbuth Schools
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File 831: Poland: Subject Matter, Cultural and Religious, Elementary and Secondary Schools, Yavneh Schools
(Mizrachi) JDC Allocations: 1934: $315; 1935: 3,450; 1936: 3,950; 1937: $3,990; 1938: 2,625; Total: $14,330. Yavneh Publication: Activities of the Association "Yavne", 1937. Correspondence: C. Adler, H.K. Buchman, J.C. Hyman, S. Kahane, I. Rubenstein.
Index Terms:
Adler, C.
Buchman, H.K.
Cultural and Religious
Hyman, J.C.
Kahane, S.
Poland
Rubenstein, I.
Schools
Yavneh Schools
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File 832: Poland: Subject Matter, Cultural and Religious, Yeshivot and Seminaries, General
a. General, 1933 - 1940: JDC Allocations for Building Repairs (1938/39) and War Emergency Needs (1940): 1938: $4,000; 1939: 11,750; 1940: $10,000; Total: $25,750. Correspondence: C. Adler, M.W. Beckelman, H.K. Buchman, S. Gourary, Ch. O. Grodzienski, A. Horowitz, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, M.A. Leavitt, E.M. Morrissey. b. German Refugee Students at Polish Yeshivot, 1936 - 1939: Correspondence: C. Adler, H.A. Goodman, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, J. Rosenheim.
Index Terms:
Adler, C.
Beckelman, M.W.
Buchman, H.K.
Cultural and Religious
Goodman, H.A.
Gourary, S.
Grodzienski, Ch. O.
Higher Education
Horowitz, A.
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, B.
Leavitt, M.A.
Morrissey, E.M.
Poland
Refugees
Rosenheim, J.
Schools
Seminaries
Yeshivot
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File 833: Poland: Subject Matter, Cultural and Religious, Yeshivot and Seminaries, Miscellaneous 1
a. Baranowicz, Ohel Torah, 1936 - 1941: JDC Allocations: 1936: $250; 1937: 695; 1938: $480; Total: $1,425. b. Bialystok, Beth Meir, 1937 - 1938: JDC Allocations: 1937: $120; 1938: 120; Total: $240. c. Bobowa, Etz Chaim, 1936 - 1937; 1939: JDC Allocations: 1934: $30; 1935: 40; 1936: $500; 1937: 200; Total: $770. d. Brzesc (Brisk), Torath Chesed, 1937 - 1940: JDC Allocations: 1937: $500; 1938: 200; 1939: $70; Total: $770. e. Grodno, Shaar Hatora, 1936 - 1939, JDC Allocations: 1934: $160; 1935: 160; 1936: 160; 1937: $740; 1938: 480; Total: $1,700 f. Kamenitz-Litovsk, Kneseth Beth Isaac, 1937 - 1939, JDC Allocations: 1937: $1,340; 1938: 1,080; Total: $2,420. Publication: "History of the Grand Rabbinical College 'Kneseth Beth Isaac' of Kamenitz-Litovsk, Poland". g. Kletzk, Etz Chaim, 1937 - 1942. h. Kobryn, Yeshivot Kobryn, 1939. i. Lomza, Rabbinical Yeshiva of Lomza, 1934 - 1943: JDC Allocations: 1937: $520; 1938: 520; Total: $1,040. Between 1921 - 1936 the JDC granted $37,395 to the Lomza Yeshiva, 10/23/36.
Index Terms:
Baranowicz
Beth Meir
Bialystok
Bobowa
Brzesc (Brisk)
Cultural and Religious
Etz Chaim
Etz Chaim
Grodno
Higher Education
Kamenitz-Litovsk
Kletzk
Kneseth Beth Isaac
Kobryn
Lomza
Ohel Torah
Poland
Publications
Rabbinical Yeshiva of Lomza
Schools
Seminaries
Shaar Hatora
Torath Chesed
Yeshivot
Yeshivot Kobryn
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File 834: Poland: Subject Matter, Cultural and Religious, Yeshivot and Seminaries, Lublin, Chachmei Lublin
JDC Allocations: 1936: $1,562; 1937: 700; 1938: $500; Total: $2,762. Publications: Essays on the Lublin Yeshiva by Hillel Seidman, 1934. Fin. Statement 1938, 12/31/38. Correspondence: C. Adler, H.K. Buchman, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, E.M. Morrissey.
Index Terms:
Adler, C.
Buchman, H.K.
Chachmei Lublin
Cultural and Religious
Higher Education
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, B.
Lublin
Morrissey, E.M.
Poland
Publications
Schools
Seminaries
Yeshivot
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File 835: Poland: Subject Matter, Cultural and Religious, Yeshivot and Seminaries, Miscellaneous 2
a. Lwow, Teachers' Seminary, 1938 - JDC Allocations: 1938: $200. b. Nowogrodek, Nowogrodek Yeshivot "Beth Joseph", 1937 - 1938 - JDC Allocations: Bialystok: $800; Luck (Lutzck): 358; Miedzyrzec: 720; Ostow-Maz: $340; Pinsk: 320; Warsaw: 640; Total: $3,178. c. Radun, Chofetz Chaim, 1934; 1939; 1941 - JDC Allocations: 1937: $480; 1938: 480; 1939: $100; Total: $1,060. d. Sokolow/Podl, Beth Israel, 1937 - JDC Allocations: 1937: $300. e. Stolin, Beth Israel, 1937 - 1938 - JDC Allocations: 1937: $237; 1938: 217; Total; $454. f. Warsaw Institute for Judaistic Sciences, 1937 - 1938 - JDC Allocations: 1936: $1,000; 1937: 1,000; 1938: $500; Total: $2,500. Correspondence: C. Adler, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, M.S. Lazaron, J. Morganstern, M. Schorr. g. Warsaw, Mechanchim Seminar, 1937 - 1939: Teacher training institute for religious schools. JDC Allocations: 1936: $200; 1937: 750; Total: $950. h. Warsaw, Yeshiva Umesifta, 1937 - 1938 - JDC Allocations: 1937: $1,075; 1938: 480; Total: $1,555. i. Warsaw, Torat Chaim, 1939; 1943; 1945 - JDC Allocations: 1937: $735; 1938: 545; Total: $1,280. j. Warsaw, Yeshivat Gavoha "Emek Halacha", 1933 - 1944. k. Wilno (Vilna), Rameiles, 1937 - 1938 - JDC Allocations: 1937: $510; 1938: 320; Total: $830. l. Wilno (Vilna), Tachkemoni Seminary, 1933 - 1941: JDC Allocations: 1934: $105; 1935: 140; 1936: 140; 1937: $400; 1938: 400; Total: $1,185. m. Wolozin, Etz Chaim, 1933 - 1944: JDC Allocations: 1937: $240; 1938: 340; Total: $580.
Index Terms:
Adler, C.
Beth Israel
Chofetz Chaim
Cultural and Religious
Etz Chaim
Higher Education
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, B.
Lazaron, M.S.
Lwow
Mechanchim Seminar
Morganstern, J.
Nowogrodek
Nowogrodek Yeshivot "Beth Joseph"
Poland
Radun
Rameiles
Schools
Schorr, M.
Seminaries
Sokolow/Podl
Stolin
Tachkemoni Seminary
Teachers' Seminary
Torat Chaim
Vilna
Warsaw
Warsaw Institute for Judaistic Sciences
Yeshiva Umesifta
Yeshivat Gavoha
Yeshivot
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File 836: Poland: Subject Matter, Cultural and Religious, Yeshivot and Seminaries, Mir, Mirrer Yeshiva,
JDC Allocations: 1921 - 1932 = $40,000. 1933: $185; 1934: 480; 1935: 2,240; 1936: 680; 1937: $4,215; 1938: 1,920; 1939: 2,450; Total: $12,170. Faculty and students flee to Lithuania from Poland, 2/14/40, 2/21/40. They prepared to move to Japan en route to the U.S. with JDC aid, 10/31/40, 11/4/40(2), 11/17/40, 1/8/41-1/21/41. Fin. statement by Rabbi Kalmanowitz on the transfer of the Mirrer Yeshiva from Lithuania to Japan, 4/30/41. The transfer from Japan to Shanghai, 8/21/41 - 10/18/41, 11/3/41 and attachments, 11/27/41, 1/1/42 - 3/25/42. For additional materials, see: Lithuania, Files 738-739. Japan, File 727. China, File 462, Aug.-Dec. 1941. Yeshivot, Files 356-362. Correspondence: C. Adler, P. Baerwald, M.W. Beckelman, H.K. Buchman, L.J. Finkel, A. Horowitz, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, A. Kalmanowitz, M.A. Leavitt, Ch. Schmuelowicz, P.J. Schoen.
Index Terms:
Adler, C.
Baerwald, P.
Beckelman, M.W.
Buchman, H.K.
Cultural and Religious
Finkel, L.J.
Higher Education
Horowitz, A.
Hyman, J.C.
Japan
Kahn, B.
Kalmanowitz, A.
Leavitt, M.A.
Lithuania
Mir
Mirrer Yeshiva
Poland
Schmuelowicz, Ch.
Schoen, P.J.
Schools
Seminaries
Shanghai
Yeshivot
#Return to Top
File 837: Poland: Subject Matter, Cultural and Religious, Yeshivot and Seminaries, Warsaw, Tomchei-Tmimim (Lubavitch), Warsaw-Otwock,
JDC Allocations: 1937: $915; 1938: 1,005; 1939: $2,000; Total: $3,920. Faculty and students fled to Vilna from Poland and then prepared to move to Japan en route to the U.S., with JDC aid, 1/5/40, 1/6/40, 1/19/40, 1/29/40, 8/1/40-8/16/40, 1/14/41, 1/21/41, 1/29/41, 2/7/41, 2/19/41, 3/19/41, 3/26/41, 3/28/41, 8/13/41, 9/19/41, 10/5/41, 2/18/42, 2/25/42, 1/20/43. For additional materials, see: the same references as in File 836. Correspondence: C. Adler, H.K. Buchman, I. Coons, S. Gourary, S. Hayes, A. Horowitz, B. Kahn, M.A. Leavitt, Joseph Isaac Schneerson.
Index Terms:
Adler, C.
Buchman, H.K.
Coons, I.
Cultural and Religious
Gourary, S.
Hayes, S.
Higher Education
Horowitz, A.
Kahn, B.
Leavitt, M.A.
Poland
Schneerson, Joseph Isaac
Schools
Seminaries
Tomchei-Tmimim (Lubavitch)
Warsaw
Yeshivot
#Return to Top
File 838: Poland: Subject Matter, Emigration
Between 1933 - 1940, the emigration of Polish refugees from Europe was administered by the HICEM and the JDC covered about one-third of the transportation costs. Between 1940 - 1944, the JDC shouldered the emigration costs of Polish refugees in full or in overwhelming degree. In Dec. 1938, the Polish Gov't sought to expedite Jewish emigration by pressing leading Jews in Poland to serve on a Jewish Colonization Committee and to make delegation visits to the U.S., England, et al so as to drum up support and fiscal backing for the scheme. The scheme came to nothing when it ran into strong opposition abroad. For details, see below, as well as File 819.g. Palestine and the U.S. were the principal countries of emigration for Polish refugees. Emigration to Palestine was cut when Italy entered the war in May 1940 and for the next year or so it could be conducted only by an overland route via Vilna, Moscow and the Trans-Siberian R.R. to Vladivostok and thence overseas to Japan. By mid - 1941, emigration came to a standstill. For additional materials, see: Germany, Files 667-673. Lithuania, Files 738-739. Japan, Files 723-727 China, File 488. a. General, 1936 - 1941: HICEM Report on Jewish emigration from Poland, 12/11/37. Emigration from Poland 1937, 3/16/38. Minutes of Meeting JDC-AJC on emigration from Poland, 2/16/39(2). Correspondence: C. Adler, M. Bohrer, H.K. Buchman, J.C. Hyman, L. Oungre, M.C. Troper. b. Palestine, 1939 - 1942: Correspondence: M. Birman, H.K. Buchman, L.I. Margolis.
Index Terms:
Adler, C.
Birman, M.
Bohrer, M.
Buchman, H.K.
Emigration
HIAS-ICA Emigration Association (HICEM)
Hyman, J.C.
Margolis, L.I.
Minutes of Meetings
Oungre, L.
Palestine
Poland
Refugees
Reports
Troper, M.C.
#Return to Top
File 839: Poland: Subject Matter, Feeding
JDC Warsaw Report on the Feeding Campaign in 1936/37, Oct. 1937. Summary of Conference on Feeding in Poland, 10/30/37. Child Feeding at the Jewish School Centers, 9/24/36. Correspondence: H.K. Buchman, M.A. Leavitt, L. Neustadt.
Index Terms:
Buchman, H.K.
Feeding
Leavitt, M.A.
Neustadt, L.
Poland
#Return to Top
File 840: Poland: Subject Matter, Medical Care, TOZ, Warsaw
Narrative Reports and Summaries of TOZ Activities: 1930 - 1933, 12/31/33; 1937, 5/26/38, Aug. 1938; 9/1/39 - 7/1/40(2); 5/27/40(2); 6/28/40; 8/4/40; 9/23/40; 11/6/41. Statistical Reports: Annual 1940, 12/31/40, 7/28/41; Monthly - 1940: Feb., March, May (2), June; 1941: Jan., March, April (2), May. Fin. Reports and Statements: 4/1/36 - 3/31/37; Sept.-Dec. 1939; 12/5/41; 12/9/41. JDC allocates funds for the purchase of medicaments in Switzerland for shipment to the TOZ, 2/3/41 - 2/15/41, 6/11/41 - 7/7/41, 10/8/41, 10/10/41, 12/15/41; for additional materials, see: SM Archives, File 27d. For materials on TOZ in earlier years, see: Archives 1921 - 1932, Files 369-373. Correspondence: H.K. Buchman, Norman H. Davis, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, M. Koenigstein, B. Tschlenoff, L. Wulman.
Index Terms:
Buchman, H.K.
Davis, Norman H.
Financial
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, B.
Koenigstein, M.
Medical Care
Oeuvres de Secours aux Enfants (TOZ)
Poland
Reports
Tschlenoff, B.
Warsaw
Wulman, L.
#Return to Top
File 841: Poland: Subject Matter, Medical Care, Other Organizations
a. Juedisches Spital, Lublin, 1935 - 1940: In 1937, the hospital received Zl. 3,000 from the TOZ for repairs and renovations. b. Medem Sanitorium, Miedzeszyn/Warsaw, 1935 - 1942: The Medem was a children's TB sanatorium and it received the following JDC allocations (Also see: File 805.g): 1934: $1,053; 1935: 6,306; 1936: 1,828; 1937: 8,168; 1938: $10,457; 1939: 11,518; Toatl: $39,330. Correspondence: H.K. Buchman, A. Held, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn. c. Nurses Training School (NTS) Warsaw, 1934; 1936 - 1940: The Nurses Training School was organized in 1923 with JDC aid, and it earned a name as a model institution of its kind, in Poland and abroad. JDC allocations between 1922 - 1939 came to $140,000 in all. For materials in earlier years, see: Archives 1921 - 1932, Files 364-368. NTS Activity Reports: 4/1/36 - 3/31/37, 4/1/37 - 3/31/38, 4/1/38 - 3/31/39. Correspondence: M.W. Beckelman, H.K. Buchman, N. Lubowska, M.C. Troper. d. Sanatorium "Jehudys", Warsaw, 1939: On 1/1/39, the children's sanatorium "Jehudys", conducted under orthodox auspices, opened its doors. In 1939, the JDC granted it $3,095 in allocations.
Index Terms:
Beckelman, M.W.
Buchman, H.K.
Held, A.
Hyman, J.C.
Juedisches Spital
Kahn, B.
Lublin
Lubowska, N.
Medem Sanitorium
Medical Care
Nurses Training School (NTS)
Oeuvres de Secours aux Enfants (TOZ)
Poland
Sanatorium "Jehudys"
Troper, M.C.
Warsaw
#Return to Top
File 842: Poland: Subject Matter, Persecutions (Pre-War)
1. Anti-Schechita Law, 1936 - 1937: Correspondence: C. Adler, Ch. O. Grodzienski, A. Horowitz, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn. 2. Jewish University Students, 1937 - 1938: Correspondence: B. Kahn, L. Neustadt, D.J. Schweitzer. Note: For data on boycotts and programs in Jewish communities, see: Localities, Individual communities, Files 890-895.
Index Terms:
Adler, C.
Anti-Schechita Law
Grodzienski, Ch. O.
Horowitz, A.
Hyman, J.C.
Jewish University Students
Kahn, B.
Neustadt, L.
Persecutions (Pre-War)
Poland
Schweitzer, D.J.
#Return to Top
File 843: Poland: Subject Matter, Reconstruction, General, 1934-39; 1941; 1944
Reports and Memos: On repayments of reconstruction loans to credit institutions, 10/30/35 attachment to 11/1/35, 11/27/35, 12/12/35; Capital Investments Poland 1924-36, 12/2/36; Reconstruction in Poland by N. Aronovici, 8/7/37 attachment to 8/16/37; Situation of the Cooperative Banks in Poland by A. Kahn, 12/1/37; 12/2/37; Activities and Plans of the JDC in Poland, Dec. 1937; Assignments of Credit for Reconstructive Aid, attachment to 1/12/38; Problems for Consideration for the Committee on Poland, 3/28/38; JDC Economic Aid in Poland, 4/11/38; 7/18/39. Correspondence: N. Aronovici, D.M. Bressler, O.E. d'Avigdor Goldsmid, J.C. Hyman, A. Kahn, B. Kahn, A.A. Landesco, L. Oungre, D. Schweitzer.
Index Terms:
Aronovici, N.
Bressler, D.M.
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, A.
Kahn, B.
Landesco, A.A.
Oungre, L.
Poland
Reconstruction
Reports
Schweitzer, D.
d'Avigdor Goldsmid, O.E.
#Return to Top
File 844: Poland: Subject Matter, Reconstruction, General, Proposals for the Improvement of Economic Opportunities for Jews in Poland,
Between 1935 - 1939, JDC leaders, personalities and committees came to grips with a wide range of proposals for the improvement of economic opportunities for Jews in Poland. The proposals focused on the creation of new businesses for the manufacture of goods suitable for the export trade. Many proposals were submitted, a few were chosen and an agreement to undertake the first was reached at long, long last on August 30, 1939. On Sept. 1, the Nazi armies marched into Poland and launched W.W. II. But even in the best of cases, effective large scale aid of this character would have been in work of decades and not of single years. Polish trade and commerce were more at home in the 18th or the 19th centuries than in the 20th. Moreover, anti-Jewish political, economic and social discrimination in Poland were widespread, and dimmed the prospects for achieving Jewish economic progress. A loan of 1,500,000 zlotys for the economic rehabilitation of Jews in need was extended in equal parts by the Polish Gov't, the JDC and other Jewish agencies and by Polish Jewry, March 1935, 4/22/36, 6/7/36. Proposals for a constructive program of aid: Minutes of the JDC Exec. Committee, 3/8/37; by N. Katz, 3/9/37; by Norman Gerstenfeld, 10/8/37, 10/20/37 attachment to 10/31/27, 4/4/38; Proposal to manufacture new products in Poland by bringing in skilled refugee artisans from Vienna, 1/21/38, 4/27/38, 6/13/38 attachment to 7/15/38; Proposals for constructive help by Jacob Lestschinsky, 11/16/37, 4/11/38 attachment to 4/14/38; Shipment of samples of articles manufactured in Poland considered suitable for the American market, 4/29/38, 6/18/38, 8/9/38, 12/19/38. Proposal for the promotion of Polish-American exports with the aid of JDC credits, 12/22/38, 12/23/38, 1/10/39, 1/19/39, 5/15/39-8/30/39. Summary of the session of the Central Negotiating Commission of the Jewish Economic Committee on Poland, June 1939. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, H.K. Buchman, N. Gerstenfeld, I.E. Goldwasser, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, N. Katz, E.I. Kaufman, E.A. Norman, J.N. Rosenberg, B.C. Vladeck.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, P.
Buchman, H.K.
Gerstenfeld, N.
Goldwasser, I.E.
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, B.
Katz, N.
Kaufman, E.I.
Norman, E.A.
Poland
Proposals
Reconstruction
Rehabilitation
Rosenberg, J.N.
Vladeck, B.C.
#Return to Top
File 845: Poland: Subject Matter, Reconstruction, Credit Cooperatives
The kassas affiliated with the credit cooperatives granted short and long-term loans that were interest-bearing. Interest rates were low by prevailing Polish standards, but high by prevailing American standards. The most important kassas were affiliated with the Union of Cooperative Kassas in Poland (Verband), and raised their funds in part locally and in part from credits granted mainly by the JDC Foundation. In the harsh economic climate of the depression 1930's, many kassas were in need of reorganization or had fallen into inactivity. The JDC Foundation launched a reorganization program in 1937. List of kassas affiliated with the Verband where misappropriations of funds occurred between 1929 - 1933, 5/24/33. Capital Investments in Credit Cooperatives by the JDC Foundation 1924 - 1936, 12/2/36. Statistical statements on the activities of the Jewish Credit Cooperatives 1/1/37-3/31/37, 3/31/37. Reports and Memos: Situation of Cooperative Banks in Poland by Alexander Kahn, 12/1/37; Remarks on Poland by N. Aronovici, 1/27/39; Discussions on Poland held in Paris 4/26/39-4/27/39. Fin. Statements 1939, May: 6/8/39; June: 7/28/39. Other data on the credit kassas: 4/28/37, 6/25/37, 12/31/38, 2/13/39, March 1939, 5/5/39, 6/30/39. For a Summary Statement of the Fin. Transactions of the JDC Foundation with Poland 1924 - 1935, see: File 846, 12/31/35. For a list of loan kassas in contact with the JDC Foundation, see: File 846, 6/30/36. Correspondence: G. Bider, M. Flaum, O.E. d'Avigdor Goldsmid, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, L. Oungre, D.J. Schweitzer, M.C. Troper.
Index Terms:
Bider, G.
Credit Cooperatives
Flaum, M.
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, B.
List
Oungre, L.
Poland
Reconstruction
Reports
Schweitzer, D.J.
Troper, M.C.
Union of Cooperative Kassas (Verband)
d'Avigdor Goldsmid, O.E.
#Return to Top
File 846: Poland: Subject Matter, Reconstruction, Gemiloth Chesed Kassas (G.C.), General, 1933 - 1937 (July)
The Pol. Gov't granted a subvention of Zl. 100,000 for G.C. Kassas, 4/22/34, 9/7/34. On the activities of the G.C. Kassas: 5/8/34, May 1934, 11/27/34, 1/5/35, April 1935, 10/2/35, 10/30/35(2), 11/27/35, 11/27/36, 2/15/37, 4/28/37, 7/21/37. Summaries of Fin. Transactions with Poland by the JDC Foundation: 1924 - 1935, 12/31/35; Jan. 1936, 4/22/36; 12/2/36. Lists of loan kassas in Poland: 6/30/36, 12/19/36, 6/30/37. Reports: Expenditures for G.C. Kassas by the United British Appeal for Polish Jewry via the JDC (L 5,000), Feb. 1937; Activities of the G.C. Kassas June 1936-June 1937, 6/30/37; Report on my Trip July/August 1936, by N. Aronovici, Publication: Volks Hilf, published by the Gemiloth Chesed Kassas in Poland (Yiddish). Correspondence: N. Aronovici, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, L. Oungre, D.J. Schweitzer.
Index Terms:
Aronovici, N.
Gemiloth Chesed Kassas (G.C.)
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, B.
List
Loan Kassas
Oungre, L.
Poland
Publications
Reconstruction
Reports
Schweitzer, D.J.
#Return to Top
File 847: Poland: Subject Matter, Reconstruction, Gemiloth Chesed Kassas (G.C.), General, Aug. 1937 - 1940; 1943
On the activities of the G.C. Kassas: 10/1/37-10/17/37, 3/19/38, 4/11/38, 4/27/38, 9/1/38. Summaries of Fin. Transactions with Poland by the JDC Foundation: 9/30/37. Lists of loan kassas in Poland: 9/23/37, 12/31/37. Reports-N. Aronovici: 8/7/37(2), 1/27/39. On Economic Aid to Poland, 4/11/38. Correspondence: N. Aronovici, P. Baerwald, H.K. Buchman, I. Giterman, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, L. Oungre, D.J. Schweitzer, S. Tarschansky, M.C. Troper.
Index Terms:
Aronovici, N.
Baerwald, P.
Buchman, H.K.
Gemiloth Chesed Kassas (G.C.)
Giterman, I.
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, B.
List
Loan Kassas
Oungre, L.
Poland
Reconstruction
Reports
Schweitzer, D.J.
Tarschansky, S.
Troper, M.C.
#Return to Top
File 848: Poland: Subject Matter, Reconstruction, Gemiloth Chesed Kassas (G.C.), CEKABE (CKB), Warsaw (Central Union of Free Loan Societies)
Most of the G.C. Kassas in Poland were affiliated with the CKB, and the Polish Gov't recognized it as the official representative of those kassas. It also acted as a clearing house for allocations to the kassas granted by the JDC Foundation. In March 1939, the JDC agreed to grant the CKB full control over the distribution of those allocations and the transfer was scheduled for completion by Sept. 1939. But Hitler intervened. For materials, see: 12/13/38, 2/23/39, 3/17/39 and Schweitzer report attached thereto, 3/31/39. Correspondence: H.K. Buchman, I. Giterman, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, D.J. Schweitzer.
Index Terms:
Buchman, H.K.
Central Union of Free Loan Societies (CKB)
Gemiloth Chesed Kassas (G.C.)
Giterman, I.
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, B.
Loan Kassas
Poland
Reconstruction
Schweitzer, D.J.
Warsaw
#Return to Top
File 849: Poland: Subject Matter, Reconstruction, Gemiloth Chesed Kassas (G.C.), Arranged by Localities, A and Ba - Bi
Nearly every city, town and locality in Poland boasting a perceptible Jewish population supported one or more interest-free loan kassas and they played a significant role in Jewish economic life. Over the years, the JDC Recon. Found. granted these kassas very sizeable allocations, and yet the enormous needs outpaced the funds available. In a bid to stimulate fund-raising, the JDC offered to match any contributions in their favor stemming from landsmannschaften in the U.S. The offer remained in effect from Jan. 1937 until the Nazi invasion of Poland. Files 849-873 contain materials on some 370 loan kassas, arranged by localities. Nearly all were aided by individual landsmannschaften together with matching JDC grants. Nonetheless, these loan kassas formed but a fraction of those in actual operation. Note: For an interesting account of the economic difficulties besetting Jewish life in a small town and the role played by the local loan kassas, see below: File 872, Memo on Wengrow. A: Andrzejewo (d. Bial.); Antopol (d. Bial.); Ba - Bi: Baranowicze (d. Polesie); Bedzin (d. Kielce); Belzyce (d. Lubel.); Belchatow (d. Lodz); Beresteczko (d. Wolyn); Bereza-Kartuska (d. Polesie); Berezne (d. Wolyn); Bereznica (d. Lwow); Biala Rawska (d. Warsaw); also see: Bledow; Bialy Kamien (d. Tarnopol); Bialystok (d. Bial.); Bielsk Podlaski (d. Bial.); Bilgoraj (d. Lublin); Bircza (d. Lvov);
Index Terms:
Andrzejewo
Antopol
Baranowicze
Bedzin
Belchatow
Belzyce
Beresteczko
Bereza-Kartuska
Berezne
Bereznica
Biala Rawska
Bialy Kamien
Bialystok
Bialystok
Bielsk Podlaski
Bilgoraj
Bircza
Gemiloth Chesed Kassas (G.C.)
Kielce
Loan Kassas
Lodz
Lublin
Lvov
Lwow
Poland
Polesie
Reconstruction
Tarnopol
Warsaw
Wolyn
#Return to Top
File 850: Poland: Subject Matter, Reconstruction, Gemiloth Chesed Kassas (G.C.), Arranged by Localities, Bl - By
Nearly every city, town and locality in Poland boasting a perceptible Jewish population supported one or more interest-free loan kassas and they played a significant role in Jewish economic life. Over the years, the JDC Recon. Found. granted these kassas very sizeable allocations, and yet the enormous needs outpaced the funds available. In a bid to stimulate fund-raising, the JDC offered to match any contributions in their favor stemming from landsmannschaften in the U.S. The offer remained in effect from Jan. 1937 until the Nazi invasion of Poland. Files 849-873 contain materials on some 370 loan kassas, arranged by localities. Nearly all were aided by individual landsmannschaften together with matching JDC grants. Nonetheless, these loan kassas formed but a fraction of those in actual operation. Note: For an interesting account of the economic difficulties besetting Jewish life in a small town and the role played by the local loan kassas, see below: File 872, Memo on Wengrow. Bl - By: Blazowa (d. Lwow); Bledow (d. Warsaw); Blonie (d. Warsaw); Bocki (d. Bial.); Bodzetyn (d. Kielce); Bohorodczany (d. Stan.); Bolimow (d. Warsaw); Boremel (d. Wolyn); Borszczow (d. Tarnopol); Bransk (d. Bial.); Brody (d. Tarn.); Brok n/B (d. Bial.); Brzesc Kujawski (d. Warsaw); Brzesko (d. Cracow); Brzezany (d. Tarn.); Buczacz (d. Tarn.); Budzanow (d. Tarn.); Busk (d. Tarn.); Byten (d. Nowogr.);
Index Terms:
Bialystok
Blazowa
Bledow
Blonie
Bocki
Bodzetyn
Bohorodczany
Bolimow
Boremel
Borszczow
Bransk
Brody
Brok
Brzesc Kujawski
Brzesko
Brzezany
Buczacz
Budzanow
Busk
Byten
Cracow
Gemiloth Chesed Kassas (G.C.)
Kielce
Loan Kassas
Lwow
Norwogrodek
Poland
Polesie
Reconstruction
Stanislawow
Tarnopol
Warsaw
Wolyn
#Return to Top
File 851: Poland: Subject Matter, Reconstruction, Gemiloth Chesed Kassas (G.C.), Arranged by Localities, C
Nearly every city, town and locality in Poland boasting a perceptible Jewish population supported one or more interest-free loan kassas and they played a significant role in Jewish economic life. Over the years, the JDC Recon. Found. granted these kassas very sizeable allocations, and yet the enormous needs outpaced the funds available. In a bid to stimulate fund-raising, the JDC offered to match any contributions in their favor stemming from landsmannschaften in the U.S. The offer remained in effect from Jan. 1937 until the Nazi invasion of Poland. Files 849-873 contain materials on some 370 loan kassas, arranged by localities. Nearly all were aided by individual landsmannschaften together with matching JDC grants. Nonetheless, these loan kassas formed but a fraction of those in actual operation. Note: For an interesting account of the economic difficulties besetting Jewish life in a small town and the role played by the local loan kassas, see below: File 872, Memo on Wengrow. C: Checiny (d. Kielce); Chelm (d. Lublin); Chmielnik (d. Kielce); Chodorow (d. Lwow); Chomsk (d. Polesie); Chorostkow (d. Tarnop.); Chyrow (d. Lwow); Ciechanow (d. Warsaw); Ciechanowiec (d. Bial.) also see; local. Wysokie Mazowieckie; Czeladz (d. Kielce); Czernawczyce (d. Polesie); Czarnelica (d. Stanisl.); Czernichow (d. Cracow); Czortkow (d. Tarn.); Czyzewo (d. Bial.);
Index Terms:
Bialystok
Checiny
Chelm
Chmielnik
Chodorow
Chomsk
Chorostkow
Chyrow
Ciechanow
Ciechanowiec
Cracow
Czarnelica
Czeladz
Czernawczyce
Czernichow
Czortkow
Czyzewo
Gemiloth Chesed Kassas (G.C.)
Kielce
Loan Kassas
Lublin
Lwow
Poland
Polesie
Reconstruction
Stanislawow
Tarnopol
Warsaw
#Return to Top
File 852: Poland: Subject Matter, Reconstruction, Gemiloth Chesed Kassas (G.C.), Arranged by Localities, D
Nearly every city, town and locality in Poland boasting a perceptible Jewish population supported one or more interest-free loan kassas and they played a significant role in Jewish economic life. Over the years, the JDC Recon. Found. granted these kassas very sizeable allocations, and yet the enormous needs outpaced the funds available. In a bid to stimulate fund-raising, the JDC offered to match any contributions in their favor stemming from landsmannschaften in the U.S. The offer remained in effect from Jan. 1937 until the Nazi invasion of Poland. Files 849-873 contain materials on some 370 loan kassas, arranged by localities. Nearly all were aided by individual landsmannschaften together with matching JDC grants. Nonetheless, these loan kassas formed but a fraction of those in actual operation. Note: For an interesting account of the economic difficulties besetting Jewish life in a small town and the role played by the local loan kassas, see below: File 872, Memo on Wengrow. D: Dabrowa (near Tarnow, d. Cracow); Dabrowa Gornicza (d. Kielce); Dabrowica (d. Kielce); Daugieliszki (d. Vilna); Dawidgrodeck (d. Polesie); Deblin-Irena (d. Lublin); Delatyn (d. Stanis lawow); Dereczyn (Nowogr. d.); Dobromil (d. Lwow); Dobrzyn (d. Warsaw); Dokszyce (d. Vilna); Dorohusk (d. Lublin); Drohiczyn (d. Polesie); Drohobycz (d. Lwow); Dubiecko (d. Lwow); Dubienka (d. Lublin); Dubno (d. Wolyn); Dukszty (d. Vilna); Dunilowicze (d. Vilna); Dynow (d. Lwow); Dzialoszyn (d. Lodz); Dziewieniszki (d. Vilna);
Index Terms:
Cracow
Dabrowa
Dabrowa Gornicza
Dabrowica
Daugieliszki
Dawidgrodeck
Deblin-Irena
Delatyn
Dereczyn
Dobromil
Dobrzyn
Dokszyce
Dorohusk
Drohiczyn
Drohobycz
Dubiecko
Dubienka
Dubno
Dukszty
Dunilowicze
Dynow
Dzialoszyn
Dziewieniszki
Gemiloth Chesed Kassas (G.C.)
Kielce
Loan Kassas
Lodz
Lublin
Lwow
Norwogrodek
Poland
Polesie
Reconstruction
Stanislawow
Vilna
Warsaw
Wolyn
#Return to Top
File 853: Poland: Subject Matter, Reconstruction, Gemiloth Chesed Kassas (G.C.), Arranged by Localities, F - H
Nearly every city, town and locality in Poland boasting a perceptible Jewish population supported one or more interest-free loan kassas and they played a significant role in Jewish economic life. Over the years, the JDC Recon. Found. granted these kassas very sizeable allocations, and yet the enormous needs outpaced the funds available. In a bid to stimulate fund-raising, the JDC offered to match any contributions in their favor stemming from landsmannschaften in the U.S. The offer remained in effect from Jan. 1937 until the Nazi invasion of Poland. Files 849-873 contain materials on some 370 loan kassas, arranged by localities. Nearly all were aided by individual landsmannschaften together with matching JDC grants. Nonetheless, these loan kassas formed but a fraction of those in actual operation. Note: For an interesting account of the economic difficulties besetting Jewish life in a small town and the role played by the local loan kassas, see below: File 872, Memo on Wengrow. F: Felsztyn (d. Lwow); Frampol (d. Lublin) G: Gabin (d. Warsaw); Gac (d. Bialystok); Glebokie (d. Vilna); Glowno (d. Lodz); Golina (d. Poznan); Gologory (d. Tarnop.); Gomunica (d. Lodz); Goniadz (d. Bial.); Gostynin (d. Warsaw); Goworowo (d. Bial.); Grabowiec (d. Lublin); Grajewo (d. Bial.); Grodek (d. Bial.); Grodek (d. Vilna); Grodek Jagiellonski (d. Lwow); Grodzisk (d. Warsaw); Grojec (d. Warsaw); also see: Bledow; H: Halicz (d. Stan.); Hancewicze (d. Polesie); Horochow (d. Wolyn); Horodec (d. Polesie); Hrubieszow (d. Lublin) also see: Bilgoraj; Husiatyn (d. Tarn.); Hussakow (d. Lwow)
Index Terms:
Bialystok
Felsztyn
Frampol
Gabin
Gac
Gemiloth Chesed Kassas (G.C.)
Glebokie
Glowno
Golina
Gologory
Gomunica
Goniadz
Gostynin
Goworowo
Grabowiec
Grajewo
Grodek
Grodek Jagiellonski
Grojec
Halicz
Hancewicze
Horochow
Horodec
Hrubieszow
Husiatyn
Hussakow
Loan Kassas
Lodz
Lublin
Lwow
Poland
Polesie
Poznan
Reconstruction
Stanislawow
Tarnopol
Vilna
Warsaw
Wolyn
#Return to Top
File 854: Poland: Subject Matter, Reconstruction, Gemiloth Chesed Kassas (G.C.), Arranged by Localities, I-J
Nearly every city, town and locality in Poland boasting a perceptible Jewish population supported one or more interest-free loan kassas and they played a significant role in Jewish economic life. Over the years, the JDC Recon. Found. granted these kassas very sizeable allocations, and yet the enormous needs outpaced the funds available. In a bid to stimulate fund-raising, the JDC offered to match any contributions in their favor stemming from landsmannschaften in the U.S. The offer remained in effect from Jan. 1937 until the Nazi invasion of Poland. Files 849-873 contain materials on some 370 loan kassas, arranged by localities. Nearly all were aided by individual landsmannschaften together with matching JDC grants. Nonetheless, these loan kassas formed but a fraction of those in actual operation. Note: For an interesting account of the economic difficulties besetting Jewish life in a small town and the role played by the local loan kassas, see below: File 872, Memo on Wengrow. I: Ilja (d. Vilna); Ilza (d. Kielce); Irena (d. Lublin); Iwje (d. Nowogr.); Izbica Kuajawska (d. Lodz); J: Jablonow (d. Stan.); Jagielnica (d. Tarnow); Janow (d. Lublin); Janow (d. Polesie); Jaryczow Nowy (d. Lwow); Jaworow (d. Lwow); Jazlowiec (d. Tarnop.); Jedwabne (d. Bial.); Jozefow Bilgorajski (d. Lublin); Jezierzany (d. Wolyn); Jezory (d. Bial.); Jezupol (d. Stan.)
Index Terms:
Bialystok
Gemiloth Chesed Kassas (G.C.)
Ilja
Ilza
Irena
Iwje
Izbica Kuajawska
Jablonow
Jagielnica
Janow
Jaryczow Nowy
Jaworow
Jazlowiec
Jedwabne
Jezierzany
Jezory
Jezupol
Jozefow Bilgorajski
Kielce
Loan Kassas
Lodz
Lublin
Lwow
Norwogrodek
Poland
Polesie
Reconstruction
Tarnopol
Tarnow
Vilna
Wolyn
#Return to Top
File 855: Poland: Subject Matter, Reconstruction, Gemiloth Chesed Kassas (G.C.), Arranged by Localities, Ka - Kl
Nearly every city, town and locality in Poland boasting a perceptible Jewish population supported one or more interest-free loan kassas and they played a significant role in Jewish economic life. Over the years, the JDC Recon. Found. granted these kassas very sizeable allocations, and yet the enormous needs outpaced the funds available. In a bid to stimulate fund-raising, the JDC offered to match any contributions in their favor stemming from landsmannschaften in the U.S. The offer remained in effect from Jan. 1937 until the Nazi invasion of Poland. Files 849-873 contain materials on some 370 loan kassas, arranged by localities. Nearly all were aided by individual landsmannschaften together with matching JDC grants. Nonetheless, these loan kassas formed but a fraction of those in actual operation. Note: For an interesting account of the economic difficulties besetting Jewish life in a small town and the role played by the local loan kassas, see below: File 872, Memo on Wengrow. K: Kalusz (d. Stan.); Kaluszyn (d. Warsaw); Kamieniec Litewski (d. Polesie); Kamionka (d. Tarnop.); Kamionka Strumilowa (d. Tarnop.); Katrynburg (d. Wolyn); Kazimierz Dolny (d. Lublin); Kisielin (d. Wolyn); Kleck (d. Nowogr.); Kleszczele (d. Bial.); Klimontow (d. Kielce); Klobuck (d. Kilelce)
Index Terms:
Bialystok
Gemiloth Chesed Kassas (G.C.)
Kalusz
Kaluszyn
Kamieniec Litewski
Kamionka
Kamionka Strumilowa
Katrynburg
Kazimierz Dolny
Kielce
Kisielin
Kleck
Kleszczele
Klimontow
Klobuck
Loan Kassas
Lublin
Norwogrodek
Poland
Polesie
Reconstruction
Stanislawow
Tarnopol
Warsaw
Wolyn
#Return to Top
File 856: Poland: Subject Matter, Reconstruction, Gemiloth Chesed Kassas (G.C.), Arranged by Localities, Kn - Kor
Nearly every city, town and locality in Poland boasting a perceptible Jewish population supported one or more interest-free loan kassas and they played a significant role in Jewish economic life. Over the years, the JDC Recon. Found. granted these kassas very sizeable allocations, and yet the enormous needs outpaced the funds available. In a bid to stimulate fund-raising, the JDC offered to match any contributions in their favor stemming from landsmannschaften in the U.S. The offer remained in effect from Jan. 1937 until the Nazi invasion of Poland. Files 849-873 contain materials on some 370 loan kassas, arranged by localities. Nearly all were aided by individual landsmannschaften together with matching JDC grants. Nonetheless, these loan kassas formed but a fraction of those in actual operation. Note: For an interesting account of the economic difficulties besetting Jewish life in a small town and the role played by the local loan kassas, see below: File 872, Memo on Wengrow. Kn - Kor: Knihynicze (d. Stan.); Knyszyn (d. Bial.); Kobryn (d. Polesie); Kolbuszowa (d. Lwow); Kolno (d. Bial.); Kolomyja (d. Stan.); Komarno (d. Lwow); Komarow (d. Lublin); Komorowo (d. Bial.); Koniecpol (d. Lodz); Konskie (d. Kielce); Konstantynow (d. Lodz or Lublin); Koprzywnica (d. Kielce); Kopyczynce (d. Tarnop.); Korelicze (d. Nowogr.); Korolowka (d. Tarnop.); Korzec (d. Wolyn)
Index Terms:
Bialystok
Gemiloth Chesed Kassas (G.C.)
Kielce
Knihynicze
Knyszyn
Kobryn
Kolbuszowa
Kolno
Kolomyja
Komarno
Komarow
Komorowo
Koniecpol
Konskie
Konstantynow
Kopyczynce
Korelicze
Korolowka
Korzec
Loan Kassas
Lodz
Lublin
Lwow
Nowogrodek
Poland
Polesie
Reconstruction
Stanislawow
Tarnopol
Wolyn
#Return to Top
File 857: Poland: Subject Matter, Reconstruction, Gemiloth Chesed Kassas (G.C.), Arranged by Localities, Kos - Ku
Nearly every city, town and locality in Poland boasting a perceptible Jewish population supported one or more interest-free loan kassas and they played a significant role in Jewish economic life. Over the years, the JDC Recon. Found. granted these kassas very sizeable allocations, and yet the enormous needs outpaced the funds available. In a bid to stimulate fund-raising, the JDC offered to match any contributions in their favor stemming from landsmannschaften in the U.S. The offer remained in effect from Jan. 1937 until the Nazi invasion of Poland. Files 849-873 contain materials on some 370 loan kassas, arranged by localities. Nearly all were aided by individual landsmannschaften together with matching JDC grants. Nonetheless, these loan kassas formed but a fraction of those in actual operation. Note: For an interesting account of the economic difficulties besetting Jewish life in a small town and the role played by the local loan kassas, see below: File 872, Memo on Wengrow. Kos - Ku: Kossow (d. Stanis.); Kossow Lacki (d. Lublin); Kostopol (d. Wolyn); Koszyce (d. Kielce); Kowel (d. Wolyn); Kozangrodeck (d. Polesie); Kozin (d. Wolyn); Kozlow (d. Kielce); Kozlowszczyzna (d. Nowogr.); Kozowa (d. Tarnop.); Krakowiec (d. Lwow); Krasnik (d. Lublin); Krasnobrod (d. Lublin); Krasnosielc (Warsaw); Krasnystaw (d. Lublin); Krewo (d. Vilna); Krosniewice (d. Warsaw); Krzepice (d. Kielce); Krzemieniec (d. Wolyn); Krzepice (d. Kielce); Krzeszow (d. Lublin); Krzeszowice (d. Cracow); Kurow (d. Lublin); Kuty (d. Stan.)
Index Terms:
Cracow
Gemiloth Chesed Kassas (G.C.)
Kielce
Kossow
Kossow Lacki
Kostopol
Koszyce
Kowel
Kozangrodeck
Kozin
Kozlow
Kozlowszczyzna
Kozowa
Krakowiec
Krasnik
Krasnobrod
Krasnosielc
Krasnystaw
Krewo
Krosniewice
Krzepice
Krzeszow
Krzeszowice
Kurow
Kuty
Loan Kassas
Lublin
Lwow
Nowogrodek
Poland
Polesie
Reconstruction
Stanislawow
Tarnopol
Vilna
Warsaw
Wolyn
#Return to Top
File 858: Poland: Subject Matter, Reconstruction, Gemiloth Chesed Kassas (G.C.), Arranged by Localities, La - Lo
Nearly every city, town and locality in Poland boasting a perceptible Jewish population supported one or more interest-free loan kassas and they played a significant role in Jewish economic life. Over the years, the JDC Recon. Found. granted these kassas very sizeable allocations, and yet the enormous needs outpaced the funds available. In a bid to stimulate fund-raising, the JDC offered to match any contributions in their favor stemming from landsmannschaften in the U.S. The offer remained in effect from Jan. 1937 until the Nazi invasion of Poland. Files 849-873 contain materials on some 370 loan kassas, arranged by localities. Nearly all were aided by individual landsmannschaften together with matching JDC grants. Nonetheless, these loan kassas formed but a fraction of those in actual operation. Note: For an interesting account of the economic difficulties besetting Jewish life in a small town and the role played by the local loan kassas, see below: File 872, Memo on Wengrow. La to Lo: Lachowicze (d. Nowogr.); Lagow (d. Kielce); Lanczyn (d. Stanisl.); Lapy (d. Bial.); Lask (Lodz); Laszczow (d. Lub.); Lesko (d. Lwow); Lezajsk (d. Lwow); Lida (d. Nowogr.); Limanowa (Cracow); Lipsko (d. Kielce); Lodz (d. Lodz) also see: Local. Lodz; Lohiszyn (d. Polesie); Lokacze (d. Wolyn); Lomazy (d. Lublin); Districts of Lomza and Wysokie Mazowiecki; Lomzyca (d. Bial.); Lopuszno (d. Kielce); Losice (d. Lublin); Lowicz (d. Warsaw);
Index Terms:
Bialystok
Cracow
Gemiloth Chesed Kassas (G.C.)
Kielce
Lachowicze
Lagow
Lanczyn
Lapy
Lask
Laszczow
Lesko
Lezajsk
Lida
Limanowa
Lipsko
Loan Kassas
Lodz
Lodz
Lohiszyn
Lokacze
Lomazy
Lomza
Lomzyca
Lopuszno
Losice
Lowicz
Lublin
Lwow
Nowogrodek
Poland
Polesie
Reconstruction
Stanislawow
Warsaw
Wolyn
#Return to Top
File 859: Poland: Subject Matter, Reconstruction, Gemiloth Chesed Kassas (G.C.), Arranged by Localities, Lu - Ly
Nearly every city, town and locality in Poland boasting a perceptible Jewish population supported one or more interest-free loan kassas and they played a significant role in Jewish economic life. Over the years, the JDC Recon. Found. granted these kassas very sizeable allocations, and yet the enormous needs outpaced the funds available. In a bid to stimulate fund-raising, the JDC offered to match any contributions in their favor stemming from landsmannschaften in the U.S. The offer remained in effect from Jan. 1937 until the Nazi invasion of Poland. Files 849-873 contain materials on some 370 loan kassas, arranged by localities. Nearly all were aided by individual landsmannschaften together with matching JDC grants. Nonetheless, these loan kassas formed but a fraction of those in actual operation. Note: For an interesting account of the economic difficulties besetting Jewish life in a small town and the role played by the local loan kassas, see below: File 872, Memo on Wengrow. Lu - Ly: Lubartow (d. Lublin); Lubcz (d. Nowogr.); Lubica (d. Pomor.); Luck (d. Wolyn); Lukow (d. Lublin); Luniniec (d. Polesie); Lunna (d. Bial.); Lutowisk (d. Lwow); Lututow (d. Lodz); Luzki (d. Vilna); Lyngniany (d. Vilna); Lyski (d. Nowogr.); Lyskow (d. Bial.); Lysobyki (d. Lublin)
Index Terms:
Bialystok
Gemiloth Chesed Kassas (G.C.)
Loan Kassas
Lodz
Lubartow
Lubcz
Lubica
Lublin
Luck
Lukow
Luniniec
Lunna
Lutowisk
Lututow
Luzki
Lwow
Lyngniany
Lyski
Lyskow
Lysobyki
Nowogrodek
Poland
Polesie
Pomorskie
Reconstruction
Vilna
Wolyn
#Return to Top
File 860: Poland: Subject Matter, Reconstruction, Gemiloth Chesed Kassas (G.C.), Arranged by Localities, M
Nearly every city, town and locality in Poland boasting a perceptible Jewish population supported one or more interest-free loan kassas and they played a significant role in Jewish economic life. Over the years, the JDC Recon. Found. granted these kassas very sizeable allocations, and yet the enormous needs outpaced the funds available. In a bid to stimulate fund-raising, the JDC offered to match any contributions in their favor stemming from landsmannschaften in the U.S. The offer remained in effect from Jan. 1937 until the Nazi invasion of Poland. Files 849-873 contain materials on some 370 loan kassas, arranged by localities. Nearly all were aided by individual landsmannschaften together with matching JDC grants. Nonetheless, these loan kassas formed but a fraction of those in actual operation. Note: For an interesting account of the economic difficulties besetting Jewish life in a small town and the role played by the local loan kassas, see below: File 872, Memo on Wengrow. M: Magnuszew (d. Kielce); Maniewicze (d. Polesie); Marcinkance (d. Bial.); Michaliszki (d. Vilna); Miechow (d. Kielce); Miedzyrzec (d. Wolyn); Miedzyrzec Podlaski (d. Lublin); Mikolajow (d. Lwow); Mikulince (d. Tarnop.); Milejczyce (d. Bial.); Mir. (d. Nowogr.); Mlawa (d. Warsaw); Mogielnica (d. Warsaw); also see: Bledow Molodeczno (d. Vilna); Monasterzyska (d. Tarnop.); Motol (d. Polesie); Murawica (d. Wolyn); Myszyniec (d. Bial.)
Index Terms:
Bialystok
Gemiloth Chesed Kassas (G.C.)
Kielce
Loan Kassas
Lublin
Lwow
Magnuszew
Maniewicze
Marcinkance
Michaliszki
Miechow
Miedzyrzec
Miedzyrzec Podlaski
Mikolajow
Mikulince
Milejczyce
Mir
Mlawa
Mogielnica
Molodeczno
Monasterzyska
Motol
Murawica
Myszyniec
Nowogrodek
Poland
Polesie
Reconstruction
Tarnopol
Vilna
Warsaw
Wolyn
#Return to Top
File 861: Poland: Subject Matter, Reconstruction, Gemiloth Chesed Kassas (G.C.), Arranged by Localities, N
Nearly every city, town and locality in Poland boasting a perceptible Jewish population supported one or more interest-free loan kassas and they played a significant role in Jewish economic life. Over the years, the JDC Recon. Found. granted these kassas very sizeable allocations, and yet the enormous needs outpaced the funds available. In a bid to stimulate fund-raising, the JDC offered to match any contributions in their favor stemming from landsmannschaften in the U.S. The offer remained in effect from Jan. 1937 until the Nazi invasion of Poland. Files 849-873 contain materials on some 370 loan kassas, arranged by localities. Nearly all were aided by individual landsmannschaften together with matching JDC grants. Nonetheless, these loan kassas formed but a fraction of those in actual operation. Note: For an interesting account of the economic difficulties besetting Jewish life in a small town and the role played by the local loan kassas, see below: File 872, Memo on Wengrow. N: Nadworna (d. Stan.); Nasielsk (d. Warsaw); Niebylec (d. Lwow); Niemirow (d. Lwow); Nieswierz (d. Nowogr.); Nisko (d. Lwow); Nowe Miasto (d. Lwow); Nowogrodek (d. Nowogr.); Nowy Korczyn (d. Kielce); Nowy Sacz (d. Cracow)
Index Terms:
Cracow
Gemiloth Chesed Kassas (G.C.)
Kielce
Loan Kassas
Lwow
Nadworna
Nasielsk
Niebylec
Niemirow
Nieswierz
Nisko
Nowe Miasto
Nowogrodek
Nowy Korczyn
Nowy Sacz
Poland
Reconstruction
Stanislawow
Warsaw
#Return to Top
File 862: Poland: Subject Matter, Reconstruction, Gemiloth Chesed Kassas (G.C.), Arranged by Localities, O
Nearly every city, town and locality in Poland boasting a perceptible Jewish population supported one or more interest-free loan kassas and they played a significant role in Jewish economic life. Over the years, the JDC Recon. Found. granted these kassas very sizeable allocations, and yet the enormous needs outpaced the funds available. In a bid to stimulate fund-raising, the JDC offered to match any contributions in their favor stemming from landsmannschaften in the U.S. The offer remained in effect from Jan. 1937 until the Nazi invasion of Poland. Files 849-873 contain materials on some 370 loan kassas, arranged by localities. Nearly all were aided by individual landsmannschaften together with matching JDC grants. Nonetheless, these loan kassas formed but a fraction of those in actual operation. Note: For an interesting account of the economic difficulties besetting Jewish life in a small town and the role played by the local loan kassas, see below: File 872, Memo on Wengrow. O: Obertyn (d. Stan.); Olkienniki (d. Vilna); Olyka (d. Wolyn); Opalin (d. Wolyn); Opoczno (d. Kielce); Opole (d. Lublin); Osiakow (d. Lodz); Osiek (d. Kielce); Ostroleka (d. Bial.); Ostrow Lubelski (d. Bial.); Ostrow Mazowiecki (d. Bial.); Ostrow Siedlecki (d. Lublin); Ostrowiec (d. Kielce); Ostrowiec Swietokrzyski (d. Kielce); Oszmiana (d. Vilna); Ottynia (d. Stan.); Ozarow (d. Kielce); Ozdziutycze (d. Wolyn)
Index Terms:
Bialystok
Gemiloth Chesed Kassas (G.C.)
Kielce
Loan Kassas
Lodz
Lublin
Obertyn
Olkienniki
Olyka
Opalin
Opoczno
Opole
Osiakow
Osiek
Ostroleka
Ostrow Lubelski
Ostrow Mazowiecki
Ostrow Siedlecki
Ostrowiec Swietokrzyski
Oszmiana
Ottynia
Ozarow
Ozdziutycze
Poland
Reconstruction
Stanislawow
Vilna
Wolyn
#Return to Top
File 863: Poland: Subject Matter, Reconstruction, Gemiloth Chesed Kassas (G.C.), Arranged by Localities, Pa - Po
Nearly every city, town and locality in Poland boasting a perceptible Jewish population supported one or more interest-free loan kassas and they played a significant role in Jewish economic life. Over the years, the JDC Recon. Found. granted these kassas very sizeable allocations, and yet the enormous needs outpaced the funds available. In a bid to stimulate fund-raising, the JDC offered to match any contributions in their favor stemming from landsmannschaften in the U.S. The offer remained in effect from Jan. 1937 until the Nazi invasion of Poland. Files 849-873 contain materials on some 370 loan kassas, arranged by localities. Nearly all were aided by individual landsmannschaften together with matching JDC grants. Nonetheless, these loan kassas formed but a fraction of those in actual operation. Note: For an interesting account of the economic difficulties besetting Jewish life in a small town and the role played by the local loan kassas, see below: File 872, Memo on Wengrow. Pa - Po: Pabinice (d. Lodz); Pajeczno (d. Lodz); Parczew (d. Lublin); Parysow (d. Lublin); Peczenizyn (d. Stan.); Perehinsko (d. Stan.); Piaski (d. Bial.); Pilzno (d. Cracow); Pinczow (d. Kielce); Plissa (d. Vilna); Plonsk (d. Warsaw); Poddebice (d. Lodz); Podhajce (Tarn.); Podkamien (d. Lwow); Podwoloczyska (d. Tarnop.); Polaniec (d. Kielce); Podmiechowek (d. Warsaw); Pomorzany (d. Tarnop.); Poryck (d. Wolyn); Postawy (d. Vilna); Potok Zloty (d. Tarnop.); Powazki (suburb of Warsaw)
Index Terms:
Bialystok
Cracow
Gemiloth Chesed Kassas (G.C.)
Kielce
Loan Kassas
Lodz
Lublin
Lwow
Pabinice
Pajeczno
Parczew
Parysow
Peczenizyn
Perehinsko
Piaski
Pilzno
Pinczow
Plissa
Plonsk
Poddebice
Podhajce
Podkamien
Podmiechowek
Podwoloczyska
Poland
Polaniec
Pomorzany
Poryck
Postawy
Potok Zloty
Powazki
Reconstruction
Stanislawow
Tarnopol
Vilna
Warsaw
Wolyn
#Return to Top
File 864: Poland: Subject Matter, Reconstruction, Gemiloth Chesed Kassas (G.C.), Arranged by Localities, Pr - Pu
Nearly every city, town and locality in Poland boasting a perceptible Jewish population supported one or more interest-free loan kassas and they played a significant role in Jewish economic life. Over the years, the JDC Recon. Found. granted these kassas very sizeable allocations, and yet the enormous needs outpaced the funds available. In a bid to stimulate fund-raising, the JDC offered to match any contributions in their favor stemming from landsmannschaften in the U.S. The offer remained in effect from Jan. 1937 until the Nazi invasion of Poland. Files 849-873 contain materials on some 370 loan kassas, arranged by localities. Nearly all were aided by individual landsmannschaften together with matching JDC grants. Nonetheless, these loan kassas formed but a fraction of those in actual operation. Note: For an interesting account of the economic difficulties besetting Jewish life in a small town and the role played by the local loan kassas, see below: File 872, Memo on Wengrow. Pr - Pu: Przasnysz (d. Warsaw); Przedborz (d. Kielce); Przedecz (d. Warsaw); Przemysl (d. Lwow); Przysucha (d. Kielce); Pulawy (d. Lublin); Pultusk (d. Warsaw)
Index Terms:
Gemiloth Chesed Kassas (G.C.)
Kielce
Loan Kassas
Lublin
Lwow
Poland
Pryzysucha
Przasnysz
Przedborz
Przedecz
Przemysl
Pulawy
Pultusk
Reconstruction
Warsaw
#Return to Top
File 865: Poland: Subject Matter, Reconstruction, Gemiloth Chesed Kassas (G.C.), Arranged by Localities, R
Nearly every city, town and locality in Poland boasting a perceptible Jewish population supported one or more interest-free loan kassas and they played a significant role in Jewish economic life. Over the years, the JDC Recon. Found. granted these kassas very sizeable allocations, and yet the enormous needs outpaced the funds available. In a bid to stimulate fund-raising, the JDC offered to match any contributions in their favor stemming from landsmannschaften in the U.S. The offer remained in effect from Jan. 1937 until the Nazi invasion of Poland. Files 849-873 contain materials on some 370 loan kassas, arranged by localities. Nearly all were aided by individual landsmannschaften together with matching JDC grants. Nonetheless, these loan kassas formed but a fraction of those in actual operation. Note: For an interesting account of the economic difficulties besetting Jewish life in a small town and the role played by the local loan kassas, see below: File 872, Memo on Wengrow. R: Radom (d. Kielce); Radomysl Wielki (d. Cracow); Radoszyce (d. Kielce); Radun (d. Nowogr.); Radymno (d. Lwow); Rajgrod (d. Bial.); Rakow (d. Nowogr.); Rawa Mazowiecka (d. Warsaw); Rejowiec (d. Lublin); also see: Bilgoraj; Rohatyn (d. Stan.); Rokitno (d. Polesie); Ropczyce (d. Cracow); Ros (d. Bial.); Rozan (d. Warsaw); Rozana (d. Polesie); Rozwadow (d. Lwow); Rozyszcze (d. Wolyn); Rubiezewicze (d. Nowogr.); Rybnik (d. Slask); Rypin (d. Warsaw)
Index Terms:
Bialystok
Cracow
Gemiloth Chesed Kassas (G.C.)
Kielce
Loan Kassas
Lublin
Lwow
Nowogrodek
Poland
Polesie
Radom
Radomysl
Radoszyce
Radun
Radymno
Rajgrod
Rakow
Rawa Mazowiecka
Reconstruction
Rejowiec
Rohatyn
Rokitno
Ropczyce
Ros
Rozan
Rozana
Rozwadow
Rozyszcze
Rubiezewicze
Rypin
Slask
Stanislawow
Warsaw
Wolyn
#Return to Top
File 866: Poland: Subject Matter, Reconstruction, Gemiloth Chesed Kassas (G.C.), Arranged by Localities, Sa - Sk
Nearly every city, town and locality in Poland boasting a perceptible Jewish population supported one or more interest-free loan kassas and they played a significant role in Jewish economic life. Over the years, the JDC Recon. Found. granted these kassas very sizeable allocations, and yet the enormous needs outpaced the funds available. In a bid to stimulate fund-raising, the JDC offered to match any contributions in their favor stemming from landsmannschaften in the U.S. The offer remained in effect from Jan. 1937 until the Nazi invasion of Poland. Files 849-873 contain materials on some 370 loan kassas, arranged by localities. Nearly all were aided by individual landsmannschaften together with matching JDC grants. Nonetheless, these loan kassas formed but a fraction of those in actual operation. Note: For an interesting account of the economic difficulties besetting Jewish life in a small town and the role played by the local loan kassas, see below: File 872, Memo on Wengrow. Sa - Sk: Sandomierz (d. Kielce); Sasow (d. Tarnop.); Sedziszow (d. Cracow); Sidra (d. Bial.); Siedliszcze (d. Lublin); Sienno (d. Kielce); Sieradz (d. Lodz); Sierpc (d. Warsaw); Skala on Zbrucz; Skalat (d. Tarnop.); Skidel (d. Bial.); Skierniewice (d. Warsaw); Skole (d. Stan.); Skorkowice (d. Kielce)
Index Terms:
Bialystok
Cracow
Gemiloth Chesed Kassas (G.C.)
Kielce
Loan Kassas
Lodz
Lublin
Poland
Reconstruction
Sandomierz
Sasow
Sedziszow
Sidra
Siedliszcze
Sienno
Sierpc
Skala on Zbruez
Skalat
Skidel
Skierniewice
Skole
Skorkowice
Stanislawow
Tarnopol
Warsaw
#Return to Top
File 867: Poland: Subject Matter, Reconstruction, Gemiloth Chesed Kassas (G.C.), Arranged by Localities, Sl - So
Nearly every city, town and locality in Poland boasting a perceptible Jewish population supported one or more interest-free loan kassas and they played a significant role in Jewish economic life. Over the years, the JDC Recon. Found. granted these kassas very sizeable allocations, and yet the enormous needs outpaced the funds available. In a bid to stimulate fund-raising, the JDC offered to match any contributions in their favor stemming from landsmannschaften in the U.S. The offer remained in effect from Jan. 1937 until the Nazi invasion of Poland. Files 849-873 contain materials on some 370 loan kassas, arranged by localities. Nearly all were aided by individual landsmannschaften together with matching JDC grants. Nonetheless, these loan kassas formed but a fraction of those in actual operation. Note: For an interesting account of the economic difficulties besetting Jewish life in a small town and the role played by the local loan kassas, see below: File 872, Memo on Wengrow. Sl - So: Slawatycze (d. Lublin); Slupce (d. Poznan); Smorgony (d. Vilna); Sniatyn (d. Stan.); also see: Czernichow; Sobota (d. Warsaw); Sochaczew (d. Warsaw); Sochocin (d. Warsaw); Sokolka (d. Bial.); Sokoly (d. Bial.); Solec (d. Kielce); Solotwina (d. Stanislawow); Sosnowiec (d. Kielce); also see: Bedzin
Index Terms:
Bialystok
Gemiloth Chesed Kassas (G.C.)
Kielce
Loan Kassas
Lublin
Poland
Poznan
Reconstruction
Slawatycze
Slupce
Smorgony
Sniatyn
Sobota
Sochaczew
Sochocin
Sokolka
Sokoly
Solec
Solotwina
Sosnowiec
Stanislawow
Vilna
Warsaw
#Return to Top
File 868: Poland: Subject Matter, Reconstruction, Gemiloth Chesed Kassas (G.C.), Arranged by Localities, Sta - Str
Nearly every city, town and locality in Poland boasting a perceptible Jewish population supported one or more interest-free loan kassas and they played a significant role in Jewish economic life. Over the years, the JDC Recon. Found. granted these kassas very sizeable allocations, and yet the enormous needs outpaced the funds available. In a bid to stimulate fund-raising, the JDC offered to match any contributions in their favor stemming from landsmannschaften in the U.S. The offer remained in effect from Jan. 1937 until the Nazi invasion of Poland. Files 849-873 contain materials on some 370 loan kassas, arranged by localities. Nearly all were aided by individual landsmannschaften together with matching JDC grants. Nonetheless, these loan kassas formed but a fraction of those in actual operation. Note: For an interesting account of the economic difficulties besetting Jewish life in a small town and the role played by the local loan kassas, see below: File 872, Memo on Wengrow. Sta - Str: Stanislawow (d. Stan.); Stara Rafalowka (d. Wolyn); Stara Sol (d. Lwow); Stary Smbor (d. Lwow); Staszow (d. Kielce); Stawiski (d. Bial.); Stoczek Wegrowski (d. Lublin); Stolin (d. Polesie); Stolpce (d. Nowogr.); Stopnica (d. Kielce); Stryj (d. Stan.); Strzyzow (d. Lwow)
Index Terms:
Bialystok
Gemiloth Chesed Kassas (G.C.)
Kielce
Loan Kassas
Lublin
Lwow
Nowogrodek
Poland
Polesie
Reconstruction
Stanislawow
Stara Rafalowka
Stara Sol
Stary Smbor
Staszow
Stawiski
Stoczek Wegrowski
Stolin
Stolpce
Stopnica
Stryj
Strzyzow
Wolyn
#Return to Top
File 869: Poland: Subject Matter, Reconstruction, Gemiloth Chesed Kassas (G.C.), Arranged by Localities, Su - Sz
Nearly every city, town and locality in Poland boasting a perceptible Jewish population supported one or more interest-free loan kassas and they played a significant role in Jewish economic life. Over the years, the JDC Recon. Found. granted these kassas very sizeable allocations, and yet the enormous needs outpaced the funds available. In a bid to stimulate fund-raising, the JDC offered to match any contributions in their favor stemming from landsmannschaften in the U.S. The offer remained in effect from Jan. 1937 until the Nazi invasion of Poland. Files 849-873 contain materials on some 370 loan kassas, arranged by localities. Nearly all were aided by individual landsmannschaften together with matching JDC grants. Nonetheless, these loan kassas formed but a fraction of those in actual operation. Note: For an interesting account of the economic difficulties besetting Jewish life in a small town and the role played by the local loan kassas, see below: File 872, Memo on Wengrow. Su - Sz: Suchostaw (d. Tarnop.); Sulmierzyce (d. Poznan); Suprasl (d. Bial.); Swieciany (d. Vilna); Swislocz (d. Bial.); Szczercow (d. Lodz); Szczerzec (d. Lwow); Szumsk (d. Wolyn); Szydlow (d. Kielce); Szydlowiec (d. Kielce)
Index Terms:
Bialystok
Gemiloth Chesed Kassas (G.C.)
Kielce
Loan Kassas
Lodz
Lwow
Poland
Poznan
Reconstruction
Suchostaw
Sulmierzyce
Suprasl
Swieciany
Swislocz
Szczercow
Szczerzec
Szumsk
Szydlow
Szydlowiec
Tarnopol
Vilna
Wolyn
#Return to Top
File 870: Poland: Subject Matter, Reconstruction, Gemiloth Chesed Kassas (G.C.), Arranged by Localities, T
Nearly every city, town and locality in Poland boasting a perceptible Jewish population supported one or more interest-free loan kassas and they played a significant role in Jewish economic life. Over the years, the JDC Recon. Found. granted these kassas very sizeable allocations, and yet the enormous needs outpaced the funds available. In a bid to stimulate fund-raising, the JDC offered to match any contributions in their favor stemming from landsmannschaften in the U.S. The offer remained in effect from Jan. 1937 until the Nazi invasion of Poland. Files 849-873 contain materials on some 370 loan kassas, arranged by localities. Nearly all were aided by individual landsmannschaften together with matching JDC grants. Nonetheless, these loan kassas formed but a fraction of those in actual operation. Note: For an interesting account of the economic difficulties besetting Jewish life in a small town and the role played by the local loan kassas, see below: File 872, Memo on Wengrow. T: Tarczyn (d. Warsaw); Tarlow (d. Kielce); Tarnobrzeg (d. Lwow); Tarnogrod (d. Lublin); Terespol (d. Lublin); Tomaszow Lubelski (d. Lublin); Truskolasy (d. Kielce); Trzcianne (d. Bial.); Turek (d. Poznan); Turobin (d. Lublin); Turzysk (d. Wolyn); Tykocin (d. Bial.); Tyszowce (d. Lublin)
Index Terms:
Bialystok
Gemiloth Chesed Kassas (G.C.)
Kielce
Loan Kassas
Lublin
Lwow
Poland
Poznan
Reconstruction
Tarczyn
Tarlow
Tarnobrzeg
Tarnogrod
Terespol
Tomaszow Lubelski
Truskolasy
Trzcianne
Turek
Turobin
Turzysk
Tykocin
Tyszowce
Warsaw
Wolyn
#Return to Top
File 871: Poland: Subject Matter, Reconstruction, Gemiloth Chesed Kassas (G.C.), Arranged by Localities, U
Nearly every city, town and locality in Poland boasting a perceptible Jewish population supported one or more interest-free loan kassas and they played a significant role in Jewish economic life. Over the years, the JDC Recon. Found. granted these kassas very sizeable allocations, and yet the enormous needs outpaced the funds available. In a bid to stimulate fund-raising, the JDC offered to match any contributions in their favor stemming from landsmannschaften in the U.S. The offer remained in effect from Jan. 1937 until the Nazi invasion of Poland. Files 849-873 contain materials on some 370 loan kassas, arranged by localities. Nearly all were aided by individual landsmannschaften together with matching JDC grants. Nonetheless, these loan kassas formed but a fraction of those in actual operation. Note: For an interesting account of the economic difficulties besetting Jewish life in a small town and the role played by the local loan kassas, see below: File 872, Memo on Wengrow. U: Ulanow (d. Lwow); Uscilog (d. Wolyn)
Index Terms:
Gemiloth Chesed Kassas (G.C.)
Loan Kassas
Lwow
Poland
Reconstruction
Ulanow
Uscilog
Wolyn
#Return to Top
File 872: Poland: Subject Matter, Reconstruction, Gemiloth Chesed Kassas (G.C.), Arranged by Localities, W
Nearly every city, town and locality in Poland boasting a perceptible Jewish population supported one or more interest-free loan kassas and they played a significant role in Jewish economic life. Over the years, the JDC Recon. Found. granted these kassas very sizeable allocations, and yet the enormous needs outpaced the funds available. In a bid to stimulate fund-raising, the JDC offered to match any contributions in their favor stemming from landsmannschaften in the U.S. The offer remained in effect from Jan. 1937 until the Nazi invasion of Poland. Files 849-873 contain materials on some 370 loan kassas, arranged by localities. Nearly all were aided by individual landsmannschaften together with matching JDC grants. Nonetheless, these loan kassas formed but a fraction of those in actual operation. Note: For an interesting account of the economic difficulties besetting Jewish life in a small town and the role played by the local loan kassas, see below: File 872, Memo on Wengrow. W: Warez (d. Lwow); Warta (d. Lodz); Wasiliszki (d. Nowogr.); Wasilkow (d. Bial.); Wasniow (d. Kielce); Wawolnica (d. Lublin); Wengrow (d. Lublin); Widze (d. Vilna); Wielkie Oczy (d. Lwow); Wielun (d. Lodz); Wierzbnik (d. Kielce); Wizna (d. Bial.); Wlodzimierz (d. Wolyn); Wodzislaw (d. Kielce); Wysokie Litewski (d. Polesie); Wyszkow (d. Warsaw); Wyszogrod (d. Warsaw); Wyzna Nowa (d. Wolyn)
Index Terms:
Bialystok
Gemiloth Chesed Kassas (G.C.)
Kielce
Loan Kassas
Lodz
Lublin
Lwow
Nowogrodek
Poland
Polesie
Reconstruction
Vilna
Warez
Warsaw
Warta
Wasiliszki
Wasilkow
Wasniow
Wawolnica
Wengrow
Widze
Wielkie
Wielun
Wierzbnik
Wizna
Wlodzimierz
Wodzislaw
Wolyn
Wysokie Litewski
Wyszkow
Wyszogrod
Wyzna Nowa
#Return to Top
File 873: Poland: Subject Matter, Reconstruction, Gemiloth Chesed Kassas (G.C.), Arranged by Localities, Z
Nearly every city, town and locality in Poland boasting a perceptible Jewish population supported one or more interest-free loan kassas and they played a significant role in Jewish economic life. Over the years, the JDC Recon. Found. granted these kassas very sizeable allocations, and yet the enormous needs outpaced the funds available. In a bid to stimulate fund-raising, the JDC offered to match any contributions in their favor stemming from landsmannschaften in the U.S. The offer remained in effect from Jan. 1937 until the Nazi invasion of Poland. Files 849-873 contain materials on some 370 loan kassas, arranged by localities. Nearly all were aided by individual landsmannschaften together with matching JDC grants. Nonetheless, these loan kassas formed but a fraction of those in actual operation. Note: For an interesting account of the economic difficulties besetting Jewish life in a small town and the role played by the local loan kassas, see below: File 872, Memo on Wengrow. Z: Zablotow (d. Stan.); Zamosc (d. Lublin); Zareby Koscielne (d. Bial.); Zarki (d. Kielce); Zawichost (d. Kielce); Zawiercie (d. Kielce); Zawisty Dzikie (d. Bial.); Zborow (d. Tarnop.); Zdunska Wola (d. Lodz); Zdzieciol (d. Nowogr.); Zelechow (d. Lublin); Zelwa (d. Bial.); Zmigrod (d. Cracow); Zolkiewka (d. Lublin); Zwolen (d. Kielce); Zyrardow (d. Warsaw)
Index Terms:
Bialystok
Cracow
Gemiloth Chesed Kassas (G.C.)
Kielce
Loan Kassas
Lodz
Lublin
Nowogrodek
Poland
Reconstruction
Stanislawow
Tarnopol
Warsaw
Zablotow
Zamosc
Zareby Koscielne
Zarki
Zawichost
Zawiercie
Zawisty Dzikie
Zborow
Zdunska
Zdzieciol
Zelechow
Zelwa
Zmigrod
Zolkiewka
Zwolen
Zyrardow
#Return to Top
File 874: Poland: Subject Matter, Refugees, General, 1934; 1937 - 1939
Reports and Memos on Refugee Problems in Poland: JDC Interim Report 6/8/39. JDC Status Statement 6/27/39 attachment to 7/1/39. The Activity of the General Aid Committee for Jewish Refugees from Germany in Poland 11/1/38 - 7/1/39 by Alexander Hafftka, undated (Note: Duplicate copy in File 874a). List of 110 Centers Where Refugees are Staying 7/26/39. JDC Bulletin July 1939. Refugee Situation in Krakow and Katowice by D. Howlett 8/1/39. Refugee Situation in Poland 8/22/39. Nobody's Land 11/10/39. No Man's Land between the Russian and Lithuanian Borders by S. Tarschansky, 11/14/39 attachment to 11/21/39. Some Figures About the Activity of the JDC 2/8/40. Statement on Polish Deportations by Guzik and Neustadt attachment to 3/26/40. Beckelman Reports and Statements: 9/1/39, 10/5/39, 10/8/39, 10/10/39, 10/11/39, 11/1/39 Cable Rosen to JDC N.Y., Feb. 1940; also see: Beckelman reports and statements, Files 797-799. Correspondence: M.W. Beckelman, H.K. Buchman, D. Guzik, D. Howlett, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, I. Rosen, I.M. Rubinow, J.J. Schwartz, M.C. Troper.
Index Terms:
Beckelman, M.W.
Buchman, H.K.
Guzik, D.
Hafftka, Alexander
Howlett, D.
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, B.
Katowice
Krakow
List
Poland
Refugees
Reports
Rosen, I.
Rubinow, I.M.
Schwartz, J.J.
Troper, M.C.
#Return to Top
File 875: Poland: Subject Matter, Refugees, General, 1940 - 1944
JDC Bulletin: War Relief Activities of the JDC (Poland and Refugees from Poland), #5 - 1/11/40. Memo: Some Figures About the Activity of the JDC (in Poland), 2/8/40. Reports: Refugee Problem in Lithuania based on report by M.W. Beckelman, Feb. 1940. First Aid Action and Problems of Methodic Relief by Guzik and Neustadt, undated and attached to 3/26/40. Activities report by the Kehilla Refugee Relief Committee Vilna for Jan. 1940, 5/8/40. Resume of JDC Operations for Refugees in Poland, 11/26/40. The JDC allocated $500,000 to the Polish Gov't for Jewish Refugee Aid, 9/14/33, 10/27/43, 12/9/43, 3/30/44, 7/19/44, 8/7/44, 9/13/44, 10/4/44, 10/6/44. For JDC aid to the Sommerstein Committee, see above: File 802. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, M.W. Beckelman, Norman H. Davis, J.C. Hyman, M. Jarblum, H. Katzki, I. Schwartzbart, J. Stanczyk, M.C. Troper.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, P.
Beckelman, M.W.
Bulletins
Davis, Norman H.
Hyman, J.C.
Jarblum, M.
Katzki, H.
Poland
Refugees
Reports
Schwartzbart, I.
Stanczyk, J.
Troper, M.C.
#Return to Top
File 876: Poland: Subject Matter, Refugees, Vilna, Lists of Refugees
Name, birthplace and birthdate or city of origin of 10,350 Polish refugees who arrived in Vilna up to 6/5/40, 2/4/40, 6/5/40. For other materials on Polish refugees in Lithuanai, see above: Lithuania, Files 730-732, 738-739, 741.
Index Terms:
List
Poland
Refugees
Vilna
#Return to Top
File 877: Poland: Subject Matter, Refugees, Vilna, Cities of Origin
Cities of origin of 9,064 Polish refugees who arrived in Vilna by 2/4/40
Index Terms:
List
Poland
Refugees
Vilna
#Return to Top
File 878: Poland: Subject Matter, Refugees, Vilna, Zbaszyn, 1938 - 1939, General
Of the 16,000 Polish Jews expelled by the Nazi Gov't in the night of 10/27-28/38, about one-half were thrust into Zbaszyn, a Polish border town, and some 5,500 were detained there. The JDC made an emergency grant of $250,000 to aid the expellees, and also helped to organize a Central Refugee Aid Committee to raise funds locally for the same purpose. By the spring of 1939, some 2,200 refugees remained in Zbaszyn. Reports on the Condition of the Refugees in Zbaszyn - L. Hellman: 11/10/38. Anonymous Eye-Witness Account: 11/18/38. M.C. Troper: 11/23/38, 12/1/38, 3/31/39, 6/8/39, 7/1/39, 7/26/39. I. Giterman: Attachment to 12/1/38, 12/24/38, 12/30/38, 12/31/38. Central Refugee Committee: 1/31/39, 3/22/39, 7/17/39 attachment to 7/19/39. Correspondence: H.K. Buchman, I. Giterman, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, N. Katz, D.J. Schweitzer, M.C. Troper.
Index Terms:
Buchman, H.K.
Central Refugee Aid Committee
Giterman, I.
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, B.
Katz, N.
Poland
Refugees
Reports
Schweitzer, D.J.
Troper, M.C.
Zbaszyn
#Return to Top
File 879: Poland: Subject Matter, Refugees, Vilna, Zbaszyn, 1938 - 1939, Lists of Refugees at Zbaszyn
Lists of refugees classified by a number of categories - e.g. Polish birthplaces, countries where relatives dwell, and others.
Index Terms:
List
Poland
Refugees
Zbaszyn
#Return to Top
File 880: Poland: Subject Matter, Polish Refugees in Australia, New Zealand and Burma
a. Australia and New Zealand, 1941 - 1944: Visas to 100 Polish refugees stranded in Kobe, Japan and admitting them in the ratio of 50 to Australia, 20 to New Zealand and 30 to Burma, were issued by the respective gov'ts on the strength of JDC guarantees of support for the duration of the war, 4/8/41, 6/11/41. For other materials on Polish refugees to Australia, see: 7/13/41, 8/6/41, 8/21/41, 9/4/41, 9/12/41, 9/18/41(2), 10/16/41, 10/22/41, 10/24/41(2), 11/17/41, 11/27/41, 12/2/41(3), 1/6/42, 1/9/42, 4/9/42. Correspondence: W.L. Brand, H.K. Buchman, M.A. Leavitt. b. Burma, 1941 - 1944: Polish refugees in Burma aided by the JDC: 5/29/41(2), 6/11/41, 9/17/41, 9/25/41 - 10/10/41, 10/31/41, 1/6/42 - 2/27/42, 4/9/42, 5/12/42, 7/8/42 - 3/30/44. Correspondence: L. Aronson, M. Birman, M.A. Leavitt, G. McIntosh White.
Index Terms:
Aronson, L.
Australia
Birman, M.
Brand, W.L.
Buchman, H.K.
Burma
Japan
Kobe
Leavitt, M.A.
McIntosh White, G.
New Zealand
Poland
Refugees
#Return to Top
File 881: Poland: Subject Matter, Polish Refugees in Canada
In June 1941, the Canadian Gov't, by an agreement with the Free Polish Gov't, offered asylum to a restricted number of Polish refugees who were marooned in the Far East, provided that maintenance guarantees for the refugees in Canada were forthcoming. Some 79 Jewish refugees were granted visas and arrived in Canada under the terms of the agreement. The JDC contributed the transportation costs, in major degree. Subsequently, 80 yeshiva students and rabbis in the Far East were also granted visas to Canada and were scheduled to travel there via the U.S. The first group of 29 sailed from Shanghai to San Francisco on the SS Pres. Pierce and arrived on 10/20/41. The second group of 51 was scheduled to sail one month later, but last minute postponements and the intervention of Pearl Harbor brought overseas travel to an end, for the duration of the war. For additional materials on refugees in Canada, see: Canada, Files 453-455. For materials on the 79 refugees mentioned above, see: 5/13/41, 6/5/41 - 7/9/41, 7/15/41, 7/16/41 Hayes to Tartakower. For materials on the 80 yeshiva students, see: 8/20/41, 8/27/41 - 9/8/41, 9/15/41 Razovsky to Leavitt, 9/29/41, 9/30/41, 10/11/41, 10/20/41, 10/21/41, 10/23/41, 10/30/41 Buchman to Berman, 11/6/41, 11/14/41, 11/19/41, Razovsky to Warren, 11/24/41, 11/28/41, 1/2/42, 1/30/42, 2/16/42, 2/25/42, 5/27/42. Correspondence: H. Birman, H.K. Buchman, S. Hayes, J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt, L.L. Margolis, C. Razovsky.
Index Terms:
Birman, H.
Buchman, H.K.
Canada
Hayes, S.
Hyman, J.C.
Leavitt, M.A.
Margolis, L.L.
Poland
Razovsky, C.
Refugees
SS President Pierce
#Return to Top
File 882: Poland: Subject Matter, Polish Refugees in China, East Africa, Hungary and Italy
a. China: At the opening of 1942, some 16,000 - 18,000 Jewish refugees lived in Shanghai; about two-thirds stemmed from Germany and Austria, and the others from eastern Europe mostly, including Poland. The Polish refugees arrived in numbers mainly in 1941, and immediate friction erupted with the local Refugee Aid Committee which was heavily German-refugee oriented. The JDC enlarged its allocations for refugee aid in Shanghai, but the standards of eligibility demanded by it were community-wide in scope and not based upon national origin. For additional materials, see: China, Files 461-462. Relationship of the JDC and the Polish-Jewish Refugees: 11/30/40, 12/3/40, 3/21/41, 3/25/41, 4/4/41, April 1941, 4/26/41, 8/29/41, 9/5/41, 9/9/41, 9/11/41, 10/4/41, 10/10/41, 12/3/41, 4/10/42. Correspondence: M.W. Beckelman, H.K. Buchman, J. Ciechanowski, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, M.A. Leavitt, I. Rosen, A. Tartakower. b. East Africa, 1933 - 1944: Correspondence: A.H. Abraham, H. Behr, J.B. Foley. c. Hungary, 1939: Lists of Polish refugees in Budapest and in Detention Camps. d. Italy: On the Situation of Polish Refugees in Italy: 2/20/40, 4/17/40, 5/9/40, 5/20/40. Many refugees sailed for Palestine and some landed for a time in Greece 6/17/40, 6/19/40, and then in Turkey. For the stopover in Turkey, see below: File 886.e
Index Terms:
Abraham, A.H.
Beckelman, M.W.
Behr, H.
Buchman, H.K.
China
Ciechanowski, J.
East Africa
Foley, J.B.
Hungary
Hyman, J.C.
Italy
Kahn, B.
Leavitt, M.A.
List
Poland
Refugee Aid Committee
Refugees
Rosen, I.
Shanghai
Tartakower, A.
#Return to Top
File 883: Poland: Subject Matter, Polish Refugees in India
The Jewish Relief Association, Bombay (JRA), aided Jewish refugees from Europe who made temporary stopovers in Bombay en route to other destinations. During W.W. II, the JDC and the HICEM provided additional aid to individuals, and in those years the JDC also covered the greatest part of the HICEM budget. Between 9/1/39 - 11/1/42, 181 Polish refugees arrived in India and all but a handful made their departure before the end of the war. On the Situation of Polish Refugees in India: 1/6/41(3), 8/11/41, 9/26/41, 12/18/41, 1/29/42, 3/20/42, 4/9/42, 5/12/42, 6/16/42, 8/4/42, 9/11/42, 11/4/42, 4/9/43, 5/17/43, 7/2/43, 2/17/44, JRA Report for 1945, 12/31/45. Correspondence: H.K. Buchman, A. Dubin, F. Klein, M.A. Leavitt.
Index Terms:
Bombay
Buchman, H.K.
Dubin, A.
HIAS-ICA Emigration Association (HICEM)
India
Jewish Relief Association (JRA)
Klein, F.
Leavitt, M.A.
Poland
Refugees
#Return to Top
File 884: Poland: Subject Matter, Polish Refugees in Jamaica, 1941 - 1942
The first 152 refugees arrived in Jamaica on the SS Serpa Pinta: 12/15/41 - 2/3/42 Hyman to Simmonds, 2/9/42, 2/15/42 - 2/23/42(2), 3/12/42(2), 4/17/42. Relations between the JDC and the Refugees: 5/13/42(3) - 5/28/42, 6/9/42, 6/10/42, 6/13/42, 7/16/42, 7/17/42, 8/8/42, 10/2/42, 10/17/42, 10/29/42, 12/12/42 - 12/30/42. Report by C.H. Jordan, 12/17/42. Correspondence: H.K. Buchman, J. Ciechanowski, S. Cohen, I. Dijour, B. Glasscheib, O.K. Henriques, J.C. Hyman, S.B. Jacobson, C.H. Jordan, M.A. Leavitt, M. Matalon, R. Pilpel, E.A. Rae, J.J. Schwartz. In Aug. 1941, the Polish Gov't in Exile sought a temporary haven in overseas lands for a group of 180 Polish-Jewish refugees in Lisbon. The British Gov't expressed the willingness to receive the refugees in Jamaica but demanded a guarantee of support for the duration of the war. The Polish Gov't pressed the JDC to provide the guarantee, as it professed itself powerless to give such a guarantee itself. The JDC and the British Gov't agreed to a 12-month guarantee. The need to evacuate Jewish refugees out of Portugal grew acute when the threat of a Nazi invasion of that country loomed in the wake of Pearl Harbor. On 2/9/42, 152 Polish refugees arrived in Jamaica on the SS Serpa Pinta and they were lodged in Gibraltar Camp II (G.C. II). The camp commandant was E.A. Rae. The refugees were accompanied on the overseas journey by a JDC representative, S. Bertrand Jacobson. In the months that followed, 38 more refugees joined the others to make 190 in all. The British authorities stressed that the refugees were treated as guests of a friendly power, but the Polish refugees were disposed to compare camp conditions with those of a concentration camp. By reason of the war, air and water transportation in the Western Hemisphere was short in supply and high in cost until 1944. In that year, many of the refugees succeeded in migrating to Cuba, Canada, the U.S. and other countries, and by November, only 18 refugees remained in G.C. II. Relations with the refugees in Jamaica remained a JDC sore spot for a long period. The refugees swiftly alienated the local Jewish community of Kingston, which finally refused its help altogether, with the exception of a local resident, Samuel Cohen, who displayed an active and helpful interest in the group. The turning point came in Dec. 1942, when Charles H. Jordan, the JDC representative in Cuba, made a special inspection trip to Jamaica. His report, dated 12/17/42, will be found in File 884, and it offers a lucid account of conditions, problems and happenings at G.C. II. The JDC put Jordan's recommendations into effect, and the atmosphere at the camp improved perceptibly, with but occasional expressions of discontent by selected individuals. Jordan's successor in Cuba, Oscar Gurfinkel (Nov. 1943) continued to attend to JDC interests in Jamaica. In 1944, he aided numbers of refugees in Jamaica to gain admission to Cuba where they could find gainful employment. JDC costs for the transportation and support of the 190 refugees in Jamaica reached the neighborhood of $70,000, and called for a great volume of sustained effort on the part of many persons. Mr. O.K. Henriques, a prominent local resident, served as a voluntary JDC representative.
Index Terms:
Buchman, H.K.
Ciechanowski, J.
Cohen, S.
Dijour, I.
Glasscheib, B.
Henriques, O.K.
Hyman, J.C.
Jacobson, S.B.
Jamaica
Jordan, C.H.
Leavitt, M.A.
Matalon, M.
Pilpel, R.
Poland
Rae, E.A.
Refugees
Reports
SS Serpa Pinta
Schwartz, J.J.
#Return to Top
File 885: Poland: Subject Matter, Polish Refugees in Jamaica, 1943 - 1944
Relations Between the JDC and the Refugees: 2/9/43 attachment to 2/18/43, 2/23/43, 3/17/43 attachment to 3/24/43, 3/25/43, 4/12/43, 5/13/43 Leavitt to Cohen, 6/8/43, 8/6/43, 9/20/43, 10/23/43, 10/29/43, 12/23/43, 1/5/44, 7/22/44, 8/22/44, 10/25/44, 11/2/44, 11/10/44. Report: Visit to G.C. II by R. Debicki, Polish Minister to Cuba. Correspondence: H.D. Biele, S. Cohen, I. Dijour, 0. Gurfinkel, O.K. Henriques, J.C. Hyman, C.H. Jordan, M. Kwapiszewski, M.A. Leavitt, R. Pilpel, E.A. Rae. In Aug. 1941, the Polish Gov't in Exile sought a temporary haven in overseas lands for a group of 180 Polish-Jewish refugees in Lisbon. The British Gov't expressed the willingness to receive the refugees in Jamaica but demanded a guarantee of support for the duration of the war. The Polish Gov't pressed the JDC to provide the guarantee, as it professed itself powerless to give such a guarantee itself. The JDC and the British Gov't agreed to a 12-month guarantee. The need to evacuate Jewish refugees out of Portugal grew acute when the threat of a Nazi invasion of that country loomed in the wake of Pearl Harbor. On 2/9/42, 152 Polish refugees arrived in Jamaica on the SS Serpa Pinta and they were lodged in Gibraltar Camp II (G.C. II). The camp commandant was E.A. Rae. The refugees were accompanied on the overseas journey by a JDC representative, S. Bertrand Jacobson. In the months that followed, 38 more refugees joined the others to make 190 in all. The British authorities stressed that the refugees were treated as guests of a friendly power, but the Polish refugees were disposed to compare camp conditions with those of a concentration camp. By reason of the war, air and water transportation in the Western Hemisphere was short in supply and high in cost until 1944. In that year, many of the refugees succeeded in migrating to Cuba, Canada, the U.S. and other countries, and by November, only 18 refugees remained in G.C. II. Relations with the refugees in Jamaica remained a JDC sore spot for a long period. The refugees swiftly alienated the local Jewish community of Kingston, which finally refused its help altogether, with the exception of a local resident, Samuel Cohen, who displayed an active and helpful interest in the group. The turning point came in Dec. 1942, when Charles H. Jordan, the JDC representative in Cuba, made a special inspection trip to Jamaica. His report, dated 12/17/42, will be found in File 884, and it offers a lucid account of conditions, problems and happenings at G.C. II. The JDC put Jordan's recommendations into effect, and the atmosphere at the camp improved perceptibly, with but occasional expressions of discontent by selected individuals. Jordan's successor in Cuba, Oscar Gurfinkel (Nov. 1943) continued to attend to JDC interests in Jamaica. In 1944, he aided numbers of refugees in Jamaica to gain admission to Cuba where they could find gainful employment. JDC costs for the transportation and support of the 190 refugees in Jamaica reached the neighborhood of $70,000, and called for a great volume of sustained effort on the part of many persons. Mr. O.K. Henriques, a prominent local resident, served as a voluntary JDC representative.
Index Terms:
Biele, H.D.
Cohen, S.
Dijour, I.
Gibralttar Camp II (G.C.II)
Gurfinkel, O.
Henriques, O.K.
Hyman, J.C.
Jamaica
Jordan, C.H.
Kwapiszewski, M.
Leavitt, M.A.
Pilpel, R.
Poland
Rae, E.A.
Refugees
Report
#Return to Top
File 886: Poland: Subject Matter, Polish Refugees in Japan, Mexico, Romania, Spain and Turkey
a. Japan, 1940 - 1941: On the Situation of Polish Refugees in Japan: 10/25/40, 12/19/40, 3/29/41, 4/9/41, 4/24/41, 5/1/42(2). For additional materials, see: Japan, Files 723-725. Correspondence: M.W. Beckelman, H.K. Buchman, B. Kahn, S. Tarschansky, K. Zyngol. b. Mexico, 1943: Correspondence: L. Bechar, J.C. Hyman, F.S. Levine, A.S. Petluck, R. Pilpel. c. Romania, 1933 - 1944: Lists of Polish Refugees in Romania, 10/16/39, 11/29/39, 12/16/39. Reports and Memos to JDC by Millstein/Ussoskin, 10/20/39, 10/25/39, 11/5/39, 10/19/40. Other materials on the Status of Polish Refugees in Romania: 10/6/39, 10/23/39(2), 1/20/40, 1/22/40. Correspondence: J. Millstein, M.C. Troper, M. Ussoskin. d. Spain, 1943, 1945: Correspondence: H. Katzki, M.A. Leavitt, H. Trobe. e. Turkey, 1940 - 1941: Some 270 refugees, from Poland mostly, sailed for Palestine from Trieste following the entrance of Italy into the war in May 1940, and were marooned without means first in Salonika and then for a longer span in Istanbul. In both cities they received JDC aid. In Istanbul, the aid was distributed by the Aid Committee of the Grand Rabbinat. Correspondence: Ch. Barlas, P. Eisenstadt, J.J. Schwartz, H. Soriano. USSR: See: Iran, Files 712-713; See: Japan, Files 723-725; See: Relief Supplies, Files 421-429.
Index Terms:
Aid Committee of the Grand Rabbinat
Barlas, Ch.
Bechar, L.
Beckelman, M.W.
Buchman, H.K.
China
Eisenstadt, P.
Hyman, J.C.
Istanbul
Kahn, B.
Katzki, H.
Leavitt, M.A.
Levine, F.S.
List
Mexico
Millstein, J.
Petluck, A.S.
Pilpel, R.
Poland
Refugees
Reports
Rumania
Salonika
Schwartz, J.J.
Soriano, H.
Spain
Tarschansky, S.
Trobe, H.
Troper, M.C.
Turkey
Ussoskin, M.
Zyngol, K.
#Return to Top
File 887: Poland: Subject Matter, Relief Supplies, General
The JDC contributed $30,000 for the purchase of flour in Slovakia for shipment to Poland, 7/31/40 - 9/12/40, 10/14/40, 10/16/40, 11/18/40, 12/2/40. A Special JDC Committee was appointed to consider the dispatch of additional food shipments to Poland, 11/22/40, 11/25/40, 12/4/40 - 12/19/40, 1/18/41, 2/25/41. The JDC tried unsuccessfully to buy food supplies in Russia for shipment to Poland, 3/1/41 - 3/12/41, 4/5/41 - 4/25/41. The JDC allocated funds for the purchase of 17,000 cans of milk stored in a Warsaw warehouse, 6/5/41 - 6/13/41, 6/18/41 - 8/6/41 Cable. The JDC obtained U.S. Gov't license to ship food packages from Lisbon to Poland, 11/17/42 - 2/12/43, 3/8/43 - 4/30/43. The JDC shipped supplies to the Sommerstein Committee, 7/15/44, 8/16/44 - 10/23/44, 11/4/44 - 1/3/45; also see: File 802, 7/5/44 and ff. Relief Supplies, Files 421 - 429 SM Archives, File 51(1) Correspondence: M.W. Beckelman, J. Blum, H.K. Buchman, J.C. Hyman, S.B. Jacobson, M.A. Leavitt, M.C. Troper.
Index Terms:
Beckelman, M.W.
Blum, J.
Buchman, H.K.
Food
Hyman, J.C.
Jacobson, S.B.
Leavitt, M.A.
Poland
Relief Supplies
Slovakia
Sommerstein Committee
Troper, M.C.
#Return to Top
File 888: Poland: Subject Matter, Relief Supplies, Lists of Individual Recipients of Food Parcels
Lists of Individual Recipients of Food Parcels, 1941; 1943.
Index Terms:
Food
List
Poland
Relief Supplies
#Return to Top
File 889: Poland: Subject Matter, Vocational Training (V.T.)
JDC Allocations for Vocational Training in Poland: 1937 attachment to 6/15/38; 1938, 6/26/39. JDC Report, Professional Training in Poland, Aug. 1938. Memos and Tables on V.T.: Extract on V.T. from Report on Poland by A. Kahn, Oct. 1937; Table of CENTOS V.T. schools and courses, Nov. 1937; Trade Schools in Poland and the Need for a Joint Survey, 3/24/38; Needs and Prospects for Jewish Trade Training in Poland, 10/7/38. Also see above: File 819, Ort Poland, Warsaw File 820, Wuzet, Lwow Correspondence: M.W. Beckelman, H.K. Buchman, J.C. Hyman, A. Kahn, B. Kahn, E.M. Morrissey, D.M. Schweitzer.
Index Terms:
Beckelman, M.W.
Buchman, H.K.
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, A.
Kahn, B.
Morrissey, E.M.
Poland
Reports
Schweitzer, D.M.
Vocational Training (V.T.)
#Return to Top
Series 4: Poland: Localities
File 890: Poland: Localities, A - D
A: Aleksandrie (d. Wolyn); Aleksandrie (d. Wolyn); B: Baranow (d. Lublin); Biala (d. Cracow) see: Bielsko (d. Slask); Biealystok (d. Bial.); Bielsk (d. Bial.) also see: File 849; Bielsko (d. Slask); Bielsk (d. Warsaw); Bilgoraj (d. Lublin) also see: File 849; Bobrka (d. Lwow); Borszczow (d. Tarnop.) see: File 850; Bransk (d. Warsaw) see: File 850; Branszczyk (d. Bial.); Brok n/B (d. Bial.)see: File 850; Brzesc Litewski (d. Polesie); Brzozdowce (d. Lwow); Buczacz (d. Tarnop.) see: File 850; Burzenin (d. Lodz); C: Checiny see: Loan Kassas Ciechanowiec (d. Bial.) see: Wysokie Mazowieckie and Loan Kassas; Cieszyn (d. Slask); Cisna (d. Bial.); Cracow (d. Cracow); Czarnow (d. Kielce); Czernawczyce (d. Polesie) see: Loan Kassas; Czestochowa (d. Kielce); Czyzewo (d. Bial.) see: Wysokie Mazowieckie; D: Dawidgrodek (d. Polesie) see: File 852; Dlugosiodlo (d. Bial.); Drzewica (d. Kielce); Dubno (d. Wolyn);
Index Terms:
Aleksandrie
Baranow
Biala
Bialystok
Bialystok
Bielsk
Bielsko
Bilgoraj
Bobrka
Borszczow
Bransk
Branszczyk
Brok
Brzesc Litewski
Brzozdowce
Buczacz
Burzenin
Checiny
Ciechanowiec
Cieszyn
Cisna
Cracow
Cracow
Czarnow
Czernawczyce
Czestochowa
Czyzewo
Dawidgrodek
Dlugosiodlo
Drzewica
Dubno
Kielce
Lodz
Lublin
Lwow
Poland
Polesie
Slask
Tarnopol
Warsaw
Wolyn
#Return to Top
File 891: Poland: Localities, E - K
E: Eiszyszki (d. Nowogr.); G: Gdynia (d. Pomorskie); Grodno (d. Bial.); H: Horodenka (d. Stanis.); J: Jabkonka Koscielna (d. Bial.); Jedwabne (d. Bial.)see: Wysokie Mazowieckie; K: Kielce (d. Kielce); Kleck (d. Nowogr.)see: File 855; Klewan (d. Wolyn); Klwow (d. Kielce); Kolomyja (d. Stan.)see: File 856; Korczyna (d. Lwow); Kossow (d. Polesie); Kulesze Koscielne (d. Bial.); Kutno (d. Warsaw);
Index Terms:
Bialystok
Eiszyszki
Gdynia
Grodno
Horodenka
Jabkonka Koscielna
Jedwabne
Kielce
Kleck
Klewan
Klwow
Kolomyja
Korczyna
Kossow
Kulesze Koscielne
Kutno
Lwow
Nowogrodek
Poland
Polesie
Stanislawow
Warsaw
Wolyn
#Return to Top
File 892: Poland: Localities, L - O
L: Lapy (d. Bial.)see: Zambrow and File 858; Lebiedziewo (d. Vilna); Lida (d. Nowogr.) see: File 858; Lodz (d. Lodz) also see: File 858; Lublin (d. Bial.) see: File 859; Lwow (d. Lwow); M: Minsk Mazowiecki (d. Warsaw); Mordy (d. Lublin); N: Nowogrodek (d. Nowogr.); Nowy Sacz (d. Cracow) see: File 861; O: Odrzywot (d. Kielce); Olpiny (d. Cracow); Orla Podlaska (d. Bial.); Ostrog (d. Wolyn);
Index Terms:
Bialystok
Cracow
Kielce
Lapy
Lebiedziewo
Lida
Lodz
Lublin
Lunna
Lwow
Minsk Mazowiecki
Mordy
Nowogrodek
Nowy Sacz
Odrzywot
Olpiny
Orla Podlaska
Ostrog
Poland
Vilna
Warsaw
Wolyn
#Return to Top
File 893: Poland: Localities, P - R
P: Piekuty Krasowo (d. Bial.); Pinsk (d. Polesie); Probuzna (d. Tarnop.); Przemysl (d. Lwow); Przemyslany (d. Tarnop.); Przyszew (d. Warsaw); Przytyk (d. Kielce); R: Raciaz (d. Warsaw); Radom (d. Radom); Radziejow (d. Warsaw); Radzilow (d. Bial.); Rawa Mazowiecka (d. Warsaw) see: File 865; Rozana (d. Wolyn); Rozana (d. Polesie) see: File 865; Rutki Kosaki (d. Bial.); Rybnik (d. Slask); Rymanow (d. Lwow); Rzeszow (d. Lwow);
Index Terms:
Bialystok
Kielce
Lwow
Piekuty Krasowo
Pinsk
Poland
Polesie
Probuzna
Pruzana
Przemysl
Przemyslany
Przybyszew
Przytyk
Raciaz
Radom
Radom
Radziejow
Radzilow
Rawa Mazowiecka
Rowne
Rozana
Rutki Kosaki
Rybnik
Rymanow
Rzeszow
Slask
Tarnopol
Warsaw
Wolyn
#Return to Top
File 894: Poland: Localities, S - T
S: Sarny (d. Wolyn); Sasow (d. Tarnop.)also see: File 866; Siedlce (d. Lublin); Sniadowo (d. Bial.); Sniatyn (d. Stanisl.); Sokolka (d. Bial.)also see: File 867; Sokolka Podlaski (d. Lublin); Sokolow (d. Lublin); Sokoly (d. Bial.) see: Wysokie Mazowieckie; Stoki (d. Lublin) also see: Wyszkow; Suchawola (d. Bial.); Suwalki (d. Bial.); Szczebrzeszyn (d. Lublin); Szczerzec (d. Lwow)see: File 869; T: Tarnow (d. Cracow); Tomaszow Mazowiecki (d. Lodz); Truskolasy (d. Kielce); Trzcianka (d. Bial.); Tykocin (d. Bial.) also see: Wysokie Mazowieckie;
Index Terms:
Bialystok
Cracow
Kielce
Lodz
Lublin
Lwow
Poland
Sarny
Sasow
Siedlce
Sniadowo
Sniatyn
Sokolka
Sokoloka Podlaski
Sokolow
Sokoly
Stanislawow
Stoki
Suchawola
Suwalki
Szczebrzeszyn
Szczerzec
Tarnopol
Tarnow
Tomaszow Mazowiecki
Truskolasy
Trzcianka
Tykocin
Wolyn
#Return to Top
File 895: Poland: Localities, W - Z
W: Warsaw Nov. 1939 - 1943 Wengrow (d. Lublin) see: File 872; Wilna (d. Wilna) also see: Files 876-877; Wlodawa (d. Lublin); Wysokie Mazowieckie (d. Bial.); Wyszonki Koscielne (d. Bial.); Z: Zagorow (d. Lodz); Zaklikow (d. Lublin); Zambrow (d. Bial.); Zbaszyn (d. Poznan) also see: Files 878-879; Zelow (d. Lodz);
Index Terms:
Bialystok
Lodz
Lublin
Poland
Poznan
Warsaw Nov.
Wengrow
Wilna
Wlodawa
Wysokie Mazowieckie
Wyszonki Koscielne
Zagorow
Zaklikow
Zambrow
Zbaszyn
Zelow
#Return to Top
Record Group 4.48: Portugal
File 896: Portugal: General, 1933; 1939 - 1942
Reports and memos on the status of refugees - Comissao: 12/22/39, 11/5/40 attachment to 11/9/40, 2/28/41 d'Esaguy to Goldmann, 4/22/41, 6/4/41 d'Esaguy, 10/21/42. Comite: 1942, Jan., Feb., April, June. JDC: 11/4/40, 11/26/40, 5/5/41, 6/21/41, 10/14/41, 12/16/41, 1/8/42, 4/14/42, 5/14/42, 6/30/42, 8/15/42, 9/2/42. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, A. d'Esaguy, J.C. Hyman, H. Katzki, M.A. Leavitt, E.M. Morrissey, A. Nussbaum, J.J. Schwartz, M.C. Troper.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, P.
Comissao Portuguesa de Assistencia aos Judeus Refugiados
Hyman, J.C.
Katzki, H.
Leavitt, M.A.
Morrissey, E.M.
Nussbaum, A.
Portugal
Refugees
Reports
Schwartz, J.J.
Troper, M.C.
d'Esaguy, A.
#Return to Top
File 897: Portugal: General, 1943 - 1944
On the status of refugees: 3/9/43, 7/31/43, 9/21/43, 2/15/44, 5/18/44, 7/7/44, 8/3/44, 8/22/44, 8/30/44, 10/18/44, 12/19/44 Pilpel to JDC. Portuguese Jews expelled from France reached Portugal, 9/21/43, 10/14/43, 11/16/43. Lists of refugees emigrating from Spain and Portugal 1943/44: 3/15/43 - 5/31/43, 6/5/43; July/August, 11/30/43; 10/26/43 - 2/15/44, 3/9/44. Fin. and Statistical Reports: Comite, Jan. 1943; Transmigration Bureau Lisbon, 7/31/43; Summary of Fin. and Statistical Reports Lisbon submitted to the JDC 1/1/43 - 6/30/43, 11/23/43. Correspondence: D.B. Hurwitz, J.C. Hyman, H. Katzki, R. Pilpel, J.J. Schwartz.
Index Terms:
Comite da Communidad Israelita de Lisboa
Financial
France
Hurwitz, D.B.
Hyman, J.C.
Katzki, H.
List
Pilpel, R.
Portugal
Refugees
Reports
Schwartz, J.J.
Transmigration Bureau Lisbon
#Return to Top
Record Group 4.49: Portuguese East Africa
File 897a: Portuguese East Africa (Lourenco Marques)
The Council for Refugee Settlement in Africa Outside the Union of South Africa (Council) was a creation of the South African Jewish Board of Deputies in the latter 1930's. It helped to support Jewish refugees from Europe in a number of African territories, among them Portuguese East Africa. In Jan. 1941, the aid pipeline was cut when the South African Gov't imposed wartime restrictions on currency transfers to non-sterling countries. The Board of Deputies and the JDC arranged a clearing system whereby the JDC transmitted to the Council the dollars needed by it for Portuguese South Africa. In turn, the Council transmitted the sterling equivalent to Palestine, where it was applied to JDC projects. The arrangement was approved by gov't officials in the United States and South Africa. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, H. Behr, J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, P.
Behr, H.
Council for Refugee Settlement in Africa Outside the Union (Council)
Hyman, J.C.
Leavitt, M.A.
Portuguese East Africa
Refugees
#Return to Top
Record Group 4.50: Romania
Series 1: Romania: Administration
File 898: Romania: Administration, General, 1934 - 1938 (April)
Reports and Memos - B. Kahn: April 1936, 8/3/36, 1/19/37; N. Aronovici: 4/22/37; B. Smolar: Sept. 1937; J. Millstein and M. Ussoskin: 11/30/37; Expenditures in Romania, 3/4/37; Non-JDC Reports - "The New Romanian Gov't and the Problem of Minorities, and of the Jews in Particular", 3/15/38; "La Situation des Juifs en Roumanie" by the WJC, Jan. 1938. Minutes of the JDC Foundation Meeting 4/26/38, 4/27/38. For additional data 1938, see: EUREXCO, File 179. Correspondence: N. Aronovici, O.E. d'Avigdor Goldsmid, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, N. Katz, I. Millstein, B. Smolar, M. Ussoskin.
Index Terms:
Aronovici, N.
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, B.
Katz, N.
Millstein, I.
Minutes of Meetings
Reports
Rumania
Smolar, B.
Ussoskin, M.
d'Avigdor Goldsmid, O.E.
#Return to Top
File 899: Romania: Administration, General, 1938 (May-Dec.)
Virtually all the documents in this file turn on the attempts by the Romanian Gov't to close the Jewish credit institutions in the country, and the ins and outs of the discussions which followed with the JDC and the JDC Foundation. The JDC enlisted the aid of the U.S. State Dept. and the British Foreign Office, and the JDC Foundation had the services of Major-Gen. F.J. Duncan, a former British Military Attache in Bucharest. The ultimate outcome was that most of the kassas in Romania continued to function until June 22, 1941, when that country joined with Germany in the attack on Russia. Reports and Memos - J.C. Hyman: 6/6/38; Gen. F.J. Duncan: 11/4/38 attachment to 11/7/38; B. Smolar: 12/2/38 and Summary 12/22/38. Correspondence: F.J. Duncan, J.C. Dunn, O.E. d'Avigdor Goldsmid, J.C. Hyman, R. Irimescu, B. Kahn, A.A. Landesco, P. Moffat, E.M. Morrissey, L. Oungre.
Index Terms:
Duncan, F.J.
Dunn, J.C.
Hyman, J.C.
Irimescu, R.
Kahn, B.
Landesco, A.A.
Loan Kassas
Moffat, P.
Morrissey, E.M.
Oungre, L.
Reports
Rumania
d'Avigdor Goldsmid, O.E.
#Return to Top
File 900: Romania: Administration, General, 1939 - 1941
Reports and memos of the Situation of the Romanian Jews - Horia Carp: 1/13/39, 1/25/39; J.C. Hyman: 3/2/39 attachment to 3/3/39; B. Smolar: 3/13/39 attachment to 3/21/39; N. Aronovici: 3/22/39; E.K. Schwartz: 5/2/39; Moses Moskowitz: April 1940 attachment to 4/17/40; S.B. Jacobson: 8/5/40 attachment to 9/4/40; M. Ussoskin: 8/26/40, 2/26/41(2). Ch. Barlas: 10/8/40; Anonymous: 5/8/39, 7/3/40, 11/21/41. Also see: 2/8/41 attachment to 3/11/41, 2/20/41, 10/4/41. For additional data, see: EUREXCO, Files 180-181. Correspondence: N. Aronovici, H.K. Buchman, H. Carp, F.J. Duncan, J.C. Hyman, S.B. Jacobson, A.A. Landesco, M.A. Leavitt, E.M. Morrissey, M. Moskowitz, B. Smolar, M.C. Troper, M. Ussoskin.
Index Terms:
Aronovici, N.
Buchman, H.K.
Carp, H.
Duncan, F.J.
Hyman, J.C.
Jacobson, S.B.
Landesco, A.A.
Leavitt, M.A.
Morrissey, E.M.
Moskowitz, M.
Reports
Rumania
Smolar, B.
Troper, M.C.
Ussoskin, M.
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File 901: Romania: Administration, General, 1942 - 1944
On the Situation of the Romanian Jews: 6/25/42, 7/9/43, 4/29/44, 5/10/44(2), 8/23/44, 10/13/44 JTA, 10/16/44, 10/28/44 - 11/3/44, 11/16/44, 12/12/44, 12/26/44 Schwartz to Leavitt. Reports and Memos - M. Ussoskin: 5/11/43, 1/10/44; M. Reifer: 8/25/44; E. Costiner: 10/2/44; M. Leclerc 11/21/44; M. Kessler, 12/15/44. My Life by Wilhelm Filderman undated, and a brief biography of him in the Encyclopedia Judaica, Vol. 6. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, E. Costiner, Wm. Filderman, J.C. Hyman, M. Kessler, Ch. Kolb, J.L. Magnes, R. Pilpel, R.B. Resnik, J.J. Schwartz, Laurence A. Steinhardt, M. Ussoskin.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, P.
Costiner, E.
Filderman, Wm.
Hyman, J.C.
Kessler, M.
Kolb, Ch.
Magnes, J.L.
Pilpel, R.
Reports
Resnik, R.B.
Rumania
Schwartz, J.J.
Steinhardt, Laurence A.
Ussoskin, M.
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File 902: Romania: Administration, General, 1941 - 1945
1.Transnistria, 1943 - 1945: When Germany invaded Russia on 6/22/41, a coattail army, the Romanian, accompanied them in the invasion of Bessarabia and the Ukraine. From Sept. 1941 onward, the Romanians deported some 147,000 Jews to Transnistria, an impoverished territory in the Ukraine between the Bug and the Dniester Rivers, ceded to them by the Nazis. The deportations were only for forced labor ostensibly, but in fact a mere 40% of the victims survived. In 1943 - 1944, JDC aid in the form of individual packages were forwarded to the refugees in Transnistria via the CICR. The JDC remitted $100,000 to the CICR for the purchase of supplies for distribution to refugees in Transnistria: 10/27/43, 11/5/43, 12/1/43, 12/20/43, 1/10/44, 1/17/44, 1/27/44, 3/6/44, 4/7/44, 4/22/44 - 5/1/44, 6/19/44; for additi