Finding Aids by Collection

Finding Aids

Records of the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee: New York office | 1933 - 1944 Subcollection 3

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Subcollection 3: Subject Matter
Record Group 3.1: Child Care
File 350: Child Care
A. General, 1935 - 1938; 1940. B. Requests for Vital Statistics, 1933 - 1944. For additional materials, see: Organizations: German-Jewish Children's Aid, Files 233-239; U.S. Committee for Care of European Children, Files 343-345; Inter-Aid Committee for Children from Germany, File 589. Countries: Austria, File 447; Bulgaria, File 452; England, File 589; France, File 610-612; Germany, File 653; Holland, File 703.1; Hungary, File 710a; Lithuania, File 734; Palestine, File 754; Poland, File 821- 824; Rumania, File 904; Switzerland, File 941-946; Bolivia, File 1,088; Brazil, File 1,100.
Index Terms:
Austria
Bolivia
Brazil
Bulgaria
Child care
England
France
German-Jewish Children's Aid
Germany
Holland
Hungary
Inter-Aid Comm. for Children from Germany
Lithuania
Palestine
Poland
Rumania
Switzerland
U.S. Comm. for Care of European Children
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Record Group 3.3: Cultural And Religious
Series 1: Yeshivot
JDC aid to yeshivot dated back to W.W. I. It was usually channeled via the CRC and it continued until W.W.II cut off normal communications with country after country in Europe. In addition, the JDC acted as a transmitting agent to many individual yeshivot of funds granted by U.S. federations and welfare funds, especially in the course of W.W. II. Following the Nazi invasion of Poland, teachers and students of many yeshivot in that country fled to Lithuania where they received JDC aid. In the U.S., a Vaad Hahatzala (Emergency Committee for War-Torn Yeshivot) was established and it called on Jewish federations and welfare funds all over the country for contributions to the refugee yeshivot. Points of conflict arose between the campaigns of the UJA and the Vaad and increased as the war progressed. Many federations and welfare funds called upon the JDC for counsel and factual information in the search for solutions. For the Vaad, see: Files 360-362.
Index Terms:
Emergency Committee for War-Torn Yeshivot
Lithuania
Vaad Hahatzala
Welfare
Yeshivot
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File 356: Yeshivot, General: 1934, 1937 - 1939
JDC subventions to yeshivas in 1936 (Poland, Lithuania, Palestine), 10/18/37 Horowitz to Adler. CJFWF questionnaires on individual yeshivot, attachment to 10/18/37 Buchman to Renard. JDC Cultural Allocations for 1937, including yeshivot, 7/12/38 attachment to 7/13/38. JDC allocations to overseas yeshivot in 1938, 3/28/39. Memo on Situation of Yeshivot in Various Countries, Mark Wischnitzer, 12/7/39. Correspondence: C. Adler, P. Bernstein, H.K. Buchman, L.B. Greenberg, Ch. O. Grodzienski, A. Horowitz, J.C. Hyman, C. Kuhn, J.B. Lightman.
Index Terms:
Adler, C.
Bernstein, P.
Buchman, H.K.
Council of Jewish Federation and Welfare Funds (CJFWF)
Greenberg, L.B.
Grodzienski, Ch. O.
Horowitz, A.
Hyman, J.C.
JDC Cultural Allocations
Kuhn, C.
Lightman, J.B.
Lithuania
Palestine
Poland
Yeshivot
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File 357: Yeshivot, General: 1940
CJFWF Bulletins and Memos on Eastern European Yeshivot: #116, Sept. 1940; #123 Oct. 1940; European Yeshivot Problem, 12/12/40; #B31, Yeshivot formerly in Eastern Europe, 8/1/40. Schedule of Items for Transmission as of 12/31/40, undated. Correspondence: M.W. Beckelman, H.K. Buchman, I. Coons, J.C. Hyman, J. Karlinsky, M.A. Leavitt, J.B. Lightman, J.J. Schwartz.
Index Terms:
Beckelman, M.W.
Buchman, H.K.
Coons, I.
Council of Jewish Federation and Welfare Funds (CJFWF)
Eastern Europe
Hyman, J.C.
Karlinsky, J.
Leavitt, M.A.
Lightman, J.B.
Schwartz, J.J.
Yeshivot
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File 358: Yeshivot, General: 1941 - 1943
CJFWF Bulletins and Memos on Eastern European Yeshivot: #B31, Yeshivot Formerly in Eastern Europe, 8/1/41; Memos on two Lubavitcher yeshivot and on Mirer Yeshiva, attachments to 10/2/41; #B36 Supplement, Current Status Regarding Appeals by American Representatives of European Yeshivot, 12/2/41. Schedule of Items of for Transmission as of 7/31/41, undated. JDC aid to refugee yeshivot students and rabbis from Poland, undated 1943. Lists submitted by the Lubavitcher, of Yeshiva students, rabbis, leaders and other prominent persons in Eastern Europe desiring admission to the U.S., 1941 undated. Correspondence: P. Bernstein, H.K. Buchman, L.B. Greenberg, J.C. Hyman, J.B. Lightman, I.B. Seligson, M. Taylor.
Index Terms:
Bernstein, P.
Buchman, H.K.
Council of Jewish Federation and Welfare Funds (CJFWF)
Eastern Europe
Greenberg, L.B.
Hyman, J.C.
Lightman, J.B.
List
Lubavitcher
Poland
Refugees
Seligson, I.B.
Taylor, M.
Yeshivot
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File 359: Haffkine Foundation
In 1930, the Haffkine Foundation was established in Switzerland, under the will of Prof. Haffkine, a renowned bacteriologist, who left his entire fortune for the aid of yeshivot in Eastern Europe. Administration was entrusted to the Hilfsverein der deutschen Juden, the central Jewish representative body in Germany. In 1939, political pressures compelled the Hilfsverein to withdraw from the Board of Directors, and the JDC was invited to step into its shoes. The Fund's original capital amounted to Sfr 1,568,000, but it shrank to Sfr 807,000 by the end of 193 and to Sfr 505,000 by the end of 1943. The outbreak of the war froze most of its capital and but little money became available for allocation. During the war years, three members became U.S. residents (Bernhard Kahn, Max M. Warburg and Sigmund Wasserman) and they administered the small income that accrued in the U.S.. For post-1945 materials, see: Cen. Files; also see: File 948.b. The fund allocated $1,495 to four yeshivot in the U.S. 2/2/43. Minutes of Meetings: 1/30/39, 2/3/41, 8/29/41, 3/2/42, 6/8/42, 11/19/42, 2/22/43, 5/17/43, 2/28/44. Reports: Haffkine Foundation for the Benefit of Yeshivot, 1930-1938. Annual Reports: 1938 attachment to 2/27/39, in German and English; 1940, 1/22/41 (German); 1941, 2/3/42 (German); 1942 attachment to 3/1/43; 1943, 2/28/44. Correspondence: M. Bloch, H.K. Buchman, W. Dreyfus, B. Kahn, M.A. Leavitt, M.M. Warburg, S. Wassermann
Index Terms:
Bloch, M.
Buchman, H.K.
Dreyfus, W.
Haffkine Foundation
Hilfsverein der deutschen Juden
Kahn, B.
Leavitt, M.A.
Reports
Switzerland
Warburg, M.M.
Wasserman, S.
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File 360: Vaad Hahatzala (Emergency Committee for War-Torn Yeshivot), 1939 - 1942
In Dec. 1939, the Vaad Hahatzala was organized under the auspices of the Union of Orthodox Rabbis of the U.S. and Canada, to raise funds for reestablishing the Polish yeshivot which had fled to Lithuania following the Nazi invasion. In 1941, the Soviet Union annexed Lithuania and the Vaad began to raise funds to aid in the transportation of yeshiva teachers and students from that country to lands of refuge (U.S. and Palestine most notably) or of transmigration (Japan, China). It should be noted that the great bulk of the funds needed for transportation and maintenance came from the JDC. In 1943, the Vaad forwarded aid to yeshiva teachers and students in Siberia and Shanghai but in those instances as well the JDC was the main source of funds for those groups. In 1944, the Vaad announced it was undertaking general rescue and relief activities and it claimed to be the primary organization in the field of rescue. During the war years, relations between the JDC and the Vaad were at odds, a considerable part of the time. The JDC maintained that its fund-raising via the UJA was undermined when the Vaad solicited established JDC circles of contributors. At the same time, the Vaad berated the JDC for failing to write blank checks to the programs it favored. As to the general rescue and relief activities, the JDC viewed them as attempts to duplicate its own programs, while the necessary apparatus to do so was utterly lacking. Throughout the war years, Rabbi El. Silver served as Chairman of the Vaad. For materials on the Vaad and the Musy ransom negotiations early in 1945,see: SM Archives, Files 21, 22, WRB Summary Rep. pp. 42-44. On the JDC and the Vaad: 5/16/40, 5/29/40, 1/27/41, 4/14/41, 6/9/41, 7/9/41, 8/27/41, 10/10/41, 10/24/41, 12/30/41, 5/11/42, 5/18/42, 6/9/42(2), 6/18/42. CJFWF Bulletins and Memos on the Vaad: #77, 2/1/40; #123, Oct. 1940; #B27, May 1941; Supp. to #B36, 1/4/42; Memo. 1/14/42; #B13, Feb. 1942. JDC memos on the Vaad: 5/29/40, 2/6/42. Correspondence: H.K.Buchman, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, J.Karlinsky, M.A. Leavitt, R. Pilpel,I. Rosenberg, El. Silver, S. Wasserman.
Index Terms:
Buchman, H.K.
Council of Jewish Federation and Welfare Funds (CJFWF)
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, B.
Karlinsky, J.
Leavitt, M.A.
Pilpel, R.
Rosenberg, I.
Silver, El.
Vaad Hahatzala (Emergency Committee for War-Torn Yeshivot)
Wasserman, S.
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File 361: Vaad Hahatzala (Emergency Committee for War-Torn Yeshivot), 1943
In Dec. 1939, the Vaad Hahatzala was organized under the auspices of the Union of Orthodox Rabbis of the U.S. and Canada, to raise funds for reestablishing the Polish yeshivot which had fled to Lithuania following the Nazi invasion. In 1941, the Soviet Union annexed Lithuania and the Vaad began to raise funds to aid in the transportation of yeshiva teachers and students from that country to lands of refuge (U.S. and Palestine most notably) or of transmigration (Japan, China). It should be noted that the great bulk of the funds needed for transportation and maintenance came from the JDC. In 1943, the Vaad forwarded aid to yeshiva teachers and students in Siberia and Shanghai but in those instances as well the JDC was the main source of funds for those groups. In 1944, the Vaad announced it was undertaking general rescue and relief activities and it claimed to be the primary organization in the field of rescue. During the war years, relations between the JDC and the Vaad were at odds, a considerable part of the time. The JDC maintained that its fund-raising via the UJA was undermined when the Vaad solicited established JDC circles of contributors. At the same time, the Vaad berated the JDC for failing to write blank checks to the programs it favored. As to the general rescue and relief activities, the JDC viewed them as attempts to duplicate its own programs, while the necessary apparatus to do so was utterly lacking. Throughout the war years, Rabbi El. Silver served as Chairman of the Vaad. For materials on the Vaad and the Musy ransom negotiations early in 1945, see: SM Archives, Files 21, 22, WRB Summary Rep. pp. 42-44. On the JDC and the Vaad: 2/25/43, 4/9/43, 5/7/43, 5/26/43, 10/27/43, 11/16/43, 12/13/43. CJFWF Bulletin on the Vaad: #B49, 6/22/43. Correspondence: H.K. Buchman, J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt, G.W. Rabinoff, M.J. Wohlgelernter.
Index Terms:
Buchman, H.K.
Council of Jewish Federation and Welfare Funds (CJFWF)
Hyman, J.C.
Leavitt, M.A.
Rabinoff, G.W.
Vaad Hahatzala (Emergency Committee for War-Torn Yeshivot)
Wohlgelernter, M.J.
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File 362: Vaad Hahatzala (Emergency Committee for War-Torn Yeshivot), 1944
In Dec. 1939, the Vaad Hahatzala was organized under the auspices of the Union of Orthodox Rabbis of the U.S. and Canada, to raise funds for reestablishing the Polish yeshivot which had fled to Lithuania following the Nazi invasion. In 1941, the Soviet Union annexed Lithuania and the Vaad began to raise funds to aid in the transportation of yeshiva teachers and students from that country to lands of refuge (U.S. and Palestine most notably) or of transmigration (Japan, China). It should be noted that the great bulk of the funds needed for transportation and maintenance came from the JDC. In 1943, the Vaad forwarded aid to yeshiva teachers and students in Siberia and Shanghai but in those instances as well the JDC was the main source of funds for those groups. In 1944, the Vaad announced it was undertaking general rescue and relief activities and it claimed to be the primary organization in the field of rescue. During the war years, relations between the JDC and the Vaad were at odds, a considerable part of the time. The JDC maintained that its fund-raising via the UJA was undermined when the Vaad solicited established JDC circles of contributors. At the same time, the Vaad berated the JDC for failing to write blank checks to the programs it favored. As to the general rescue and relief activities, the JDC viewed them as attempts to duplicate its own programs, while the necessary apparatus to do so was utterly lacking. Throughout the war years, Rabbi El. Silver served as Chairman of the Vaad. For materials on the Vaad and the Musy ransom negotiations early in 1945, see: SM Archives, Files 21, 22, WRB Summary Rep. pp. 42-44.On the JDC and the Vaad: 1/19/44, 1/28/44, 2/15/44, 2/16/44, 3/18/44(2), 5/5/44, 6/14/44(2), 6/19/44, 6/23/44, 7/20/44, 7/24/44, 7/25/44(2), 7/31/44 Hyman to Rosenberg, 8/1/44, 8/17/44 - 9/6/44, 9/21/44, 9/29/44, 12/15/44. Vaad Statements of Income and Payments - 1943, 1944, both undated. CJFWF Bulletin on the Vaad: #B16, June 1944. Correspondence: H.K. Buchman, I.B. Coons, J.C. Hyman, J. Karlinsky, M.A. Leavitt, J. Levinson, I. Rosenberg, L.H. Sobel.
Index Terms:
Buchman, H.K.
Coons, I.B.
Council of Jewish Federation and Welfare Funds (CJFWF)
Hyman, J.C.
Karlinsky, J.
Leavitt, M.A.
Levinson, J.
Rosenberg, I.
Sobel, L.H.
Vaad Hahatzala (Emergency Committee for War-Torn Yeshivot)
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File 351: American Jewish Relief Committee (AJRC)
Tables of annual allocations by the AJRC - 1938: $13,750, 12/31/38; 1939: $22.351, 12/31/39; 1940: $21,197, 2/3/41; 1941: $16,063, undated; 1942: $23,248, undated; 1943: $32,317, undated. Correspondence: C. Adler, H.K. Buchman, A. Horowitz, L. Jung, E.M. Morrissey.
Index Terms:
Adler, C.
American Jewish Relief Committee (AJRC)
Buchman, H.K.
Horowitz, A.
Jung, L.
Morrissey, E.M.
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File 352: Central Relief Committee (CRC)
Tables of annual allocations by the CRC - 1933: $5,978, 9/9/33; 1934: $8,372, 12/31/34; 1935: $7,806, 1/29/36; 1936: $16,036, 1/27/37; 1937: $27,565, 12/31/37; 1938: $39,050, 1/18/39; 1939: $60,318, 12/31/39; 1940: $57,530, 12/31/40; 1941: $29,460, 1/21/42; 1942: $42,030, 1/28/43; 1943: $60,532, undated; 1944: $128,958, 12/31/44. L and T Audit for 1944, 3/27/45. Correspondence: C. Adler, D.M. Bressler, H.K.Buchman, I. Coons, A. Horowitz, J.C. Hyman, L. Jung, B. Kahn, E.M.Morrissey, I. Rosenberg.
Index Terms:
Adler, C.
Bressler, D.M.
Buchman, H. K.
Central Relief Committee (CRC)
Coons, I.
Horowitz, A.
Hyman, J.C.
Jung, L.
Kahn, B.
Morrissey, E.M.
Rosenberg, I.
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File 353: People's Relief Committee, PRC
Tables of annual allocation by the PRC - 1937: $8,825, 2/8/38; 1939: $14,000, 12/31/39; 1940: $11,770, 2/3/41; 1941: $7,876, undated; 1942: $9,286, undated; 1943: $16,670, undated. Correspondence: C. Adler, H.K. Buchman, A. Kahn, E.M. Morrissey.
Index Terms:
Adler, C.
Buchman, H. K.
Kahn, A.
Morrissey, E.M.
People's Relief Committee (PRC)
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File 354: Reports
Jewish Schools in Eastern Europe, January 1937. Correspondence: A. Horowitz, D.J. Schweizer.
Index Terms:
Horowitz, A.
Jewish Schools
Reports
Schweizer, D.J.
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File 355: Ezras Torah Fund (ETF)
The ETF was organized in 1915 by the Union of Orthodox Rabbis of the U.S. and Canada to aid needy orthodix rabbis and scholars in Eastern Europe and Palestine. Between 1930 - 1935, rabbis in the Soviet Union were the principle beneficiaries, but in 1936 and thereafter the focus shifted to rabbis in other countries. The JDC aided the ETF from its early years, via the CRC, but between 1937 - 1944 the allocations went directly, in the following sums: 1937, $1,500; 1938, 5,500; 1939, 7,500; 1940, 5,800; 1941, $5,600; 1942, 6,600; 1943, 6,250; 1944, 8,750. For earlier materials, see: Archives 1921 - 1932, File 118. General, 1933 - 1944. Correspondence, memos, reports, addenda. Brief annual financial statements by the ETF, 1937 - 1943. Report: Ezras Torah Fund by the CJFWF, July 1939. Correspondence: C. Adler, H.K. Buchman, Y.E. Henkin, J.C. Hyman, B. Lurie, E.M. Morrissey, I.H. Rosenberg.
Index Terms:
Adler, C.
Buchman, H.K.
Ezras Torah Fund (ETF)
Financial
Henkin, Y.E.
Hyman, J.C.
Lurie, B.
Morrissey, E.M.
Rabbis
Rosenberg, I.H.
Union of Orthodox Rabbis of the U.S. and Canada
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Record Group 3.5: Emigration
Series 1: Emigration: General
Correspondence, memos, reports, addenda.
File 363: Emigration: General, 1938 - 1940
The JDC-HICEM Conference on the German Situation and Emigration 12/14/38 and 12/15/38. Summary of JDC Migration Conf. 8/22/39 - 8/23/39 and a general resume of the discussions, 8/22/39 - 8/24/39; also see below: File 367, transcript of Migration Conference 8/22/39 - 8/23/39. Reports and Memos: Emigration through Jewish Organizations in 1938, 3/17/39. The JDC spent $2,366,000 in 1939 for emigration transportation, 6/6/40. Fin. status of Rosenwald Fund for Special Migration, 10/30/40. Transmigration Service, Activities Involved and Relationships to the HICEM, the HIAS and the NRS, by Irwin Rosen, undated, (Nov. 1940). Discussions of a range of emigration problems: 8/31/39, 9/1/39, 6/12/40, 10/26/40, Oct. 1940, 11/28/40, 12/16/40. Correspondence: C. Adler, P. Baerwald, J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt, I. Rosen, M.C. Troper.
Index Terms:
Adler, C.
Baerwald, P.
Emigration
HIAS-ICA Emigration Association (HICEM)
Hebrew Sheltering and Immigrant Aid Society (HIAS)
Hyman, J.C.
JDC Migration Conference
Leavitt, M.A.
National Refugee Service (NRS)
Rosen, I.
Troper, M.C.
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File 364: Emigration: General, 1941 January - June
The JDC spent $2,229,000 in 1940 for emigration transportation, 1/24/41. Discussions of a range of emigration problems: 4/8/41(2), 4/28/41, 6/2/41, 6/11/41(2), 6/16/41, 6/19/41, 6/20/41 6/24/41 memo, 6/25/41, 6/26/41 memo, 6/30/41. Correspondence: J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt, E.M. Morrissey, M.C. Troper.
Index Terms:
Emigration
Hyman, J.C.
Leavitt, M.A.
Morrissey, E.M.
Troper, M.C.
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File 365: Emigration: General, 1941 July-December
Emigration from Germany and German-Dominated Countries Since 1933, 7/15/41. Memos to the JDC Emig. Committee by M.A. Leavitt, 8/4/41, 8/7/41, 8/14/41, 8/22/41, 10/2/41. Discussions of a range of emigration problems: May 1941, 6/2/41, 7/19/41, Leavitt to Joseph, 8/1/41 Berliner to Troper, 9/2/41, 9/15/41, 9/19/41-9/25/41(2), 10/11/41, 10/24/41 memo, 10/31/41 Leavitt to Tarial, 11/5/41, 11/13/41. Lists of sailings in 1941: Europe, Dec. 1941, Japan, 1/22/41. Correspondence: C.S. Berliner, F.H. Block, J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt, C. Razovsky, R.H. Reyher, J.J. Schwartz, M.C. Troper, E.M.M. Warburg.
Index Terms:
Berliner, C.S.
Block, F.H.
Emigration
Europe
Hyman, J.C.
JDC Emigration Committee
Japan
Leavitt, M.A.
Razovsky, C.
Reyher, R.H.
Schwartz, J.J.
Troper, M.C.
Warburg, E.M.M.
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File 366: Emigration, General, 1942 - 1944
Lisbon - N.Y. Telephone conversations on emigration problems: 1/4/42, 1/10/42, 1/21/42, 2/10/42, 2/16/42, 2/19/42 2/26/42, 3/5/42, 3/18/42, 3/21/42, 4/14/42, 4/21/42, 5/8/42, 5/12/42. Discussions of a range of emigration problems: 1/27/42, 4/20/42, 5/7/42, 7/7/42, 5/12/43, 4/10/44. Statistical Tables: List of Boats Sailed from Europe Arranged by JDC Lisbon, 6/29/42. Jewish Emigration from Germany 1/1/33-12/2/41 and from Austria 3/15/38 - 12/7/41, attachment to 11/19/42. JDC Assisted Jewish Emigration April 1933 - 12/31/42, attachment to 1/25/43. Correspondence: I.L. Asofsky, P. Baerwald, J.C. Hyman, H. Katzki, M.A. Leavitt, E.M. Morrissey, R.B. Resnick, E.M.M. Warburg.
Index Terms:
Asofsky, I.L.
Austria
Baerwald, P.
Emigration
Germany
Hyman, J.C.
Katzki, H.
Leavitt, M.A.
Lisbon
List
Morrissey, E.M.
New York
Resnick, R.B.
Warburg, E.M.M.
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Series 2: Emigration: Sailings
Following the outbreak of W.W. II, Trans-Atlantic shipping space began to command premium prices, on the crest of soaring demand. It prompted the JDC to begin the purchase en-bloc of all or most of the passenger space on crossings of several trans-Atlantic vessels, e.g. SS Guinea, SS Mouzinho, SS Nyassa and SS Serpa Pinta, most notably. In turn, the JDC allotted blocks of tickets to organizations and emigration committees that cooperated with it. These organizations chose the individual emigrants, and the JDC took no part in the selection. But in making these arrangements, the JDC did shoulder grave financial risks, in the event the sailings were canceled on grounds beyond its control. (Note: The 6/10/41 sailing of the SS Mouzinho required a JDC guarantee of $180,000, a second one two months later of $260,000 and a Jan. 1944 sailing of the SS Nyassa from Lishbon to Haifa of $460,000.) But had the JDC held back, various steamship companies and entrepreneurs were ever-ready to sell passage at panic prices, and to leave thousands of refugees stranded in wartime Europe. Moreover, a mere one-third of the refugees from Germany and Austria made their emigration arrangements via established Jewish agencies, aided by the JDC. The others made their own private arrangements, and after the outbreak of war, too many fell into the hands of unscrupulous promoters who booked them on unseaworthy tubs and sold them invalid visas to overseas lands. Disaster often followed, and the JDC was called upon over and over to rush to the rescue even though it had sounded warnings against the very sailings in the first instance. The harrowing cases of the SS St. Louis and the SS Cabo de Buena Esperanza (Oct.-Nov. 1941) riveted worldwide attention. In those instances, the JDC did contrive to find countries of abode for the passengers, but costs ran very high. Other vessels, e.g. the notorious SS Struma, SS Navemar, and SS Mefkure were labeled "floating concentration camps" and calls for aid reached the JDC only after they were at sea or were denied landing privileges in sanctuary countries. For lists of refugee children arriving on various sailings during W.W. II, see below: Files 233-239. 343-345, 589.
Index Terms:
Emigration
Financial
Refugees
SS Cabo de Buena Esperanza
SS Guinea
SS Mefkure
SS Mouzinho
SS Navemar
SS Nyassa
SS Serpa Pinta
SS St. Louis
SS Struma
Sailings
War
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File 369: SS Almirante Alexandrino to SS Exochorda
SS Almirante Alexandrino: Lisbon to South America, 4/5/41 - Final Statement. SS Alsina: See SS Cabo de Buena Esperanza. SS Andalusia Star: Lisbon to South America, Nov. 1941 - Six Polish refugees aboard were refused permission to land in Brazil or Argentina. On the return trip to Europe five passengers got permission to land in England; the sixth had literally jumped ship, by swimming ashore during a brief stopover at Montevideo. SS Angola: Lisbon, 3/3/41 - Final Statement. SS Bella Citta: For lists of arrivals in Istanbul, 4/24/44, see: Turkey, File 1,052, 9/15/44. SS Cabo de Buena Esperanza: See Files 370-372. SS Cabo de Hornos (CH): See SS Cabo de Buena Esperanza (CBE). SS Carvalho Araujo: Lisbon to U.S., 1941 - 1942 - Final statements for sailings of 3/25/41, 2/21/42, 11/2/42. Passenger List, 3/25/41. SS Ciudad de Sevilla: Lisbon to U.S., 1941 - Final statement of sailing on 5/15/41. SS Colonial: Lisbon to U.S., Cuba, 1941 - Final statements and passenger list sailing 11/11/41. SS Dora: In July 1940, the SS Dora was chartered by a group of 50 refugees to sail them across the Mediterranean from the vicinity of Marseilles to Casablanca. En route, the vessel was trapped in a battle between the British and the French fleets, whereupon the Dora was ordered to sail for Lisbon though it had no landing permit and the passengers had no Portuguese visas. Permission to land was ultimately granted and the refugees were interned. With JDC aid, 26 passengers obtained visas to overseas lands and were permitted to sail, and 3 joined the crew of the SS Dora. The remaining 21 persons were ultimately set free with JDC aid. Correspondence: J. Bernstein, A. d'Esaguy. M.A. Leavitt, I. Rosen, J.J. Schwartz. SS Evangeline: Passenger list of Trinidad - New York sailing, 6/13/41. SS Excalibur: Lisbon to U.S., 1941 - Final statements of sailings on 2/28/41, 3/28/41, 4/25/41, 5/23/41. Passenger list: 3/28/41. SS Exeter: Lisbon to U.S., 1941 - Final siatements of sailings on 2/21/41, 3/27/41, 4/18/41, 5/19/41, 6/14/41. Passenger lists: 11/6/40, 3/27/41, 5/19/41, 6/14/41. SS Exochorda: Passenger list, Lisbon - New York sailing, 9/18/40.
Index Terms:
Bernstein, J.
Emigration
Leavitt, M.A.
Lisbon
List
Refugees
Rosen, I.
SS Almirante Alexandrino
SS Alsina
SS Andalusia Star
SS Angola
SS Baje
SS Bella Citta
SS Cabo de Buena Esperanza
SS Cabo de Hornos (CH)
SS Carvalho Araujo
SS Ciudad de Sevilla
SS Colonial
SS Dora
SS Evangeline
SS Excalibur
SS Exeter
SS Exochorda
Schwartz, J.J.
South America
d'Esaguy, A.
>>Return to Top
File 370: SS Cabo de Buena Esperanza (CBE) and SS Cabo de Hornos (CH), 1941
The CBE and the CH carried Nazi refugees from Lisbon to South American on a number of voyages between 1940-1943. The Lisbon - Buenos Aires run in Oct. -Nov. 1941 was the most dramatic and it sparked world-wide attention. The odyssey began in Jan. 1941 when a shipload of Nazi refugees with valid Brazilian visas sailed from Marseilles to Brazil on the SS Alsina. At Dakar, the first stop, the Vichy Government revoked permission for the sailing, and for the next 41/2 months, in the tropical heat, the refugees were confined in the hold of the ship as it lay at anchor. In June, they were shipped to Casablanca and incarcerated in a concentration camp. Early in October, some forty Alsina passengers were released in a body and put aboard the Spanish vessel, Cabo de Buena Esperanza (CBE), bound for Brazil. The original visas to Brazil had expired in the meantime, but the Brazilian consul in Casablanca had revalidated them. When the ship reached Rio de Janeiro, the Brazilian authorities disavowed the visas and refused to allow the refugees ashore. The Bueno Esperanza then sailed on to Buenos Aires. Following emergency efforts by the JDC, the Argentine Government permitted the refugees to debark temporarily, but confined them to its immigrant station. The JDC of course had to guarantee the maintenance costs during the stopover. The CBE returned to Europe in due course. But after a short interval, the Argentine Gov't reversed itself and deported the refugees aboard a sister-ship, the Cabo de Hornos (CH) which was Europe-bound. In the meantime, Paragayan visas had been obtained for the refugees, but the Argentine Gov't refused to allow them to cross Buenos Aires so as to take the river boat to Paraguay. The CH had brought from Europe some fifty more one-time Alsina passengers. Permission to land was denied those persons as well, first by Brazil and now by Argentina. The two groups were now headed back to Europe aboard the CH unless a sanctuary could be found. At the very last instant, On Nov. 19, 1941, the Dutch Government in Exile agreed to let the 83 refugees land in Curacao for 90 days, on the strength of an agreement with the JDC. The JDC shouldered responsibility for the costs of maintenance and for placing the refugees in permanent homes elsewhere. Countries of refuge in wartime were in short supply and Files 341-342 deal with the wide-ranging efforts to find one on the part of the JDC. When the 90-day deadline had expired, about 50 refugees still remained in residence. The Dutch Gov't reminded the JDC from time to time that Dutch refugees were clamoring to come to Curacao, but that the refugees were using the facilities that were needed. It never pressed matters to the critical point, however, and some nineteen refugees remained in residence at Curacao when the war ended. Milton H.M. Maduro, a local Jewish banker, served as the unpaid JDC representative in Curacao from the arrival of the refugees on 11/19/41, until the end of the war. Rabbi I.J. Cardozo headed the local relief committee, Joodsch Hulp-Comite, throughout the war. The Comite provided the refugees with supplementary assistance at various times. Explanation for the rebuffs to the refugees by the South American Gov't, 12/23/41 Beckelman to JDC. List of passengers on the CH, attachment to 11/28/41. On the status of the refugees in Curacao, 11/19/41, JDC Press Release, 11/27/41 Leavitt to Maduro, 12/22/41 Warburg to Emerson and attachment, 12/24/41 Leavitt to Zivien. Correspondence: M.W. Beckelman, F.W. Borchardt, I.J. Cardozo, H. Emerson, A. Hirsch, J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt, M.H.M. Maduro, P.M. Malin, B. Mellibovsky, M. Speyer, G.L. Warren, E.M.M. Warburg.
Index Terms:
Beckelman, M.W.
Borchardt, F.W.
Cardozo, I.J.
Curacao
Emerson, H.
Emigration
Hirsch, A.
Hyman, J.C.
Leavitt, M.A.
List
Maduro, M.H.M.
Malin, P.M.
Mellibovsky, B.
Refugees
Speyer, M.
Warburg, E.M.M.
Warren, G.L.
>>Return to Top
File 371: SS Cabo de Buena Esperanza (CBE) and SS Cabo de Hornos (CH), 1942 - 1946; 1949
The CBE and the CH carried Nazi refugees from Lisbon to South American on a number of voyages between 1940-1943. The Lisbon - Buenos Aires run in Oct. -Nov. 1941 was the most dramatic and it sparked world-wide attention. The odyssey began in Jan. 1941 when a shipload of Nazi refugees with valid Brazilian visas sailed from Marseilles to Brazil on the SS Alsina. At Dakar, the first stop, the Vichy Government revoked permission for the sailing, and for the next 41/2 months, in the tropical heat, the refugees were confined in the hold of the ship as it lay at anchor. In June, they were shipped to Casablanca and incarcerated in a concentration camp. Early in October, some forty Alsina passengers were released in a body and put aboard the Spanish vessel, Cabo de Buena Esperanza (CBE), bound for Brazil. The original visas to Brazil had expired in the meantime, but the Brazilian consul in Casablanca had revalidated them. When the ship reached Rio de Janeiro, the Brazilian authorities disavowed the visas and refused to allow the refugees ashore. The Bueno Esperanza then sailed on to Buenos Aires. Following emergency efforts by the JDC, the Argentine Government permitted the refugees to debark temporarily, but confined them to its immigrant station. The JDC of course had to guarantee the maintenance costs during the stopover. The CBE returned to Europe in due course. But after a short interval, the Argentine Gov't reversed itself and deported the refugees aboard a sister-ship, the Cabo de Hornos (CH) which was Europe-bound. In the meantime, Paragayan visas had been obtained for the refugees, but the Argentine Gov't refused to allow them to cross Buenos Aires so as to take the river boat to Paraguay. The CH had brought from Europe some fifty more one-time Alsina passengers. Permission to land was denied those persons as well, first by Brazil and now by Argentina. The two groups were now headed back to Europe aboard the CH unless a sanctuary could be found. At the very last instant, On Nov. 19, 1941, the Dutch Government in Exile agreed to let the 83 refugees land in Curacao for 90 days, on the strength of an agreement with the JDC. The JDC shouldered responsibility for the costs of maintenance and for placing the refugees in permanent homes elsewhere. Countries of refuge in wartime were in short supply and Files 341-342 deal with the wide-ranging efforts to find one on the part of the JDC. When the 90-day deadline had expired, about 50 refugees still remained in residence. The Dutch Gov't reminded the JDC from time to time that Dutch refugees were clamoring to come to Curacao, but that the refugees were using the facilities that were needed. It never pressed matters to the critical point, however, and some nineteen refugees remained in residence at Curacao when the war ended. Milton H.M. Maduro, a local Jewish banker, served as the unpaid JDC representative in Curacao from the arrival of the refugees on 11/19/41, until the end of the war. Rabbi I.J. Cardozo headed the local relief committee, Joodsch Hulp-Comite, throughout the war. The Comite provided the refugees with supplementary assistance at various times. On the status of the refugees in Curacao, 3/20/42 Cardozo to the JDC, 5/25/42, 5/26/42, 9/3/42, 9/9/42 G. Warren to A. Warren, 10/13/42, 1/6/43 Maduro to Leavitt, 3/22/43, 4/2/43 and attachments, 6/1/43 Maduro to Leavitt, 7/8/43, 7/9/43 Pilpel to Maduro, 8/9/43(2), 8/18/43(2), 4/3/44 Cardozo to Pilpel, 4/18/44 Maduro to Leavitt. Correspondence: I.J. Cardozo, J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt, M.H.M. Maduro, R. Pilpel, L.H. Sobel, G.L. Warren.
Index Terms:
Cardozo, I.J.
Curacao
Emigration
Hyman, J.C.
Leavitt, M.A.
Maduro, M.H.M.
Pilpel, R.
Refugees
Sobel, L.H.
Warren, G.L.
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File 372: SS Cabo de Buena Esperanza (CBE) and SS Cabo de Hornos (CH), Other Sailings
The CBE and the CH carried Nazi refugees from Lisbon to South American on a number of voyages between 1940-1943. The Lisbon - Buenos Aires run in Oct. -Nov. 1941 was the most dramatic and it sparked world-wide attention. The odyssey began in Jan. 1941 when a shipload of Nazi refugees with valid Brazilian visas sailed from Marseilles to Brazil on the SS Alsina. At Dakar, the first stop, the Vichy Government revoked permission for the sailing, and for the next 41/2 months, in the tropical heat, the refugees were confined in the hold of the ship as it lay at anchor. In June, they were shipped to Casablanca and incarcerated in a concentration camp. Early in October, some forty Alsina passengers were released in a body and put aboard the Spanish vessel, Cabo de Buena Esperanza (CBE), bound for Brazil. The original visas to Brazil had expired in the meantime, but the Brazilian consul in Casablanca had revalidated them. When the ship reached Rio de Janeiro, the Brazilian authorities disavowed the visas and refused to allow the refugees ashore. The Bueno Esperanza then sailed on to Buenos Aires. Following emergency efforts by the JDC, the Argentine Government permitted the refugees to debark temporarily, but confined them to its immigrant station. The JDC of course had to guarantee the maintenance costs during the stopover. The CBE returned to Europe in due course. But after a short interval, the Argentine Gov't reversed itself and deported the refugees aboard a sister-ship, the Cabo de Hornos (CH) which was Europe-bound. In the meantime, Paragayan visas had been obtained for the refugees, but the Argentine Gov't refused to allow them to cross Buenos Aires so as to take the river boat to Paraguay. The CH had brought from Europe some fifty more one-time Alsina passengers. Permission to land was denied those persons as well, first by Brazil and now by Argentina. The two groups were now headed back to Europe aboard the CH unless a sanctuary could be found. At the very last instant, On Nov. 19, 1941, the Dutch Government in Exile agreed to let the 83 refugees land in Curacao for 90 days, on the strength of an agreement with the JDC. The JDC shouldered responsibility for the costs of maintenance and for placing the refugees in permanent homes elsewhere. Countries of refuge in wartime were in short supply and Files 341-342 deal with the wide-ranging efforts to find one on the part of the JDC. When the 90-day deadline had expired, about 50 refugees still remained in residence. The Dutch Gov't reminded the JDC from time to time that Dutch refugees were clamoring to come to Curacao, but that the refugees were using the facilities that were needed. It never pressed matters to the critical point, however, and some nineteen refugees remained in residence at Curacao when the war ended. Milton H.M. Maduro, a local Jewish banker, served as the unpaid JDC representative in Curacao from the arrival of the refugees on 11/19/41, until the end of the war. Rabbi I.J. Cardozo headed the local relief committee, Joodsch Hulp-Comite, throughout the war. The Comite provided the refugees with supplementary assistance at various times. SS Cabo de Hornos: 10/5/40, 11/5/40, 12/3/40, 2/13/41, 4/27/41, Dec. 1942, Jan. 1943. SS Cabo de Buena Esperanza: 11/4/40, 3/12/41, 4/9/41, 5/21/41, 11/22/41, Feb. 1942, 10/3/42, Jan. 1943, May 1943. Passenger lists: 11/4/40, 3/12/41, 5/21/41, Feb. 1942. The sailing of Feb. 1942 left Lisbon for South America with seven refugees aboard bearing visas issued by the Venezuelan consul in Oran. The case threatened to become a replay of the Alsina affair. First the Venezuelan Gov't disavowed the visas of its consul and then the Curacao Gov't refused a temporary landing permit until the Alsina refugees in residence, who had greatly overstayed their temporary permit, were evacuated to countries of permanent abode. At the last moment, the Argentina Gov't issued a temporary landing permit, valid until the sailing of the next ship for Europe. The permit was based on the customary JDC guarantee of maintenance costs. In the interval, happily, HICEM Buenos Aires succeeding in obtaining visas for all seven refugees to Ecuador and Peru, and the impasse was resolved. Correspondence: J. Bernstein, M.H.L. Maduro, B. Mellibovsky, R. Pilpel.
Index Terms:
Bernstein, J.
Emigration
List
Maduro, M.H.L.
Mellibovsky, B.
Pilpel, R.
Refugees
SS Cabo de Buena Esperanza
SS Cabo de Hornos
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File 373: SS Guinea
The JDC financed eight sailings on the SS Guinea - seven from Lisbon to New York in 1941 -42, and the eighth from Lisbon to Haifa in 1944. On the Lisbon - New York run, all but the last sailing made stopovers in Cuba. That one stopped over in Mexico instead. In April 1942, Cuba closed its doors to refugees. The SS Guinea was on the high seas at the time but upon reaching its stopover port in Cuba, the refugees with Cuban visas were interned, and were then released only after a delay of 6-7 months. Correspondence, reports, addenda. Final statements of sailings on: 4/1/41, 5/10/41, 7/19/41, 12/18/41, 3/16/42, 4/9/42, 5/18/42, 10/23/44. Passenger lists for sailings: 12/18/41, 3/16/42, 4/9/42, 5/18/42, 10/23/44. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, C.H. Jordan, M.A. Leavitt, R. Pilpel.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, P.
Cuba
Emigration
Jordan, C.H.
Leavitt, M.A.
List
Pilpel, R.
Refugees
SS Guinea
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File 374: SS Isla de Teneriffe to SS Motomara
SS Isla de Teneriffe: Spain to Cuba, and West Coast of S.A., 11/1/41. SS Kazbek: For list of arrivals in Istanbul 8/8/44, see: Turkey, File 1,052, 9/15/44. SS Laurenzo Marques: Lisbon to N.Y., 1/27/41, 6/26/44. SS Magallanes: Lisbon to Cuba and N.Y., 1941-1942 - Statements of sailings on 1/11/41, 3/6/41, 4/15/41, August 1941, Sept. 1942. Passenger lists: 3/6/41, Aug. 1941, Sept. 1942. SS Marques de Comillas: Spain to Cuba and N.Y., 1941-1942 - Statements of sailings on 2/22/41, 4/3/41, 5/22/41, 8/21/41, 11/14/42. Passenger lists: 5/22/41, 11/14/42. SS Maritza: For lists of arrivals in Istanbul, 4/8/44, 5/19/44, see: Turkey, File 1,052, 9/15/44. SS Mefkure: Constanza, Rumania to Istanbul, Turkey, 8/3/44 - The SS Mefkure, a 40 ton motorboat, sailed from Constanza on 8/3/44 bearing some 350 Jewish refugees. On 8/5/44 the SS Mefkure was sunk in the Black Sea by a German submarine and all but five refugees were drowned. A collection of photographs of 19 children who went down with the vessel is included. SS Milka: For lists of arrivals in Istanbul, 3/31/44, 4/28/44, see: Turkey, File 1,052, 9/15/44. SS Motomare: Bilboa to N.Y., 6/15/41
Index Terms:
Emigration
List
SS Isla de Teneriffe
SS Kazbek
SS Laurenzo Marques
SS Magallanes
SS Maritza
SS Marques de Comillas
SS Mefkure
SS Milka
SS Motomare
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File 375: SS Mouzinho
Sailings: Lisbon-New York, 1941 The JDC purchased en-bloc all of the passenger accommodations on the sailings of 6/10/41 and 8/20/41, the first at a cost of $180,000 and the second at $260,000. In turn, it allotted blocks of tickets to organizations and emigration committees cooperating with it. List of refugee passengers on 6/10/41 sailing, attachment to JDC memo, 6/19/41. JDC Press Release on the arrival of the 8/20/41 sailing, 8/29/41. Correspondence: J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt, R. Pilpel, J.J. Schwartz, M.C. Troper.
Index Terms:
Emigration
Hyman, J.C.
Leavitt, M.A.
List
Pilpel, R.
Refugees
SS Mouzinho
Schwartz, J.J.
Troper, M.C.
>>Return to Top
File 376: SS Navemar
Sailing: Seville and Lisbon to Cuba and N.Y., 8/7/41 On Sept. 5, 1941, the SS Navemar, a Spanish 5,500 ton freighter, equipped with normal accommodations for 28 passengers, docked in Cuba with over 1,100 refugees. They had paid panic prices for their tickets. Facilities on the vessel were so criminally inadequate and the overcrowding so dangerous that it was appropriately labeled "a flowing Gurs" (Gurs = a devishly overcrowded concentration camp in France). Some 330 passengers disembarked in Cuba, and the remaining 777 in N.Y. The Navemar, following a long and incredible voyage, was among the last refugee bearing transports from Lisbon to reach Cuba and the U.S. before Pearl Harbor. For summary accounts of the sailing, see below: 9/19/41 attachment and 10/21/41. Annals of the voyage: 8/14/41 memo, 8/18/41, 8/25/41, 9/1/41, 9/3/41, 9/4/41 Siegel to Pilpel, 9/5/41(2), 9/6/41 Pilpel File Notes (2), 9/8/41, 9/9/41(3) Siegel to Pilpel, 9/10/41, 9/12/41 Pilpel to Blech, 9/12/41 news clipping, 9/15/41 attachment, 9/19/41 news clipping, 9/19/41 Adlerstein to Hyman and attachment, 9/24/41, 10/21/41, 1/28/42, 4/30/42 and attachments. List of 330 passengers bound for Cuba, 9/9/41 attachment. A complete passenger list was never provided. Correspondence: M.A. Leavitt, R. Pilpel, J.J. Schwartz, N. Siegel.
Index Terms:
Cuba
Emigration
Leavitt, M.A.
Lisbon
List
New York
Pilpel, R.
Refugees
SS Navemar
Schwartz, J.J.
Siegel, N.
>>Return to Top
File 377: SS Nyassa
Sailings: Lisbon-New York and other ports, 1941-1944 Lisbon-Haifa, 1944 The SS Nyassa carried up to 700-800 passengers on many of its voyages. Usually, it plied between Lisbon, North Africa and the U.S., but it sailed to other lands as well when occasion warranted. In Jan. 1944, the JDC arranged for a special run to carry some 800 Jewish refugees from Portugal and Spain to Palestine. For that voyage, the JDC paid $460,000, virtually the entire cost. In all, the JDC financed or shared in the financing of eight or more sailings. Sailings-4/15/41, 5/25/41: Passenger list. 7/21/41: JDC Press Release 8/8/41, press clipping 9/6/41. 9/19/41: Reception of refugee passengers in Cuba, 9/24/41, partial passenger list, 10/25/41. 11/12/41: Passenger list, 11/13/41. 1/28/42: Passenger list, July 1942, JDC Press Release, 7/29/42, fin. statement 12/10/42. April 1943: Partial passenger list. 6/19/43: Passenger lists, 7/3/43. 1/23/44: Passenger list, 1/25/44, JDC Press Release, 1/25/44. 9/29/44: Passenger list. Correspondence: C.H. Jordan, M.A. Leavitt, J.J. Schwartz, M. Siegel.
Index Terms:
Emigration
Haifa
Jordan, C.H.
Leavitt, M.A.
Lisbon
List
New York
Palestine
Portugal
SS Nyassa
Sailings
Schwartz, J.J.
Siegel, M.
Spain
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File 378: SS St. Louis, General, May 9 - June 15, 1939
Sailing: Hamburg-Havana, May 1939. The SS St. Louis, bearing 907 refugees, sailed from Hamburg on 5/15/39 and reached Havana on 5/27/39. The refugees all possessed accredited landing certificates, but the Cuban Gov't refused to honor them. Negotiations to permit the landing, conducted between the JDC and the Cuban Gov't, ended in failure, and so did the last-ditch efforts by the JDC to find a haven elsewhere in the Americas. After 12 days of waiting, the St. Louis sailed back to Hamburg with all its passengers. While the St. Louis was on the high seas, the JDC, in close cooperation with other groups, won the consent of the Governments of Holland, Belgium, England and France to accept the refugees (England 288, France 225, Belgium 213, Holland 181) until homes in other countries could be found. The JDC posted a cash guarantee of $500,000 ($500 per refugee), so as to make the arrangement feasible, and to cover upkeep costs wherever necessary. The Hamburg-American Line (HAPAG) had undertaken the voyage to Havana on its own initiative, and Jewish organizations had taken no part in the arrangements. The JDC appeared on the scene only after the Cuban Government had disowned its own permits. The JDC had tendered the Cuban Government a cash guarantee of $500,000 to permit the landing, but the offer was brushed aside. The JDC, via the NRS, called upon relatives of the St. Louis refugees to make cash deposits of $500 per beneficiary, so as to relieve it of the burden of support, wherever possible, A large number of deposits were made. A great part of the materials in the General files below, and dated 1940 and subsequently, deal with later efforts by relatives to gain a return of their deposits, in whole or in part. In England, the JDC continued to support the last of the St. Louis refugees until the close of 1948, but in France, Belgium and Holland, the Nazi occupation reduced the channels of outside aid and ultimately brought it to a standstill. After the occupation of France, some St. Louis refugees in that country escaped to Switzerland and the JDC extended its guarantee to cover their sojourn there. For materials on "disorganized" and panic emigration, see: File 666. Developments in re SS St. Louis: 5/27/39, 5/29/39(2), 6/1/39, 6/2/39, 6/8/39 Cable Bru to Rosenberg, 6/9/39 draft JDC statement, 6/10/39 telephone messages Troper (3), 6/11/39 telephone messages Baerwald (2), 6/12/39 Hyman to Lazaron, 6/12/39 Van Tijn to Troper, 6/12/39 memo of discussions, 6/13/39 Baerwald to Hyman, 6/13/39 Hyman to Danciger, 6/14/39 JTA dispatch, 6/15/39 JDC Statements (2), 6/15/39 JDC SubCommittee for Refugee Aid. JDC Press Releases: 6/3/39, 6/7/39, 6/8/39, 6/12/39, 6/13/39 (2), 6/15/39. Also see below: Files 385, 386 Rep. 6/27/39. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, S.M. Bressler, J.P. Chamberlain, I.E. Goldwasser, M. Gottschalk, J.C. Hyman, A.H. Kates, H. Katzki, M.S. Lazaron, J.N. Rosenberg, M.C. Troper, G. Van Tijn.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, P.
Bressler, S.M.
Chamberlain, J.P.
Emigration
Goldwasser, I.E.
Gottschalk, M.
Hyman, J.C.
JDC Subcommittee for Refugee Aid
Kates, A.H.
Katzki, H.
Lazaron, M.S.
Rosenberg, J.N.
SS St. Louis
Troper, M.C.
Van Tijn, G.
>>Return to Top
File 379: SS St. Louis, General, 1939 June 16 - December 31
Sailing: Hamburg-Havana, May 1939. The SS St. Louis, bearing 907 refugees, sailed from Hamburg on 5/15/39 and reached Havana on 5/27/39. The refugees all possessed accredited landing certificates, but the Cuban Gov't refused to honor them. Negotiations to permit the landing, conducted between the JDC and the Cuban Gov't, ended in failure, and so did the last-ditch efforts by the JDC to find a haven elsewhere in the Americas. After 12 days of waiting, the St. Louis sailed back to Hamburg with all its passengers. While the St. Louis was on the high seas, the JDC, in close cooperation with other groups, won the consent of the Governments of Holland, Belgium, England and France to accept the refugees (England 288, France 225, Belgium 213, Holland 181) until homes in other countries could be found. The JDC posted a cash guarantee of $500,000 ($500 per refugee), so as to make the arrangement feasible, and to cover upkeep costs wherever necessary. The Hamburg-American Line (HAPAG) had undertaken the voyage to Havana on its own initiative, and Jewish organizations had taken no part in the arrangements. The JDC appeared on the scene only after the Cuban Government had disowned its own permits. The JDC had tendered the Cuban Government a cash guarantee of $500,000 to permit the landing, but the offer was brushed aside. The JDC, via the NRS, called upon relatives of the St. Louis refugees to make cash deposits of $500 per beneficiary, so as to relieve it of the burden of support, wherever possible, A large number of deposits were made. A great part of the materials in the General files below, and dated 1940 and subsequently, deal with later efforts by relatives to gain a return of their deposits, in whole or in part. In England, the JDC continued to support the last of the St. Louis refugees until the close of 1948, but in France, Belgium and Holland, the Nazi occupation reduced the channels of outside aid and ultimately brought it to a standstill. After the occupation of France, some St. Louis refugees in that country escaped to Switzerland and the JDC extended its guarantee to cover their sojourn there. For materials on "disorganized" and panic emigration, see: File 666. Developments in re SS St. Louis: 6/21/39, 6/23/39 Hyman to Troper, 6/26/36 Hyman to Meyer, 6/28/39 Katzki to Foster, 7/7/39 Hyman to Straus, 7/15/39, 7/21/39 Katzki memo. Correspondence: M. Ezekiel, I.E. Goldwasser, P.E. Hoffman, J.C. Hyman, H. Katzki, S.L. Maduro, E.M. Morrissey, C. Razovsky, A. Schroeder, M.C. Troper.
Index Terms:
Emigration
Ezekiel, M.
Goldwasser, I.E.
Hoffman, P.E.
Hyman, J.C.
Katzki, H.
Maduro, S.L.
Morrissey, E.M.
Razovsky, C.
SS St. Louis
Schroeder, A.
Troper, A.
>>Return to Top
File 380: SS St. Louis, General, 1940 January - June
Sailing: Hamburg-Havana, May 1939. The SS St. Louis, bearing 907 refugees, sailed from Hamburg on 5/15/39 and reached Havana on 5/27/39. The refugees all possessed accredited landing certificates, but the Cuban Gov't refused to honor them. Negotiations to permit the landing, conducted between the JDC and the Cuban Gov't, ended in failure, and so did the last-ditch efforts by the JDC to find a haven elsewhere in the Americas. After 12 days of waiting, the St. Louis sailed back to Hamburg with all its passengers. While the St. Louis was on the high seas, the JDC, in close cooperation with other groups, won the consent of the Governments of Holland, Belgium, England and France to accept the refugees (England 288, France 225, Belgium 213, Holland 181) until homes in other countries could be found. The JDC posted a cash guarantee of $500,000 ($500 per refugee), so as to make the arrangement feasible, and to cover upkeep costs wherever necessary. The Hamburg-American Line (HAPAG) had undertaken the voyage to Havana on its own initiative, and Jewish organizations had taken no part in the arrangements. The JDC appeared on the scene only after the Cuban Government had disowned its own permits. The JDC had tendered the Cuban Government a cash guarantee of $500,000 to permit the landing, but the offer was brushed aside. The JDC, via the NRS, called upon relatives of the St. Louis refugees to make cash deposits of $500 per beneficiary, so as to relieve it of the burden of support, wherever possible, A large number of deposits were made. A great part of the materials in the General files below, and dated 1940 and subsequently, deal with later efforts by relatives to gain a return of their deposits, in whole or in part. In England, the JDC continued to support the last of the St. Louis refugees until the close of 1948, but in France, Belgium and Holland, the Nazi occupation reduced the channels of outside aid and ultimately brought it to a standstill. After the occupation of France, some St. Louis refugees in that country escaped to Switzerland and the JDC extended its guarantee to cover their sojourn there. For materials on "disorganized" and panic emigration, see: File 666. Report on St. Louis Refugees by E. Rosen. 3/4/40. Correspondence: P.E. Hoffman, A. Mayerson, R. Pilpel, I. Rosen, M.C. Troper.
Index Terms:
Emigration
Hoffman, P.E.
Mayerson, A.
Pilpel, R.
Refugees
Rosen, I.
SS St. Louis
Troper, M.C.
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File 381: SS St. Louis, General, July 1940 - 1948; 1981
Sailing: Hamburg-Havana, May 1939. The SS St. Louis, bearing 907 refugees, sailed from Hamburg on 5/15/39 and reached Havana on 5/27/39. The refugees all possessed accredited landing certificates, but the Cuban Gov't refused to honor them. Negotiations to permit the landing, conducted between the JDC and the Cuban Gov't, ended in failure, and so did the last-ditch efforts by the JDC to find a haven elsewhere in the Americas. After 12 days of waiting, the St. Louis sailed back to Hamburg with all its passengers. While the St. Louis was on the high seas, the JDC, in close cooperation with other groups, won the consent of the Governments of Holland, Belgium, England and France to accept the refugees (England 288, France 225, Belgium 213, Holland 181) until homes in other countries could be found. The JDC posted a cash guarantee of $500,000 ($500 per refugee), so as to make the arrangement feasible, and to cover upkeep costs wherever necessary. The Hamburg-American Line (HAPAG) had undertaken the voyage to Havana on its own initiative, and Jewish organizations had taken no part in the arrangements. The JDC appeared on the scene only after the Cuban Government had disowned its own permits. The JDC had tendered the Cuban Government a cash guarantee of $500,000 to permit the landing, but the offer was brushed aside. The JDC, via the NRS, called upon relatives of the St. Louis refugees to make cash deposits of $500 per beneficiary, so as to relieve it of the burden of support, wherever possible, A large number of deposits were made. A great part of the materials in the General files below, and dated 1940 and subsequently, deal with later efforts by relatives to gain a return of their deposits, in whole or in part. In England, the JDC continued to support the last of the St. Louis refugees until the close of 1948, but in France, Belgium and Holland, the Nazi occupation reduced the channels of outside aid and ultimately brought it to a standstill. After the occupation of France, some St. Louis refugees in that country escaped to Switzerland and the JDC extended its guarantee to cover their sojourn there. For materials on "disorganized" and panic emigration, see: File 666. Developments in re SS St. Louis: 11/7/41, 2/11/42 attachment to 3/17/42, 3/2/42 attachment to 4/4/42, 3/16/44, 4/11/44, 2/19/48, 9/22/48. Correspondence: P.E. Hoffman, M.A. Leavitt, E.M. Morrissey, S. Shargo, S. Stephany, M.C. Troper.
Index Terms:
Emigration
Hoffman, P.E.
Leavitt, M.A.
Morrissey, E.M.
SS St. Louis
Shargo, S.
Stephany, S.
Troper, M.C.
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File 382: SS St. Louis, Baggage of Passengers, 1939 - 1942
Sailing: Hamburg-Havana, May 1939. The SS St. Louis, bearing 907 refugees, sailed from Hamburg on 5/15/39 and reached Havana on 5/27/39. The refugees all possessed accredited landing certificates, but the Cuban Gov't refused to honor them. Negotiations to permit the landing, conducted between the JDC and the Cuban Gov't, ended in failure, and so did the last-ditch efforts by the JDC to find a haven elsewhere in the Americas. After 12 days of waiting, the St. Louis sailed back to Hamburg with all its passengers. While the St. Louis was on the high seas, the JDC, in close cooperation with other groups, won the consent of the Governments of Holland, Belgium, England and France to accept the refugees (England 288, France 225, Belgium 213, Holland 181) until homes in other countries could be found. The JDC posted a cash guarantee of $500,000 ($500 per refugee), so as to make the arrangement feasible, and to cover upkeep costs wherever necessary. The Hamburg-American Line (HAPAG) had undertaken the voyage to Havana on its own initiative, and Jewish organizations had taken no part in the arrangements. The JDC appeared on the scene only after the Cuban Government had disowned its own permits. The JDC had tendered the Cuban Government a cash guarantee of $500,000 to permit the landing, but the offer was brushed aside. The JDC, via the NRS, called upon relatives of the St. Louis refugees to make cash deposits of $500 per beneficiary, so as to relieve it of the burden of support, wherever possible, A large number of deposits were made. A great part of the materials in the General files below, and dated 1940 and subsequently, deal with later efforts by relatives to gain a return of their deposits, in whole or in part. In England, the JDC continued to support the last of the St. Louis refugees until the close of 1948, but in France, Belgium and Holland, the Nazi occupation reduced the channels of outside aid and ultimately brought it to a standstill. After the occupation of France, some St. Louis refugees in that country escaped to Switzerland and the JDC extended its guarantee to cover their sojourn there. For materials on "disorganized" and panic emigration, see: File 666. The file materials pertain to lift vans and other stranded baggage belonging to St. Louis refugees that were stored in warehouses at various ports, but in Havana most notably. The reader is referred to the following materials especially: 12/7/39, 12/25/39, 3/3/40, 3/6/40, 1/31/41, 2/5/41(2), 2/7/41(2), 2/10/41, 2/13/41, 3/24/41, 2/26/42. Correspondence: M.D. Goldsmith, R. Pilpel, I. Rosen, J.J. Schwartz.
Index Terms:
Baggage
Emigration
Goldsmith, M.D.
Havana
Pilpel, R.
Refugees
Rosen, I.
SS St. Louis
Schwartz, J.J.
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File 383: SS St. Louis, Letters of Commendation
Sailing: Hamburg-Havana, May 1939. The SS St. Louis, bearing 907 refugees, sailed from Hamburg on 5/15/39 and reached Havana on 5/27/39. The refugees all possessed accredited landing certificates, but the Cuban Gov't refused to honor them. Negotiations to permit the landing, conducted between the JDC and the Cuban Gov't, ended in failure, and so did the last-ditch efforts by the JDC to find a haven elsewhere in the Americas. After 12 days of waiting, the St. Louis sailed back to Hamburg with all its passengers. While the St. Louis was on the high seas, the JDC, in close cooperation with other groups, won the consent of the Governments of Holland, Belgium, England and France to accept the refugees (England 288, France 225, Belgium 213, Holland 181) until homes in other countries could be found. The JDC posted a cash guarantee of $500,000 ($500 per refugee), so as to make the arrangement feasible, and to cover upkeep costs wherever necessary. The Hamburg-American Line (HAPAG) had undertaken the voyage to Havana on its own initiative, and Jewish organizations had taken no part in the arrangements. The JDC appeared on the scene only after the Cuban Government had disowned its own permits. The JDC had tendered the Cuban Government a cash guarantee of $500,000 to permit the landing, but the offer was brushed aside. The JDC, via the NRS, called upon relatives of the St. Louis refugees to make cash deposits of $500 per beneficiary, so as to relieve it of the burden of support, wherever possible, A large number of deposits were made. A great part of the materials in the General files below, and dated 1940 and subsequently, deal with later efforts by relatives to gain a return of their deposits, in whole or in part. In England, the JDC continued to support the last of the St. Louis refugees until the close of 1948, but in France, Belgium and Holland, the Nazi occupation reduced the channels of outside aid and ultimately brought it to a standstill. After the occupation of France, some St. Louis refugees in that country escaped to Switzerland and the JDC extended its guarantee to cover their sojourn there. For materials on "disorganized" and panic emigration, see: File 666. Letters of commendation to the JDC for the role it played in the rescue of the SS St. Louis refugees.
Index Terms:
Emigration
Refugees
SS St. Louis
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File 384: SS St. Louis, Passenger Lists
Sailing: Hamburg-Havana, May 1939. The SS St. Louis, bearing 907 refugees, sailed from Hamburg on 5/15/39 and reached Havana on 5/27/39. The refugees all possessed accredited landing certificates, but the Cuban Gov't refused to honor them. Negotiations to permit the landing, conducted between the JDC and the Cuban Gov't, ended in failure, and so did the last-ditch efforts by the JDC to find a haven elsewhere in the Americas. After 12 days of waiting, the St. Louis sailed back to Hamburg with all its passengers. While the St. Louis was on the high seas, the JDC, in close cooperation with other groups, won the consent of the Governments of Holland, Belgium, England and France to accept the refugees (England 288, France 225, Belgium 213, Holland 181) until homes in other countries could be found. The JDC posted a cash guarantee of $500,000 ($500 per refugee), so as to make the arrangement feasible, and to cover upkeep costs wherever necessary. The Hamburg-American Line (HAPAG) had undertaken the voyage to Havana on its own initiative, and Jewish organizations had taken no part in the arrangements. The JDC appeared on the scene only after the Cuban Government had disowned its own permits. The JDC had tendered the Cuban Government a cash guarantee of $500,000 to permit the landing, but the offer was brushed aside. The JDC, via the NRS, called upon relatives of the St. Louis refugees to make cash deposits of $500 per beneficiary, so as to relieve it of the burden of support, wherever possible, A large number of deposits were made. A great part of the materials in the General files below, and dated 1940 and subsequently, deal with later efforts by relatives to gain a return of their deposits, in whole or in part. In England, the JDC continued to support the last of the St. Louis refugees until the close of 1948, but in France, Belgium and Holland, the Nazi occupation reduced the channels of outside aid and ultimately brought it to a standstill. After the occupation of France, some St. Louis refugees in that country escaped to Switzerland and the JDC extended its guarantee to cover their sojourn there. For materials on "disorganized" and panic emigration, see: File 666. Complete lists: 5/27/39, 7/18/39, 3/11/40 Partial lists - Refugees: Belgian contingent, 5/6/40, 2/18/41; French contingent 1939 - 1942; Dutch contingent, 1941 - 1943; British contingent, 1939 - 1948; Children, 1940 - 1942.
Index Terms:
Children
Emigration
List
Refugees
SS St. Louis
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File 385: SS St. Louis, Publicity
Sailing: Hamburg-Havana, May 1939. The SS St. Louis, bearing 907 refugees, sailed from Hamburg on 5/15/39 and reached Havana on 5/27/39. The refugees all possessed accredited landing certificates, but the Cuban Gov't refused to honor them. Negotiations to permit the landing, conducted between the JDC and the Cuban Gov't, ended in failure, and so did the last-ditch efforts by the JDC to find a haven elsewhere in the Americas. After 12 days of waiting, the St. Louis sailed back to Hamburg with all its passengers. While the St. Louis was on the high seas, the JDC, in close cooperation with other groups, won the consent of the Governments of Holland, Belgium, England and France to accept the refugees (England 288, France 225, Belgium 213, Holland 181) until homes in other countries could be found. The JDC posted a cash guarantee of $500,000 ($500 per refugee), so as to make the arrangement feasible, and to cover upkeep costs wherever necessary. The Hamburg-American Line (HAPAG) had undertaken the voyage to Havana on its own initiative, and Jewish organizations had taken no part in the arrangements. The JDC appeared on the scene only after the Cuban Government had disowned its own permits. The JDC had tendered the Cuban Government a cash guarantee of $500,000 to permit the landing, but the offer was brushed aside. The JDC, via the NRS, called upon relatives of the St. Louis refugees to make cash deposits of $500 per beneficiary, so as to relieve it of the burden of support, wherever possible, A large number of deposits were made. A great part of the materials in the General files below, and dated 1940 and subsequently, deal with later efforts by relatives to gain a return of their deposits, in whole or in part. In England, the JDC continued to support the last of the St. Louis refugees until the close of 1948, but in France, Belgium and Holland, the Nazi occupation reduced the channels of outside aid and ultimately brought it to a standstill. After the occupation of France, some St. Louis refugees in that country escaped to Switzerland and the JDC extended its guarantee to cover their sojourn there. For materials on "disorganized" and panic emigration, see: File 666. Correspondence, publications and press clippings.
Index Terms:
Emigration
SS St. Louis
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File 386: SS St. Louis, JDC Report on SS St. Louis
Sailing: Hamburg-Havana, May 1939. The SS St. Louis, bearing 907 refugees, sailed from Hamburg on 5/15/39 and reached Havana on 5/27/39. The refugees all possessed accredited landing certificates, but the Cuban Gov't refused to honor them. Negotiations to permit the landing, conducted between the JDC and the Cuban Gov't, ended in failure, and so did the last-ditch efforts by the JDC to find a haven elsewhere in the Americas. After 12 days of waiting, the St. Louis sailed back to Hamburg with all its passengers. While the St. Louis was on the high seas, the JDC, in close cooperation with other groups, won the consent of the Governments of Holland, Belgium, England and France to accept the refugees (England 288, France 225, Belgium 213, Holland 181) until homes in other countries could be found. The JDC posted a cash guarantee of $500,000 ($500 per refugee), so as to make the arrangement feasible, and to cover upkeep costs wherever necessary. The Hamburg-American Line (HAPAG) had undertaken the voyage to Havana on its own initiative, and Jewish organizations had taken no part in the arrangements. The JDC appeared on the scene only after the Cuban Government had disowned its own permits. The JDC had tendered the Cuban Government a cash guarantee of $500,000 to permit the landing, but the offer was brushed aside. The JDC, via the NRS, called upon relatives of the St. Louis refugees to make cash deposits of $500 per beneficiary, so as to relieve it of the burden of support, wherever possible, A large number of deposits were made. A great part of the materials in the General files below, and dated 1940 and subsequently, deal with later efforts by relatives to gain a return of their deposits, in whole or in part. In England, the JDC continued to support the last of the St. Louis refugees until the close of 1948, but in France, Belgium and Holland, the Nazi occupation reduced the channels of outside aid and ultimately brought it to a standstill. After the occupation of France, some St. Louis refugees in that country escaped to Switzerland and the JDC extended its guarantee to cover their sojourn there. For materials on "disorganized" and panic emigration, see: File 666. A wide-ranging roundup of the efforts made to find a sanctuary for the St. Louis refugees.
Index Terms:
Emigration
Refugees
SS St. Louis
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File 387: SS Serpa Pinta
Sailings: Lisbon - New York and other ports, 1941 - 1944 The Serpa Pinta carried up to 700 - 800 passengers per sailing, and in the course of W.W. II it bore more refugees across the Atlantic than any other single transport. The JDC financed or shared in the financing of over a dozen sailings between 1941 - 1944. The last crossing occurred in May 1944, when a German submarine halted the vessel on the high seas and the passengers had to take to the life boats. Sailings - 12/12/40: Passenger list. 1/28/41: Fin. statement 1/28/41. 3/15/41: Fin. statement 3/15/41. 6/12/41: Fin. statement 6/24/41. 9/9/41: Fin. statement 9/9/41, passenger list attachment to 10/25/41. 11/17/41: Passenger list (partial) 11/17/41, JDC Press Release 12/26/41, Fin. statement 5/8/42. 1/24/42: Fin. statement 1/24/42, passenger list attachment to 2/3/42, JDC Press Release 2/18/42. 6/5/42: JDC Press Releases 6/22/42, 6/26/42, newspaper story 6/26/42, passenger lists (3) June 1942, Fin. statement 11/9/42. 9/8/42: Passenger lists (2) 9/8/42, 11/29/42, JDC Press Release, 10/16/42, Fin. statement 12/17/42. 11/29/42: Passenger list 11/29/42. 1/9/43: Passenger list 1/9/43. 4/30/43: Passenger list 10/14/43. 3/23/44: 6/6/44. May 1944: 7/12/44. Correspondence: F.R. Adlerstein, P. Baerwald, L. Behar, S. Hayes, C.H. Jordan, B. Kahn, H. Katzki, M.A. Leavitt, R. Pilpel, J.J. Schwartz.
Index Terms:
Adlerstein, F.R.
Baerwald, P.
Behar, L.
Emigration
Financial
Hayes, S.
Jordan, C.H.
Kahn, B.
Katzki, H.
Leavitt, M.A.
List
Pilpel, R.
Refugees
SS Serpa Pinta
Sailings
Schwartz, J.J.
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File 388: SS Nea Hellis to SS San Thome
SS Nea Hellis: 9/4/40, 9/28/40 Passenger lists: 9/4/40, 9/28/40. SS Orazio: Jan. 1940. SS Orinoco: Oct. 1939 - Twenty-three refugees bound for Mexico from Germany and bearing valid visas were refused permission to land when the SS Orinoco reached Vera Cruz, on the ground that they lacked the railroad fare to Mexico City. Offers of help were rejected by the Mexican Gov't, and the JDC found a haven for them finally in Cuba by given a guarantee that they would not become a fin. burden to the community. SS Quanza: Lisbon to New York, August 1940, 10/29/41. SS Salahatin: Costanza to Istanbul, Oct. 1944, with 547 refugees. SS Santarem: Lisbon to New York - Fin. statements 2/3/41. SS San Thome: Lisbon to Havana, 3/21/42, 4/26/42 - On March 21, 1942 the SS San Thome sailed from Lisbon to Cuba bearing 210 refugees who stemmed from Nazi or Nazi occupied countries. The voyage was organized by the JDC. While the ship was still on the high seas, President Batista closed the ports of Cuba to refugees from Nazi lands. When the SS San Thome arrived in Havana, the refugees were denied landing privileges, and the threat loomed that they would be returned to detention camps in Spain. The JDC enlisted the aid of the British, Czech. and Polish embassies as well as the U.S. State Dept. to intercede with Pres. Batista. Finally, on May 5, the refugees were permitted to land and were taken to Tiscornia, the immigration encampment, see: 5/6/42, 6/8/42, 10/1/42, 10/2/42 - 10/6/42. They were detained at Tiscornia for over five months, and were then released a few at a time mostly over the next four months. The JDC paid $43,000 in Tiscornia fees on behalf of refugees who lacked the means to pay the fees themselves, and it provided them with maintenance until their departure for other countries. For a list of the refugees arriving on the SS San Thome, see: 5/21/42 attachment. Correspondence: J.C. Hyman, C.H. Jordan, M.A. Leavitt, R. Pilpel.
Index Terms:
Costanza
Cuba
Emigration
Financial
Germany
Hyman, J.C.
Istanbul
Jordan, C.H.
Leavitt, M.A.
Lisbon
List
Mexico
New York
Pilpel, R.
President Batista
Refugees
SS Nea Hellis
SS Orazio
SS Orinoco
SS Quanza
SS Salahatin
SS San Thome
SS Santarem
Sailings
Tiscornia
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File 389: SS Sequeira Campos to SS Wyoming
SS Sequeira Campos: Lisbon to New York Fin. statement, sailing 3/4/41. SS Siboney: Lisbon to New York - Fin. statements: 1/17/41, 2/14/41, 3/17/41, 4/11/41, 5/15/41 Passenger lists: 3/13/41, 4/11/41, 6/6/41. SS Struma: On Dec. 12, 1941, the SS Struma, an ancient and decrepit cattle boat of 180 tons, embarked 769 Jewish refugees from Rumania on an illegal voyage bound for Haifa. Passengers paid the equivalent of $1,000 each for the journey. At Istanbul, the motor broke down, but the Turkish authorities refused to allow any passengers to land, while the British administration in Palestine refused to admit them under the immigration quota. The ship remained in Istanbul harbor for many weeks, while undergoing repairs, and conditions on board became intolerable. During that period, the JDC contributed $10,000 to provide the passengers with food and medicaments. Finally, the Turkish Gov't expelled the Struma which thereupon headed back to Rumania. Only a short distance off the Turkish coast, the vessel struck a mine and sank with all refugees aboard except one. Passenger list on SS Struma, 4/25/42. Story of the Struma: New Palestine 3/27/42, Jerusalem Post 2/24/67, Chronical Review Nov. 1967 and Jan.-Feb. 1975. SS Toros: Sailing to Istanbul, Dec. 1944. SS Villa de Madrid: 6/15/41, Barcelona, Lisbon to New York. SS Winnipeg: In May 1941, the SS Winnipeg en route from Marseilles to Martinique and carrying some 400 refugees from Central Europe mostly, was intercepted by a British naval vessel and taken into Trinidad. In the next weeks, the large majority sailed on other ships to their countries of destination, but 21 persons lacked the means to pay the additional costs of final passage. In the latter cases, the HICEM advanced the travel costs. (Note: In 1941, the JDC covered 72% of the HICEM budget and the HIAS 28%. The JDC also met the costs of relief aid extended to the needy refugees by the local Jewish Refugee Society. SS Wyoming: 1941, Marseilles to Casablanca.
Index Terms:
Barcelona
Casablanca
Emigration
Financial
HIAS-ICA Emigration Association (HICEM)
Istanbul
Jewish Refugee Society
Lisbon
List
Marseilles
New York
Refugees
Relief Aid
SS Sequeira Campos
SS Siboney
SS Struma
SS Toros
SS Villa de Madrid
SS Winnipeg
SS Wyoming
Sailings
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File 367: JDC Emigration Conference
Verbatim transcript of Conference in Paris held under the auspices of the JDC and the HICEM Emigration Organization to survey the problem of the refugees. Twenty-nine Jewish organizations dealing with emigration problems participated, among them the principal Jewish bodies in Central and Eastern Europe.
Index Terms:
Central Europe
Eastern Europe
Emigration
HIAS-ICA Emigration Association (HICEM)
JDC Emigration Conference
Paris
Refugees
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File 368: Transmigration Bureau (TB)
In June 1940, the JDC opened the TB in New York to serve American relatives and friends of prospective emigrants to the U.S. from Germany, Austria, Czechoslovakia, Holland, Belgium and Luxemburg. Activities were in full swing by February 1941, and continued throughout that year. By the closing months, emigration decreased as the war spread and interfered more and more with transportation by land and sea. In August 1943, the TB New York was merged with the JDC Executive Office, but the Transmigration Office Lisbon continued to function until the end of the war. In 1940 -1942, the JDC expended over $5,100,000 to aid 12,700 Jewish refugees to emigrate via Spain and Portugal, and 1,300 via Siberia and Japan. General: Correspondence, memos, reports, addenda: 1940; 1941 - 1944:Status of TB activities, N.Y. and Lisbon: 6/4/41, July 1941, 8/7/41, 10/21/41, 11/25/41, 1/20/42, Jan. 1942, 5/7/42, 1/11/43, 4/30/43, 5/17/43, 6/29/43, 7/31/43, 7/19/44, 12/19/44. TB publication: TB, a Statement of Services Rendered and Methods Employed, undated, June 1941. R. Sundel: Activities of the TB 9/21/40 - May 1942, 5/19/42, and Status of the TB as of 12/31/42, 1/11/43. F. Kohn: Fin. and Statistical Studies of Emigration Activities Administered by the JDC 1941 - 1942, 9/20/44. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, I. Dorfman, J.C. Hyman, M. Jaretzki, H. Katzki, M.A. Leavitt, E.M. Morrissey, R. Pilpel, I. Rosen, D. Speiser, R. Sundel.
Index Terms:
Austria
Baerwald, P.
Belgium
Czechoslovakia
Dorfman, I.
Emigration
Emigration
Financial
Germany
Holland
Hyman, J.C.
Japan
Jaretzki, M.
Katzki, H.
Leavitt, M.A.
Luxemburg
Morrissey, E.M.
New York
Pilpel, R.
Portugal
Refugees
Rosen, I.
Siberia
Spain
Speiser, D.
Sundel, R.
Transmigration Bureau
Transmigration Office Lisbon
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Record Group 3.6: Jewish Populations
File 390: Jewish Populations
Tables of Jewish populations in European countries, 1933 - 1944.
Index Terms:
Jewish Populations
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Record Group 3.7: Landsmannschaften
Series 1: Landsmannschaften, General
File 391: Landsmannschaften, General, 1936 - 1938
Proposal that the JDC match lands. contributions earmarked for spending in their individual cities, 2/19/37 - 4/16/37. The JDC agreed to match lands. contributions in prescribed instances, 6/11/37 - 7/2/37, 8/3/38, 9/12/38. The JDC called a conference of lands., 2/3/38. List of Jewish lands. from Poland in Greater N.Y., 8/19/38, attachment 9/19/38. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, D.M. Bressler, H.K. Buchman, I. Coons, S. Dingol, I. Giterman, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, D.J. Schweitzer, B. Smolar, C.H. Weintraub
Index Terms:
Baerwald, P.
Bressler, D.M.
Buchman, H.K.
Coons, I.
Dingol, S.
Giterman, I.
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, B.
Landsmannschaften (Lands.)
List
Schweitzer, D.J.
Smolar, B.
Weintraub, C.H.
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File 392: Landsmannschaften, General, 1939 - 1942; 1944 - 1945 (1943 missing)
Summary report of contributions by the Lands. Div. 1937 - 1938, 1/18/39. The Lands. Div. was reorganized and its contributions separated from general campaign income (Secy: N.M. Gilmovsky), 2/1/39. The UJA and the CJFWF objected to new Lands.-JDC relationship, 3/1/39 - 3/3/39, 3/8/39 Lader to Warburg, 4/21/39. The JDC justified the relationship 3/9/39 Gilmovsky to Bregman, 3/17/39, 5/4/39. At behest of the War Control Board, the JDC offered to supplement lands. campaign contributions to projects earmarked and agreed upon, 8/4/44, 9/11/44, 10/13/44, 10/18/44, 11/6/44(2). The UPA refused to accept the JDC plan, 10/9/44, 11/15/44. The UJA assented to the JDC-Lands. arrangement for special aid to specific communities, 1/4/45 Hyman to Hayes 1/8/45. Minutes of Meetings, or Summaries to discuss lands. contributions: JDC-Lands., 8/3/44; Officers of UJA Council of Organizations, 10/30/44, JDC-UPA-Lands. Federations, 11/29/44. Correspondence: I. Bernstein, H.K. Buchman, I. Coons, N.M. Gilmovsky, J.G. Heller, J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt, M. Ogust, J.N. Rosenberg, J.J. Schwartz, L.H. Sobel, I. Sobeloff, I. Speiser, M.C. Troper.
Index Terms:
Bernstein, I.
Buchman, H.K.
Coons, I.
Financial
Gilmovsky, N.M.
Heller, J.G.
Hyman, J.C.
Landsmannschaften (Lands.)
Leavitt, M.A.
Ogust, M.
Rosenberg, J.N.
Schwartz, J.J.
Sobel, L.H.
Sobeloff, I.
Speiser, I.
Troper, M.C.
United Jewish Appeal (UJA)
United Palestine Relief (UPA)
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File 393: Landsmannschaften, Financial
A. General, 1938 - 1939: Correspondence, memos, reports, addenda. Reports: Lands. transmissions to home towns in Poland, 1938, 12/12/38. Earmarked contributions by lands., 1938, undated. Receipts by lands., 1939 (1/1 - 8/25), undated. B. Transmission of Receipts, March 1938 - Aug. 1939. C. Weekly Reports by N.V. Gilmovsky, 1939, Feb.-July, #1-16, 21-22 (#17-20 missing). Medical Aid: For materials, see: Organizations: AFSC, Files 205-209; OSE, Files 325-330; USC, File 337. Countries: China, File 502; France, File 601, Assistance Medicale aux Enfants d' Emigres, File 602, USC, and Tiomkin Ambulatory; Lithuania, File 734; Poland, Files 840-841; Switzerland, Files 952-971; Brazil, File 1,100.2.
Index Terms:
Gilmovsky, N.V.
Landsmannschaften (Lands.)
Medical
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Record Group 3.8: Reconstruction
Series 1: Reconstruction, General
Correspondence, memos, reports, addenda.
File 394: Reconstruction, General, 1933 - 1935
JDC allotted $200,000 to the Foundation for 1931 - 1935, 2/5/34, 2/7/34 attachment to 2/9/34, 1/16/35. Summary statements on reports of Foundation activities: 4/16/34, 8/1/34 attachment to 8/8/34, Dec. 1934, 2/25/35, 3/29/35; also see: File 400, Minutes of Meetings 1933 - 1935. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, B. Flexner, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, H.M. Kallen, E.M. Morrissey, L. Oungre, O.J. Schweitzer, M.C. Troper.
Index Terms:
American Joint Reconstruction Foundation (Foundation)
Baerwald, P.
Flexner, B.
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, B.
Kallen, H.M.
Morrissey, E.M.
Oungre, L.
Reconstruction
Schweitzer, O.J.
Troper, M.C.
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File 395: Reconstruction, General, 1936 - 1937
Alexander Kahn was elected to the Foundation Council following the death of Peter Wiernik, 8/6/36. The JDC allocated $300,000 for Foundation activities, payable in five annual installments of $60,000 each, 5/17/37, 5/21/37. Summary statements of Foundation activities, 12/14/36, 5/3/37 attachment to 5/4/37, 5/6/37, 10/26/37, 12/1/37 attachment to 12/6/37; also see: Files 400-401, Minutes of Meetings 1936 - 1937. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, B. Flexner, O.E. d'Avigdor Goldsmid, A.A. Landesco, E.M. Morrissey, L. Oungre, D.J. Schweitzer, F.M. Warburg.
Index Terms:
American Joint Reconstruction Foundation (Foundation)
Baerwald, P.
Flexner, B.
Kahn, Alexander
Landesco, A.A.
Morrissey, E.M.
Oungre, L.
Reconstruction
Schweitzer, D.J.
Warburg, F.M.
d'Avigdor Goldsmid, O.E.
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File 396: Reconstruction, General, 1938 - 1939 June
B. Flexner resigned as Vice-Chairman of Foundation, 4/5/38, 4/8/38. Summary statements and reports of Foundation activities: 1/20/38 attachment to 2/16/38, 3/25/38, 4/6/39, 4/20/39, undated report: "Major Events in the Work of the AJR Foundation April - June 1939", also see: Files 401 - 402, Minutes of Meetings 1938 - 1939. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, D.M. Bressler, B. Flexner, J.C. Hyman, O.E. d'Avigdor Goldsmid, B. Kahn, A.A. Landesco, E.M. Morrissey, L. Oungre, D.J. Schweitzer.
Index Terms:
American Joint Reconstruction Foundation (Foundation)
Baerwald, P.
Bressler, D.M.
Flexner, B.
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, B.
Landesco, A.A.
Morrissey, E.M.
Oungre, L.
Reconstruction
Schweitzer, D.J.
d'Avigdor Goldsmid, O.E.
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File 397: Reconstruction, General, 1939 July - 1940 (May)
The Foundation granted an initial allotment of $30,000 to aid in creating loan kassas for recent arrivals in South American lands, 1/8/40(2). Summary statements and reports of Foundation activities: Statement of activities by B. Kahn, 7/20/39; Report of the Managing Directors May 1 - Sept. 1, 1939, undated; Summary Reviews of Major Events and Problems, Sept.-Oct. 1939, undated, and Nov. 1, 1939 - Jan. 15, 1940, undated; Summary of Activities submitted to the "A" members of the Federation Council 2/20/40. Correspondence: N. Aronovici, D.M. Bressler, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, A.A. Landesco, L. Oungre, I. Rosen, D.J. Schweitzer, M.C. Troper.
Index Terms:
American Joint Reconstruction Foundation (Foundation)
Aronovici, N.
Bressler, D.M.
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, B.
Landesco, A.A.
Loan Kassas
Oungre, L.
Reconstruction
Rosen, I.
Schweitzer, D.J.
Troper, M.C.
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File 398: Reconstruction, General, 1940 August - 1943; 1945
Foundation office evacuated southward when Paris fell, 8/2/40 attachment to 8/16/40. Reports by N. Aronovici on need for loan kassas in Bolivia, 8/20/40, in Chile and other countries, 8/28/40 attachment to 8/29/40. Foundation Council appointed a 7 member managing Committee to conduct Foundation's business, 10/31/40; also see: Recon. Foundation, File 402, 9/20/40. The JDC appointed a subcommittee of the six American members to conduct the Foundation's business during the war years, since as a British corp. it had in effect to suspend operations abroad, 1/15/41. Owing to the blocking of the Foundation's funds by wartime conditions, the contracts of the two Managing Directors and the Vice-Managing Director were terminated as of 4/30/41, 3/25/41. Correspondence: N. Aronovici, P. Baerwald, B. Kahn, A.A. Landesco, L. Oungre, I. Rosen, J.N. Rosenberg, D.J. Schweitzer.
Index Terms:
American Joint Reconstruction Foundation (Foundation)
Aronovici, N.
Baerwald, P.
Bolivia
Chile
Committees
Kahn, B.
Landesco, A.A.
Loan Kassas
Oungre, L.
Reconstruction
Rosen, I.
Rosenberg, J.N.
Schweitzer, D.J.
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Series 2: Reconstruction, Financial
File 399: Financial
Foundation balance sheets cover the following years: 1932, 5/24/33, 6/15/33; 1933, 5/11/34; 1934, 5/28/35; 1935, 4/28/36; 1936, 5/19/37; 1937, 4/25/38; 1938, 5/25/39; 1939 (as of 8/31/39), 8/31/39, 11/8/39, 9/16/40; 1939 (as of 12/31/39), 5/31/40, 9/16/40, 5/22/41. Aide Memoire for Management, 11/11/39. Supplementary Notes to Schedule Showing Movement of AJRF Capital 1924 - 1939, undated. Fin. Position of Foundation by M. Chamer, 9/15/42. Fin. Statement containing inventory of Foundation assets as of 12/31/43, 2/14/44. Statistical and Fin. data on loan kassas aided: Tables 12/31/35, 11/25/36, 12/31/36 covering all countries except Poland (for loan kassas in Poland, see: File 846, 6/30/36), 9/30/37, 11/11/39 Appendix I, 3/5/40. Correspondence: N. Aronovici, P. Baerwald, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, M.A. Leavitt, E.M. Morrissey, I. Rosen, D.J. Schweitzer.
Index Terms:
American Joint Reconstruction Foundation (Foundation)
Aronovici, N.
Baerwald, P.
Financial
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, B.
Leavitt, M.A.
Morrissey, E.M.
Reconstruction
Rosen, I.
Schweitzer, D.J.
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Series 3: Reconstruction, Minutes of Meetings (Council)
From 1933 until June 1940, council meetings were held in Paris. Foundation funds in Europe were blocked in 1940, and for the remainder of the war it's affairs were conducted from New York. Between 1933 - 1940, the Council held two meetings per year mostly; a few were pro-forma in character, and are marked below by an asterisk. A formal annual meeting (Ordinary General Meeting) was held every year between 1933 - 1939. The first three files below contain the minutes of the Council meetings, while the fourth contains the minutes of the "A" members of the Council.
File 400: Reconstruction, Minutes of Meetings (Council), 1933 - 1936 August
Annual: 6/25/33 (Ninth), 6/16/34 (Tenth), 6/20/35 (Eleventh), 5/22/36 (Twelfth)., Council: 6/25/33* (22nd), 12/14/33 (23rd), 6/16/34 (24th), 12/16/34 (25th), 5/5/35(26th), 7/14/35 (27th), 12/17/35* (28th), 5/22/36 (29th).,
Index Terms:
Minutes of Meetings (Council)
Reconstruction
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File 401: Reconstruction, Minutes of Meetings (Council), 1936 November - 1938
Annual: 6/19/37 (Thirteenth), 5/26/38 (Fourteenth), Council: 12/12/36* (30th), 3/18/37 (31st), 12/18/37* (32nd), 5/26/38 (33rd), 12/10/38 (34th).
Index Terms:
Minutes of Meetings (Council)
Reconstruction
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File 402: Reconstruction, Minutes of Meetings (Council), 1939 - 1940
Annual: 6/29/39 (Fifteenth), Council: 3/20/39 (35th), 3/30/40 (36th), 9/20/40 (37th).
Index Terms:
Minutes of Meetings (Council)
Reconstruction
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File 403: Reconstruction, Minutes of Meetings (Council), 1933 - 1940; 1942
Minutes of "A" Members: 6/12/33, 10/29/34, 11/23/36, 12/4/36, 12/2/37, 1/21/38, 10/10/38, 4/11/39, 9/7/39, 10/4/39, 12/8/39, 2/22/40, 4/12/40, 4/16/40, 5/21/40, 8/5/40, 9/25/40.
Index Terms:
Minutes of Meetings (Council)
Reconstruction
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Record Group 3.9: Refugees
Series 1: Refugees, General
Correspondence, memos, reports, addenda.
File 404: Refugees, General, 1934 - 1937
Meeting on Refugees called by James G. McDonald, 2/25/34. Memo on defining the relationship of the refugee problem with JDC programs, Hyman to Baerwald, 7/17/34. Reports by B. Kahn: On the Work in Germany and on the Situation of the Refugees (in other countries), 8/22/34; On the Settling of German Refugees in various countries, 9/24/35, 5/11/36. Correspondence: P. Baearwald, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, J. Rosen, M. Warburg.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, P.
Emigration
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, B.
McDonald, James G.
Refugees
Rosen, J.
Warburg, M.
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File 405: Refugees, General, 1938 - 1944
Discussion at the White House of Pres. Roosevelt's plan to hold an international refugee conference at Evian, France 4/13/38. Minutes of the Conference by European refugee committees held at EUREXCO Paris, 3/23/39 attached to 3/31/39. The JDC reduced allocations for refugee relief in 1940 owing to budgetary shortages, 1/23/40, 2/14/40(2), 2/15/40, 2/23/40, 2/29/40, 3/4/40(2). The JDC offered its facilities and resources to the U.S. Gov't for the rescue of Jews, especially in occupied areas, 7/12/43 and attachments. The JDC offered to support activities of the U.S. War Refugee Board within the limits of its financial resources, 1/26/44, 2/28/44. Reports on Refugees: Statistical data by countries, 5/31/39, 1/21/41. Status in Europe of refugees from Germany to Austria, 7/5/39. Possibilities for Overseas Settlements by Refugees from Europe, B. Kahn, 1/8/40. JDC Refugee Aid. 4/1/40, 4/3/40. Correspondence: F.R. Adlerstein, P. Baerwald, S.M. Calvert, H.W. Emerson, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, M.A. Leavitt, J.J. Schwartz, M.C. Troper. Also see: Minutes of Conference (on refugee aid in Europe and Overseas) held at EUREXCO, Paris, 3/23/39 attached to 3/31/39.
Index Terms:
Adlerstein, F.R.
Baerwald, P.
Calvert, S.M.
Emerson, H.W.
Emigration
European Executive Council (EUREXCO)
France
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, B.
Leavitt, M.A.
Refugees
Reports
Schwartz, J.J.
Troper, M.C.
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Series 2: Refugees: Reports
File 413: Refugees: Reports, Miscellaneous
Refugees, Preliminary Report of a Survey, by Sir John Hope Simpson, was undertaken under the auspices of the Royal Institute of International Affairs, London, and published in June, 1938. In the following year, the Oxford University Press published the report in full. The JDC files contain a copy of the Preliminary Report but lack the final one. Refugees, Anarchy or Organization, by Dorothy Thompson, 1938. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, J.C. Hyman, N. Katz, E.M. Morrissey, J. Rosen, John Hope Simpson. For other reports on refugees, see: Turkey, File 1,052. Preliminary Report by I.A. Hirschmann on WRB activities in Turkey from 6/18/44-8/19/44 attachment to 9/11/44.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, P.
Emigration
Hyman, J.C.
Katz, N.
Morrissey, E.M.
Refugees
Reports
Rosen, J.
Simpson, Sir John Hope
Thompson, Dorothy
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File 414: Refugees: Reports
Refugees in America, Maurice R. Davie, Harper and Bro., 1947
Index Terms:
Davie, Maurice R.
Emigration
Refugees
Reports
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File 406: Refugees: Lawyers, Musicians and Rabbis
1. Lawyers, 1939: In 1939, the JDC granted $1,000 to a committee headed by John W. Davis, to aid in training selected refugee lawyers in American law. Also see below: Germany, Z.A., Files 647-648. Correspondence: C. Adler, H.K. Buchman, J.C. Hyman. 2. Musicians, 1942:In Jan. 1934, Jascha Heifetz, Jose Iturbi and Lawrence Tibbett contributed $3,000, out of the proceeds of a joint concert, for the benefit of German refugee musicians who were in straitend circumstances. The funds were distributed under the supervision of the JDC_by the Musicians Emergency Fund, New York (MEF) /Pres: Walter Damrosch/, a non-sectarian organization. In 1938, a Placement Committee for German and Austrian Musicians was formed/subsequently the National Committee for Refugee Musicians/, in affiliation with the NRS. Grants were extended by the Allocations Committee of the NCC (subsequent name, NCC Fund), and distributed via the MEF. Reports: 11/14/39, 11/1/40, 4/1/42. Correspondence: M. Fainberg, J.C. Hyman, H. Morcarta, T. Wood, F.M. Warburg. 3. Rabbis, 1940: In 1940, the JDC Cultural Committee granted $1,000 in aid of German and Austrian refugee rabbis in England who were in need, 12/14/39, 2/12/40. Correspondence: C. Adler, H.K. Buchman, J.C. Hyman.
Index Terms:
Adler, C.
Allocations Committee of the National Coordinating Committee (NCC)
Buchman, H.K.
Davis, John W.
Emigration
Fainberg, M.
Heifetz, Jascha
Hyman, J.C.
Iturbi, Jose
Lawyers
Morcarta, H.
Musicians
Musicians Emergency Fund, New York (MEF)
National Committee for Refugee Musicians
Placement Committee for German and Austrian Musicians
Rabbis
Refugees
Tibbett, Lawrence
Warburg, F.M.
Wood, T.
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File 407:Refugees: Physicians and Activities of the Emergency Committee
Physicians, 1933 - 1941; 1943: The Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Physicians, New York, was formed in October 1933 to aid foreign refugee physicians in accommodating themselves to medical practice and research in the U.S. The organization was non-sectarian. At the outset, private foundations and the JDC were the principal contributors, but by mid-1936 refugee needs in the New York area had expanded to the point where a special committee, The Allocations Committee of the National Coordinating Committee (NCC), was organized to widen the national base of support. For additional details, see: NCC, File 275 Intro. Also see below: File 414, "Refugees in America", M.R. Davie, pp. 257-286; Files 647-650. Activities of the Emergency Committee: 6/28/33, 11/3/33, 11/16/33, 1/15/34, 1/16/34, 8/16/34, 8/21/34, 6/26/36, 7/20/36, 7/28/36, 5/7/37, 6/1/37, 12/22/37, 3/16/38, 5/3/39, 5/22/39. Reports: 1/1/34 - 9/1/34, 11/1/34, Sept. 1939, 9/30/39. March 1940, 3/31/40. Feb. 1941, 2/28/41. March 1941, 4/16/41. June 1941, 6/30/41. Correspondence: B. Baehr, M. Fainberg, J.C. Hyman, J. C. Hyman, C.H. Jordan, B. Sachs, E. Seligman.
Index Terms:
Allocations Committee of the National Coordinating Committee (NCC)
Baehr, B.
Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Physicians
Emigration
Fainberg, M.
Hyman, J.C.
Jordan, C.H.
New York
Physicians
Refugees
Sachs, B.
Seligman, E.
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File 408: Refugees: Professional Workers
The International Committee for Securing Employment to Refugee Professional Workers, Geneva, a non-denominational body, was established in 1933. It aided displaced professional workers from Germany and in later years from other countries as well, in finding new positions elsewhere. The beneficiaries were Jews predominantly and Marie Ginsberg of Geneva was the Commmittee's driving force. For materials between 1939 - 1950, see: Switzerland, Files 949 - 951. JDC allocations grew larger in the 1940's and reached $100,000 in 1946. JDC grants: $4,500, 4/16/34; $2,000, 4/26/34; $3,000, 6/6/34; $5,000 loan, 1/21/35, 11/7/35, 3/17/36, 2/25/37; $3,000, 2/28/38. Reports: June-Aug. 1933 attachment to 9/4/33; Summary of beneficiaries placed by the Committee, May 1934; Facts and Figures Concerning the Committee, attachment to 2/12/37; Confidential Report, attachment to 6/22/37. For 1939-1950, see: Files 949-951. Correspondence: D.M. Bressler, M. Ginsberg, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, W.B. Rappard, J.N. Rosenberg.
Index Terms:
Bressler, D.M.
Emigration
Geneva
Ginsberg, Marie
Hyman, J.C.
International Committee for Securing Employment to Refugee Professional Workers
Kahn, B.
Professional Workers
Rappard, W.B.
Refugees
Reports
Rosenberg, J.N.
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File 409:Refugees: Students
The International Student Service (ISS), a world-wide non-sectarian agency, participated in the education and support of refugee students. It started in 1919 as the European Student Relief and became the ISS in 1925. It was the parent organization of the National Student Federation of America. For ISS activities in the years between Nov. 1939 - 1948, see: Switzerland, Files 1,032-1,034. JDC grants: 1933 - 1936, $4,760, 11/13/36, 11/25/36. 1937, $1,500 loan, 11/4/37 Hyman to Spivack, 3/30/38. ISS Annual Reports: Student Service in the World Crisis 1934, The Universities and the Future 1935, ISS Annual Report 1936 - 1937. For selected ISS Bulletins 1934 - 1939, see: JDC Library. Correspondence: J. Cadden, A.E. Cohn, J.C. Hyman, W. Kotschnig, R.G. Spivack.
Index Terms:
Cadden, J.
Cohn, A.E.
Education
Emigration
Hyman, J.C.
International Student Service (ISS)
Kotschnig, W.
Refugees
Reports
Spivack, R.G.
Students
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File 410: Refugees: Bermuda Conference, 1943
In April/May 1943, the U.S. and the British Govts. held a conference at Bermuda on refugee relief. It was conducted in private but it accepted memos on the rescue of Jews submitted by the Joint Emergency Committee for European-Jewish Affairs, among other organizations. Decisions taken by the Conferece led to the enlargement of the mandate of the IGCR so as to enable it to cope with post-war problems.
Index Terms:
Bermuda
Emigration
Inter-Governmental Committee on Refugees (IGCR)
Joint Emergency Committee for European-Jewish Affairs
Refugee Relief
Refugees
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File 411: Refugees: Interned Refugee Aliens, Florida and Texas, 1942 - 1943
A group of 19 Nazi refugees who had migrated to the Republic of Panama were arrested directly after Pearl Harbor and then transferred to the stockade at Camp Blanding, Fla. where they were incarcerated alongside Nazi collaborators. Before leaving Panama, a number of the refugees had deposited $13,300 with Rabbi Nathan Witkin, the Jewish Army Chaplain in the Canal Zone. After their arrival in Florida, the refugees requested the return of their money, via the JDC. For the outcome of an unusual human interest story, see the materials in the file. Correspondence: J.C. Hyman, R. Pilpel, C. Razovsky, N. Witkin Jr.
Index Terms:
Emigration
Florida
Hyman, J.C.
Panama
Pilpel, R.
Razovsky, C.
Refugees
Witkin Jr., N.
Witkin, Rabbi Nathan
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File 412: Refugees: Refugee Transit Center, Oswego, N.Y., 1944-1946, 1963, 1983-1984, 1986
In July 1944, following the liberation of Southern Italy, a group of 984 refugees in that region (Jews = 918) were offered temporary sanctuary at Fort Ontario, Oswego, N.Y. by the U.S. Gov't. They remained in residence until Dec. 1945 when the transit center sheltering them was closed. The refugees were then resettled throughout the U.S. with the aid of the NRS and other agencies.
Index Terms:
Emigration
Oswego, N.Y.
Refugee Transit Center
Refugees
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Record Group 3.10: Relief Supplies
Series 1: Relief Supplies: Matzoth
During W.W. I and in the immediate aftermath, the JDC aided Jews in war-torn Europe with matzoth and matzo meal. In the 1920's and the 1930's, it helped to provide Passover supplies only to Jews in the USSR and Poland and then on but a limited scale. But in 1940, the JDC allocated some $208,000 for the shipment of matzos to Nazi occupied countries in Eastern and Central Europe. In 1941, the JDC allocated $75,000, in supplement to some $85,000 for Passover supplies raised via the Council of Fraternal and Landsmannschaften Organizations. Thereafter, the spreading of the war curtailed shipments to occupied countries. In 1942, under the Agreement between the Polish Gov't in Exile and the USSR, the JDC shipped 120,000 1bs of matzos to Polish-Jewish refugees in the USSR, via its office in Teheran, and a greater amount followed in 1943. In the final war years, Passover supplies were also shipped from the U.S. to refugees in Cuba, Dominican Republic, Dutch Guiana, Haita, Jamaica, Trinidad and Portugal, in the main.
Index Terms:
Council of Fraternal and Landsmannschaften
Matzoth
Poland
Relief Supplies
USSR
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File 416: Relief Supplies: Matzoth, 1933 - 1940
Reports: JDC Matzo Action in 1940, S.B. Jacobson, 4/28/40(2). Receipt and Distribution of Matzos from Abroad, D. Guzik, 5/3/40 attachment to 5/19/40. Pesach Relief Action Rumania, M. Ussoskin, 9/19/40 attachment to 10/10/40. Correspondence: C. Adler, H.K. Buchman, Ch. O. Grodzienski, J.C. Hyman, S. B. Jacobson, B. Kahn, H. Katzki, E.M. Morrissey, M.C Troper.
Index Terms:
Adler, C.
Buchman, H.K.
Grodzienski, Ch. O.
Hyman, J.C.
Jacobson, S.B.
Kahn, B.
Katzki, H.
Matzoth
Morrissey, E.M.
Relief Supplies
Reports
Troper, M.C.
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File 417: Relief Supplies: Matzoth, 1941
Greater N.Y. Campaign of the UJA resolved that funds raised in Mohoth Chitim Campaign (see: File 420) should be turned over to the JDC as earmarked funds and not to the general UJA campaign, 3/24/41. The UPA took exception to the decision, 5/9/41, 5/20/41, 6/9/41, 6/27/41. Correspondence: H.K. Buchman, M.A. Leavitt, M. Ogust, R. Pilpel, A.H. Silver, M. Stephany, E.M.M. Warburg.
Index Terms:
Buchman, H.K.
Leavitt, M.A.
Matzoth
Ogust, M.
Pilpel, R.
Relief Supplies
Silver, A.H.
Stephany, M.
United Palestine Relief (UPA)
Warburg, E.M.M.
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File 418: Relief Supplies: Matzoth, 1942
Matzoth distribution in France Passover 1942, 6/10/42. Correspondence: B. Kahn, H.K. Buchman, J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt, J. Rosenheim, J.I. Schneersohn, S. Wojciechowska.
Index Terms:
Buchman, H.K.
France
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, B.
Leavitt, M.A.
Matzoth
Relief Supplies
Rosenheim, J.
Schneersohn, J.I.
Wojciechowska, S.
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File 419: Relief Supplies: Matzoth, 1943 - 1944
The JDC grant of $10,000 enabled 2,000 refugees in Switzerland to celebrate Passover holidays outside of camps, 4/7/43. The JDC shipped 200,000 lbs of matzos for refugee communities overseas, the bulk going to Russia via Teheran, 4/16/43. The JDC allocated $50,000 for special Passover aid, 3/28/44, and increased it to $100,000, 4/13/44. Canadian Jews contributed to the JDC $28,775 for Passover relief (Note: Jewish population of Canada 175,000), 4/26/44, and Mexican Jews contributed $4,685 (Jewish population 20,000), 6/1/44. Correspondence: W.M. Baum, H.K. Buchman, O. Gurfinkel, S. Hayes, J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt, C. Passman, R. Pilpel, L.H. Sobel, Z. Wojciechowska.
Index Terms:
Baum, W.M.
Buchman, H.K.
Gurfinkel, O.
Hayes, S.
Hyman, J.C.
Leavitt, M.A.
Matzoth
Passman, C.
Pilpel, R.
Refugees
Relief Supplies
Sobel, L.H.
Wojciechowska, Z.
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File 420: Relief Supplies: Matzoth, Mohoth Chitim Campaign, 1941 - 1944
In Feb. 1941, the Council of Fraternal and Landsmannschaften Organizations launched a campaign to provide matzoth and other Passover necessities to war-stricken communities in Central and Eastern Europe. The JDC agreed to advance moneys needed for purchases in anticipation of collections, and to administer the distribution. In addition, the JDC made an independent allocation for matzoth in the sum of $70,000. The Council raised about $85,000 in campaign funds, all told. From 1942 - 1944, landsmannschaften contributions fell off sharply because the UJA Agreements for those years required that contributions from the U.S. to constituent organizations should all be turned over to the UJA for administration. Contributions from abroad (Canada, Mexico, Latin America) continued to go directly to the JDC, as theretofore. Distribution of Landsmannschaft Funds for Passover Relief During 1941, 1/22/42. Correspondence: H.C. Bernstein, H.K. Buchman, J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt, M. Ogust, A.H. Silver, E.M.M. Warburg.
Index Terms:
Bernstein, H.C.
Buchman, H.K.
Canada
Council of Fraternal and Landsmannschaften Organizations
Hyman, J.C.
Latin America
Leavitt, M.A.
Matzoth
Mexico
Mohoth Chitim Campaign
Ogust, M.
Relief Supplies
Silver, A.H.
United Jewish Appeal (UJA)
Warburg, E.M.M.
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Series 2: Polish Refugees in Russia (Teheran)
Near the close of 1941, the JDC began to send medical, surgical, pharmaceutical and food supplies ($100,000) for nonsectarian distribution to Polish refugees who were living in exile in Asiatic Russia. They included 300,000 Jewish refugees, 80% of them from Poland, estimates indicated, see below: File 425, 2/10/44, 5/10/44 JTA news release. The supplies were shipped in Russian transports, gratis and duty free, and distribution was conducted via the Polish Embassy at Kiubyshev and the Polish Red Cross. The aid became possible by the terms of the Agreement signed on 7/20/41 between the Polish Government-in-Exile and the Soviet Government, and it continued until April 1943 when Stalin suspended diplomatic relations with the Poles. In October 1942, the JDC launched from Teheran an individual parcel service for Polish-Jewish refugees in Russia. The service continued until June 1946 via the Russian parcel post, and it was discontinued only when the bulk of the refugees began streaming back to Europe. In the later years, Jewish refugees in Asiatic Russia from the Baltic States also became beneficiaries. For a Fin. and statistical rep. on the service, see below: File 429. In all, 211,387 parcels were forwarded via Teheran. The components were purchased in Iran, India, Palestine and South Africa and from U.S. Lend-Lease supplies in the Middle East, in the main. The entire parcel service cost some $4,850,000 in all. Grossly inflated Russian customs charges skimmed off 35% of it ($1,700,000), while another 31% ($1,530,000) went for postage, Iranian road tax, insurance and related expenditures. The JDC shouldered 57% of the costs, some $2,880,000 in all, and it attended to the full administration of the service as well. The rest of the funds stemmed mainly from the Jewish Agency, South African. Jewry, the Polish Government-in-Exile London, and the Polish Red Cross. For general accounts of the Teheran parcel service, see below - File 425: 4/3/44, 5/31/44, 6/14/44; File 427: 1/15/47; File 429: Report by G. Bider 2/21/47; and Herbert Agar, The Saving Remnant, PP. 120-124. The demand for parcels from Teheran escalated throughout 1943 and led to the making of an Agreement between the JDC and the HIAS, early in 1944. By its terms, the HIAS accepted payments from U.S. residents who desired to earmark parcels for individual refugees in Russia. The parcels were assembled out of JDC stockpiles in Teheran and forwarded to the USSR. These services the JDC provided at cost and the sums that accrued in reimbursement were not included in the JDC allocations cited above. It should be noted that JDC allocations increased twofold in 1944, but the packages which it underwrote were so called "free" parcels earmarked for refugees who lacked relatives or friends abroad who were able to help them. For data on the "free" parcels, see below: File 428 Introduction. In 1943, the South African Jewish War Appeal made arrangements with the JDC for the shipment of packages, via the JDC office in Teheran, to Polish refugees whom it designated by name. It then repaid the JDC for its expenditures. Subsequently, it placed at the disposal of the JDC parcel service a quantity of hard to get clothing from South Africa, at prices more favorable than available elsewhere.
Index Terms:
Hebrew Sheltering and Immigrant Aid Society (HIAS)
Poland
Refugees
Relief Supplies
Russia
South African Jewish War Appeal
Teheran
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File 421: Polish Refugees in Russia (Teheran), General, 1941 - 1942 May
The JDC allocated $100,000 for the non-sectarian relief of Polish refugees in Russia, 12/10/41, Exec. Committee Minutes 12/27/41, 1/8/42 Ciechanowski to Warburg, 1/13/42 Press Release. The JDC forwarded 120,000 lbs of matzoth to refugees, 2/20/42, 2/27/42 Press Release. The Soviet Gov't rejected a JDC request to send a representative to Tashkent to aid in implementing the aid program, 2/25/42 Baerwald to Litvinoff and 3/2/42 Litvinoff to Baerwald. Individual aid to Polish refugees, 3/26/42 attachment to 4/15/40 memo. Also see: File 425, 4/3/44, 5/23/44 memo, 6/14/44, 7/17/44 attachment to 7/18/44 Morrissey to Rosenberg. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, H.K. Buchman, J. Ciechanowski, S. Hayes, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, H. Katzki, M.A. Leavitt, Maxim M. Litvinoff, J. Pat, S. Strakacz, E.M.M. Warburg.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, P.
Buchman, H.K.
Ciechanowski, J.
Hayes, S.
Hyman, J.C.
Kahn, B.
Katzki, H.
Leavitt, M.A.
Litvinoff, Maxim M.
Matzoth
Pat, J.
Poland
Refugees
Relief Supplies
Russia
Strakacz, S.
Warburg, E.M.M.
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File 422: Polish Refugees in Russia (Teheran), General, 1942 June - December
The JDC granted $2,500 to aid a special group of former Polish-Jewish leaders who were refugees in Russia, 6/8/42, 6/15/42. Polish authorities stressed that JDC aid to Polish refugees in Russia was non-sectarian in distribution, 6/17/42, 6/18/42, 7/9/42. The JDC sent H. Viteles to Teheran to survey conditions of life there of Polish-Jewish refugees, 10/6/42, 10/20/42, 11/18/42 report. Reports: H. Viteles, Visits to Bagdad 11/2/42 - 11/9/42 and to Teheran 11/11/42 - 12/2/42, 12/31/42; E. Dobkin, Concerning Refugees Arriving in Teheran, 9/24/42 attachment to 11/19/42 Leavitt to Tartakover. Also see: File 425, 5/23/44 memo, 6/14/44, 7/17/44 attachment to 7/18/44 Morrissey to Rosenberg. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, H.K. Buchman, E. Dobkin, David Ben Gurion, A. Held, J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt, J.L. Magnes, J. Pat, S. Strakacz, H. Viteles.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, P.
Buchman, H.K.
Dobkin, E.
Gurion, David Ben
Held, A.
Hyman, J.C.
Leavitt, M.A.
Magnes, J.L.
Pat, J.
Poland
Refugees
Relief Supplies
Reports
Russia
Strakacz, S.
Viteles, H.
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File 423: Polish Refugees in Russia (Teheran), General, 1943 January - June
Reports: Visit to Cairo 2/3/43 - 2/13/43, by H. Viteles, 2/22/43. Viteles recommended purchase in Egypt of 100 tons of food supplies for use in packages forwarded to Polish refugees in Russia, 2/19/43 cable, 2/22/43, 3/1/43 and attachments, but the Egyptian Gov't refused to grant export permission, 5/5/43. Also see: File 425, 5/23/44 memo, 6/14/44, 7/17/44 attachment to 7/18/44 Morrissey to Rosenberg. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, H.K. Buchman, J. Ciechanowski, M. Hassan, S. Hayes, J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt, J.L. Magnes, J. Pat, J.N. Rosenberg, J.J. Schwartz, H. Viteles.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, P.
Buchman, H.K.
Ciechanowski, J.
Hassan, M.
Hayes, S.
Hyman, J.C.
Leavitt, M.A.
Magnes, J.L.
Pat, J.
Refugees
Relief Supplies
Reports
Rosenberg, J.N.
Schwartz, J.J.
Viteles, H.
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File 424: Polish Refugees in Russia (Teheran), General, 1943 July - December
Reports: Visit to Teheran by C. Passman, 7/23/43 attachment to 8/1/43. Relief Accorded to Polish Citizens by the Polish Embassy in the USSR (with special reference to Polish citizens of Jewish nationality), August 1943. The JDC granted a non-sectarian allocation of $36,500 in medical supplies for Polish refugees in E. Africa, 8/10/43, 8/12/43 Hyman to Ciechanowski, 8/14/43, 3/27/46. The JDC opened a permanent office in Teheran to supervise the parcel service under the direction of Charles Passman, 8/25/43, 9/10/43 cable Schwartz to Leavitt, 9/19/43. An official Soviet delegation to the U.S. (Mikhoels and Feffer) stated that their government imposed heavy customs duties on Teheran parcel service, because it was a form of discriminatory aid, in their view, 9/13/43, 9/21/43, 9/27/43, 9/28/43. The JDC stepped up the volume of its Teheran parcel service, 9/20/43, and allocated $618,000 in all for the year 1943, see: File 425, 1/17/44 Hyman to Gottschalk, 7/17/44 attachment to 7/18/44. Also see: File 426, 5/23/44 memo, 5/31/44 Passman Report, 6/14/44, 7/17/44 attachment to 7/18/44. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, H.K. Buchman, O. Garfinkel, J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt, J.L. Magnes, G. Osrin, C. Passman, J.N. Rosenberg, J.J. Schwartz, H. Viteles.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, P.
Buchman, H.K.
Garfinkel, O.
Hyman, J.C.
Leavitt, M.A.
Magnes, J.L.
Osrin, G.
Passman, C.
Poland
Refugees
Relief Supplies
Reports
Rosenberg, J.N.
Schwartz, J.J.
Teheran
Viteles, H.
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File 425: Polish Refugees in Russia (Teheran), General, 1944 January - September
Status statements on the parcels program, 2/10/44, 4/21/44, 5/31/44, 7/31/44 cable, 8/1/44 Passman to JDC, 8/31/44. An agreement was made between the JDC and the HIAS for the shipment of pre-paid packages to individual refugees, 2/28/44, 3/8/44, Asofsky to Leavitt. Similar arrangements were offered to residents of Latin American lands, 3/16/44 Sobel to Levy, 3/21/44, 5/1/44, 5/2/44 minutes. The JDC allocated $600,000 for the 1944 parcel service, 2/15/44 minutes, 2/17/44 Cable #144, 6/2/44 Cable #277, and then enlarged the sum to $1,200,000, 7/17/44 attachment to 7/18/44 Morrissey to Rosenberg, 8/1/44 minutes. Also see: 5/24/44 - 5/27/44. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, M.K. Buchman, J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt, J.L. Magnes, E.M. Morrissey, C. Passman, J.J. Schwartz.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, P.
Buchman, M.K.
Hebrew Sheltering and Immigrant Aid Society (HIAS)
Hyman, J.C.
Leavitt, M.A.
Magnes, J.L.
Morrissey, E.M.
Passman, C.
Refugees
Relief Supplies
Scwartz, J.J.
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File 426: Polish Refugees in Russia (Teheran), General, 1944 October - 1945
The Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee in the USSR (Mikhoels) protested the Teheran parcel service 10/3/44 and attachments, 10/23/44, 10/24/44, 11/20/45 Weingard to Rosenberg. The charges refuted, 10/7/44, 10/23/44, 10/28/44, 12/8/44, 12/13/44 cable, 1/8/45, 3/22/45, 7/25/45. JDC expenditures in 1944 for the parcel service, 2/18/45 Passman to Leavitt. JDC allocations for 1945, 3/24/45, 4/14/45(2), 12/14/45. Complaints on the handling of HIAS parcels or their contents, 10/5/45, 10/23/45 Passman to JDC, 11/14/45. Fin. Reports: #5, Purchases for Russia 1943 - 1945 (April), 5/15/45; Analysis of reports 12/1/43 - 2/28/45, 8/27/45, 11/27/45 Grubel to JDC. Status reports on the parcel service to Russia, 10/14/44, 2/9/45, 6/11/45 Passman to JDC, 7/19/45, 11/18/45, 11/20/45. Correspondence: H.K. Buchman, J.M. Landis, M.A. Leavitt, J.L. Magnes, C. Passman, J.A. Rosen, L.H. Sobel, H. Viteles, D. Weingard.
Index Terms:
Buchman, H.K.
Hebrew Sheltering and Immigrant Aid Society (HIAS)
Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee
Landis, J.M.
Leavitt, M.A.
Magnes, J.L.
Passman, C.
Refugees
Relief Supplies
Rosen, J.A.
Russia
Sobel, L.H.
Viteles, H.
Weingard, D.
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File 427: Polish Refugees in Russia (Teheran), General, 1946 - 1948
The large scale repatriation to Europe of Polish refugees in Asia impelled the JDC to discontinue the Teheran parcel service, 3/6/46 - 3/11/46(2), 3/26/46 Passman to Leavitt #1479, 3/27/46, 4/5/46, 4/30/46, 5/9/46, 5/14/46, 6/7/46, 6/28/46, 7/1/46. Overall costs of the Teheran parcel service 1/15/47. Correspondence: H.K. Buchman, M.A. Leavitt, C. Passman, J.J. Schwartz, E.M.M. Warburg. Lists of Parcel Beneficiaries: The Teheran parcel service consisted of two main categories - the Free and the Paid. In the Free Parcel Service the JDC office in New York supplied its office in Teheran with lists of the names and addresses of refugees living in Asiatic Russia, in greatest part, and in the liberated part of Poland. The lists were compiled on the basis of data provided by a number of organizations inthe U.S. (e.g. Jewish Labor Committee, National Council of Jewish Women, Union of Russian Jews, et al) together with individual requests. In all, 73 lists numbering 6,298 persons were forwarded between 1/15/43 - 11/29/45, and beneficiaries received anywhere from one to several packages. In the Paid Parcel Service, funds were received via a number of organizations (e.g. HIAS, Jewish Labor Committee, Landsmannschaften, Jewish Agency, Jewish Federation in London, et al). These funds were not included in the JDC appropriations, and were viewed as additions. File 428 contains a partial list, #1-20, of HIAS parcels that were forwarded and for which acknowledgements of receipt were received. For additional data, see: File 426, 2/9/45.
Index Terms:
Buchman, H.K.
Leavitt, M.A.
List
Passman, C.
Refugees
Relief Supplies
Schwartz, J.J.
Teheran
Warburg, E.M.M.
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File 428: Polish Refugees in Russia (Teheran), Lists
Lists of JDC Beneficiaries, #1-73. Lists of HIAS Beneficiaries from whom acknowledgements were received, #1-20
Index Terms:
Hebrew Sheltering and Immigrant Aid Society (HIAS)
List
Refugees
Relief Supplies
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File 429: Polish Refugees in Russia (Teheran), Reports
Fin. and statistical report: About the Inspection of the Russian Parcel Service in Teheran, by G. Bider, 2/21/47.
Index Terms:
Bider, G.
Financial
Refugees
Relief Supplies
Reports
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Series 3: Jews in Russia (Non-Polish)
In the course of W.W. II the JDC granted two allocations for the distribution of relief supplies in the USSR. They were earmarked for non-sectarian use, since the Russians refused to accept outside aid for sectarian distribution. The first allocation, $5,000, was contributed in May 1942 by the Agro-Joint, an arm of the JDC. The second, $500,000, was granted in Dec. 1943, following a four-month tour of Jewish communities in the U.S. conducted by an official Soviet delegation: Prof. S. Mikhoels and Lt. Col. I. Feffer. The allocation was earmarked for non-sectarian distribution, but in regions where Jewish populations were numerous. The distribution was completed by the early months of 1945. In April 1945, the JDC offered to renew rehabilitation activities in the Crimea, and in July it proposed to set aside $1,000,000 for the task. In Oct. 1945, the Soviet Gov't submitted a list of hospital supplies for the rehabilitation of war victims in the Crimea, under the terms of the grant. But the JDC proposal came to nothing. The JDC allocations to Russia, 1942 - 1945, reflected the broad consensus of views on the subject held by JDC leaders, with the exception of James Rosenberg. Rosenberg, Chairman of the JDC Board of Directors, ranked among the foremost JDC leaders for over a quarter of a century from 1921 onward. Over the years, he was a leading activist in a broad range of innovative programs and notably in the Agro-Joint, the American Society for Jewish Farm Settlements in Russia, and the Dominican Republic Settlement Association (DORSA). In W.W. II, he cherished a deep interest in the Russian War Relief and in the Jewish Section of it. For additional materials, see: Files 335-336. Between 1942 - 1945, Rosenberg called on the JDC repeatedly to orient afresh its policy vis-a-vis the USSR by granting it generous large-scale contributions. Those contributions, he urged, should be granted with-out any demand for assurances that the beneficiaries would in fact be Jews in whole or in major part. The other JDC leaders stood firm on the need for such assurances, holding that the funds which supported their organization stemmed from Jews, and in return the major benefits ought to flow to Jews. In the matter of Russian aid, Rosenberg's actions led to a cleavage: Rosenberg vs. the JDC. The topic was threshed out in outspoken fashion at the JDC Exec. Committee meeting on 9/13/44, and the cleavage persisted until the end of the war. But in the war years, Rosenberg remained a minority of one in JDC decision making on Russian aid. Representative samples of Rosenberg's position will be found below in letters, memos and minutes dated 8/10/42, 8/27/42, 6/8/43, 3/30/44, 7/6/44, 8/8/44 and 9/13/44. In Jan. 1953, Rosenberg set down his final thoughts on the JDC relations with Russia in the decades preceding. See: File 336, 1/19/53 - 1/30/53. For additional materials on relations between the JDC and The Russian Gov't, see: USSR, File 1,056.
Index Terms:
Agro-Joint
Refugees
Relief Supplies
Rosenberg, J.
Russia
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File 430: Jews in Russia (Non-Polish), 1941 - 1944 June
The JDC allocated $500,000 for the non-sectarian distribution of relief supplies by the Russian Red Cross in regions where Jewish populations were concentrated, 9/13/43, 9/17/43, 9/21/43 - 11/1/43, 11/26/43 - 12/7/43, 12/38/43, 5/17/44 (2). A full discussion of JDC's Russian olicy was urged by Rosenberg, 3/30/44, 5/18/44, 5/25/44 Rosenberg to Hyman, 6/14/44, 6/30/44. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, H.K. Buchman, J.C. Hyman, E.D. Kisselev, M.A. Leavitt, V. Lebedenko, I.H. Levy, A.H. Lieberman, A. Mandel, R.H. Reyher, J.A. Rosen, J.N. Rosenberg, J.J. Schwartz, Edw. R. Stettinius.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, P.
Buchman, H.K.
Hyman, J.C.
Kisselev, E.D.
Leavitt, M.A.
Lebedenko, V.
Levy, I.H.
Lieberman, A.H.
Mandel, A.
Refugees
Relief Supplies
Reyher, R.H.
Rosen, J.A.
Rosenberg, J.N.
Russia
Schwartz, J.J.
Stettinius, Edw. R.
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File 431: Jews in Russia (Non-Polish), 1944 July - 1949
A full discussion of JDC's Russian policy was again urged by Rosenberg, 7/6/44, 7/14/44, 7/18/44, 8/8/44 Rosenberg to Emergency Admin. Committee, 8/9/44, 8/30/44, 9/1/44, 9/11/44 (4). The JDC Exec. Committee conducted wide-ranging discussion of its Russian policy, 9/13/44(4), 9/14/44 - 9/16/44, 10/4/44, 10/5/44, 10/20/44, 11/15/44. C. Passman was sent to Teheran to investigate complaints by the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee in the USSR that individual packages sent from Teheran were "plain fraud", 9/29/44, 10/3/44, 10/23/44, 10/24/44. Passman refuted the charges, 12/8/44. The JDC offered to renew rehabilitation activities in the Crimea, 3/7/45 - 4/23/45, 5/5/45 - 6/7/45, 6/18/45 - 10/10/45. The Relief Association for the Jews in Russia, Mexico City, forwarded $17,000 via the JDC, for individual packages to the USSR, 1/16/47 - 2/9/50. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, H.K. Buchman, M.A. Leavitt, I.H. Levy, A.H. Lieberman, P.O. Mikhailov, E.M. Morrissey, C. Passman, J.N. Rosenberg, L.H. Sobel, D. Weingard.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, P.
Buchman, H.K.
Leavitt, M.A.
Levy, I.H.
Lieberman, A.H.
Mikhailov, P.O.
Morrissey, E.M.
Passman, C.
Refugees
Relief Supplies
Rosenberg, J.N.
Russia
Sobel, L.H.
Teheran
Weingard, D.
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File 415: Relief Supplies, General, 1943 - 1945
The JDC allocation of $100,000 in food supplies was distributed by the CICR in Rumania, Poland, Yugoslavia and Hungary and in concentration camps: Theresienstadt, Bergen-Belsen and Birkenau, 2/7/44, 2/22/44, 5/12/44, 5/15/44, 12/12/44; also see: SM Archives, File 23, CICR, 2/11/44 - 2/16/44, 3/17/44, Dec. 1944. JDC expenditures for food packages to various countries 1942 - 1944 (Aug.) =$3,132,789, 8/29/44. JDC allocations for food packages to Theresienstadt from Sweden, 10/21/44, 11/1/44, 11/13/44, 12/4/44, 12/11/44, 12/15/44, 12/19/44, 12/20/44, 12/28/44, 4/3/45 and attachments. Correspondence: H.K. Buchman, D.B. Hurwitz, M.A. Leavitt, L. Margolis, J.W. Pehle, R. Pilpel, M.P. Schauffler, J.J. Schwartz.
Index Terms:
Bergen-Belsen and Birkenau
Buchman, H.K.
Comite International de Croix Rouge (CICR)
Concentration Camps
Food
Hungary
Hurwitz, D.B.
Leavitt, M.A.
Margolis, L.
Pehle, J.W.
Pilpel, R.
Poland
Relief Supplies
Rumania
Schauffler, M.P.
Schwartz, J.J.
Theresienstadt
Yugoslavia
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Record Group 3.11: Vocational Training
File 432: Vocational Training
Following the rise of Hitler and stretching into the early 1940's, the JDC granted allocations for vocational training, predominantly to prospective emigrants to Palestine and other countries from Germany and ubsequently Austria (Hachscharah). Smaller allocations for vocational training also went to some ten other countries, most notably Poland, and via ORT. For additional materials, see: Organizations: ORT, Files 317-324. Countries: China, File 503; England, File 558, Joint ORT-OSE; France, File 601 (CRP); Germany, File 684; Lithuania, File 734; Poland, File 889; Rumania, File 911. Reports: July 1936, 1936 (undated), 4/10/37, Oct. 1937, 5/8/39, 6/26/39, 10/33/39, 8/21/40. Correspondence: M.B. Beckelman, H.K. Buchman, E.M. Morrissey, M.C. Troper.
Index Terms:
Beckelman, M.B.
Buchman, H.K.
Morrissey, E.M.
Reports
Troper, M.C.
Vocational Training
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