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Subcollection: Countries and Regions

This page contains records for JDC’s relief activities in Poland-Venezuela. Records for JDC’s relief activities in Abyssinia-Philippines, as well as an overall description of the Countries and Regions subcollection, can be accessed here.

Record Group 4.47: Poland

Series 1: Poland: Administration

The Publicity files contain publicity materials issued by the JDC, press materials attacking the JDC or praising it and other materials which have a bearing on JDC activities and personalities. Many of the attacks on the JDC by organizations and individuals were political in character. These groups and persons were largely motivated by sectarian considerations, and rejected the JDC principle of non-political and community-wide aid. Attacks on the JDC occurred with greater frequency in the Yiddish press, where factionalism was rife, than elsewhere.

File 788: Poland: Administration, General, 1933 - 1935 (May)

The JDC granted $10,000 to the non-sectarian Polish (Flood) Relief Commission, 7/25/34 – 8/20/34 Hyman to Caiserman; 10/6/34, report on floods in Galicia; 10/31/34, actual expenditures for flood relief. In 1933, the JDC granted $20,650 for the aid of German refugees in Poland, 4/12/34, 10/31/34, while in 1934 it granted 25,000 zlotys as a matching grant along with the CBF, 8/20/34, 8/30/34, 10/31/34, 11/12/34. The JDC granted $50,000 for aid in Poland in connection with the inspection trip to that country by B. Kahn, 2/15/35, 2/25/35, 2/27/35 Hyman to Kaplan. JDC expenditures in Poland for 1933 and 1934, 3/8/35 Hyman to Brown. Report: “Journey to Austria, Poland and Danzig 8/15/34 – 8/31/34” by Neville Laski, 9/24/34. “The Tragic Story of Polish Jewry” by J.C. Hyman, 4/1/35. Condensed report on Poland by B. Kahn 5/6/35, 5/11/35 and a summary of the report 5/31/35. Also see: File 817, Commission for Poland Relief. File 820, Polish Women’s Relief Committee South African Board of Deputies and United British Appeal of Polish Jewry. File 818, Bund. Correspondence: C. Adler, P. Baerwald, C. Hoffman, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, N. Laski, L.M. Rubinow, D.J. Schweiter

File 789: Poland: Administration, General, 1935 (June-Dec.)

JDC appropriations Jan.-June 1935 by major categories, 6/12/35, 7/9/35. Notes on B. Kahn’s Observations of Jewish Conditions in Poland, 7/1/35. Special Meeting of the JDC Exec. Committee, Verbatim Minutes 7/10/35. A Special JDC Committee on Poland was appointed (Chairman: Alexander Kahn), 7/11/35(2). Verbatim Minutes of the Special JDC Committee Meeting, 7/17/35. The JDC Foundation allocated $100,000 in aid of Jewish loan kassas in Poland, 7/25/35. Notes on an informal Conference on Poland held in Lucerne, Switzerland by JDC leaders, Sept. 1935. The Allocations Committee of the United British Appeal for Polish Jewry appropriated b 30,000 for aid to Polish Jewry, to be distributed by the JDC under the direction of B. Kahn, 11/6/35. Report on the Condition of the Jews in Poland and Eastern Europe by A. Kahn, 11/22/35, 12/5/35. Correspondence: C. Adler, P. Baerwald, D.A. Brown, J.C. Hyman, A. Kahn, B. Kahn, N. Laski, E.M. Morrissey, M.D. Waldman.

File 790: Poland: Administration, General, 1936

JDC expenditures in Poland 1915 – 1935, 3/5/36, 3/9/36, 3/13/36; expenditures in 1935, 3/6/36, 6/16/36; appropriations in 1936, 12/31/36. The Polish Gov’t granted a loan of 1 million zlotys for productive purposes in Jewish communities, 4/8/36 Kahn to Hyman. The United British Appeal for Polish Jewry distributed ? 15,750 via the JDC in aid of Polish Jews, 4/27/36. Reports – by B. Kahn: “Situation of the Jews in Poland”, 3/11/36; Report on Poland, 8/3/36. “Poland.” JDC Bulletins 1-2, April 1936. Relief aid for towns suffering from pogroms, terrorism and boycotts, attachment to 9/2/36. “Notes on a Recent Trip to Germany and Poland” by D.J. Schweitzer, Nov. 1936. Correspondence: P. B

File 791: Poland: Administration, General, 1937 (Jan.-Aug.)

A wave of anti-Jewish excesses and demonstrations throughout Poland drove many Jews from villages into cities, 6/9/37 and attachments, 7/21/37, 8/31/37. JDC allocations for the first quarter of 1937, 2/21/37, 2/23/37 memo by J.C. Hyman, 2/25/37. Reports: JDC Warsaw Monthly Report Nov. 1936, 1/5/37. Applications for Assignments and Assignments Made”, 3/10/37; “Review of JDC Work in Poland” by J.C. Hyman, 3/26/37; “Situation of the Jews in Poland” by Sholem Asch, 6/23/37; “A Year of JDC Work in Europe”, July 1937; Report on Poland by N. Aronovici, 8/7/37. Correspondence: N. Aronovici, S. Asch, P. Baerwald, H.K. Buchman, J.C. Hyman, A. Kahn, B. Kahn, N. Katz, N.J. Laski, D.J. Schweitzer.

File 792: Poland: Administration, General, 1937 (Sept.-Dec.)

Verbatim Minutes of the General Meeting of JDC Officers, 9/30/37. Minutes of the meeting in Warsaw of JDC officials, 11/1/37, 11/2/37. JDC allocations to Poland 1914 – 1937, 11/20/37, Dec. 1937; expenditures 1/1/37 – 9/30/37, attachment to 12/2/37; expenditures for the year 1937, 12/31/37. Reports: “On Poland” by Alexander Kahn, Oct. 1937 attachment to 11/16/37 and Summary, attachment to 12/29/37. “On the Activities of the JDC Office in Poland” Sept.-Oct. 1937, 10/31/37. “Activities and plans of the JDC in Poland” by the JDC Paris, 12/11/37. Local contributions in zloti to JDC programs and beneficiaries for 1937, 12/20/37. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, N. Gerstenfeld, J.C. Hyman, A. Kahn, B. Kahn, N. Katz, B.C. Vladeck.

File 793: Poland: Administration, General, 1938

Meetings of the Committee on Poland, Verbatim Minutes and Summary, 4/11/38. Memo on Poland and the Situation of the Jewish Population, 4/28/38. Situation of the Jews in Eastern Europe by JDC Paris, June, 1938. The Work of the JDC in Poland 1/1/38 – 6/30/38 by Mark Wischnitzer, 8/25/38. A digest of the JDC Warsaw Report Jan. thru July 1938, 8/26/38. Summary of Discussions of the JDC Work in Poland held at JDC N.Y. 9/30/38. Report on Poland by M.C. Troper, 11/30/38 attachment to 12/24/38. Situation of the Jews in Poland by Boris Smolar, attachment to 12/2/38 and Summary Memo 12/19/38. A General Survey of Political and Economic Conditions in Poland in 1938 by M. Wischnitzer, 12/13/38. Summaries of Monthly Reports by JDC Warsaw: July and August, 11/30/38; Sept. attachment to 12/22/38; Oct. 10/31/38; Nov. 11/30/58. For Zbaszyn refugees, see below: Files 878-879. Correspondence: H.K. Buchman, J. Giterman, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, N. Katz, D.J. Schweitzer, M.C. Troper.

File 794: Poland: Administration, General, 1939 (Jan.-June)

Reports and statements to the JDC Exec. Committee by A. Kahn, 1/26/39, 2/23/39, 4/19/39. Minutes of the JDC Committee on Poland, 2/8/39, 4/11/39 and Summary, 5/10/39 and Summary, 5/15/39 Buchman to Troper. Minutes of the JDC Committee on Poland, 2/8/39, 4/11/39 and Summary, 5/10/39 and Summary, 5/15/39 Buchman to Troper. Minutes of the Joint Meeting, Committee on Poland and JDC Foundation 4/11/39. Report: “The Polish Gov’t and its ‘Jewish’ Policy”, 3/20/39. Summary reports of JDC activities in Poland and Eastern Europe, April 1939, 5/10/39. Proposals for the organization of a Polish Jewish Central Committee, 2/3/39, 4/11/39, 6/10/39, 6/22/77. Jewish Defense Loan for Poland, 6/9/39. For Zbaszyn refugees, see below: Files 878-879. Correspondence: H.K. Buchman, A. Kahn, D.L. Schweitzer, M.C. Troper.

File 795: Poland: Administration, General, 1939 (July-Sep

Proposals for the organization of a Polish Jewish Central Committee and for changes in the JDC Administration for Poland, 7/1/39(2), 7/8/39, 7/22/39, 7/25/29, 7/31/39 Kahn to Troper, 8/28/39. Verbatim Minutes of the Committee on Poland and Summaries, 7/7/39, 7/25/39. Report on Poland to the JDC Exec. Committee by A. Kahn, 8/31/39. Statement by the JDC on its organization for the war emergency, 9/19/39. A Short Background of the Situation in Poland by B. Kahn, 9/30/39. Memo on American members of the JDC staff available for possible wartime service with American agencies, attachment to 9/25/39. Report of activities Sept.-Dec. 1939 by JDC Warsaw. Correspondence: H.K. Buchman, A. Kahn, B. Kahn, Robert D. Murphy, M.C. Troper.

File 796: Poland: Administration, General, 1939 (Oct.-Dec.)

Verbatim Minutes and Summary of the JDC Committee on Poland, 10/11/39, 10/12/39. On Happenings in Poland: 10/13/39 Memo by H.K. Buchman, 10/18/39 Long to Razovsky, 11/2/39 Memo by H.K. Buchman, 11/13/39 Memo, 11/13/39 Troper to JDC, 11/17/39, 11/19/39, 11/23/39, 11/24/39 Cable Vilna-Paris-N.Y., 12/4/39, 12/11/39, 12/18/39 Buchman to Engel, 12/22/39. M.W. Beckelman, JDC representative, enters Vilna with first Lithuanian detachment to that city, 10/26/39 JDC to Zadeikis and Baerwald to Pell, 10/30/39 Troper to JDC, 10/31/39 Memo M.W. Beckelman, Memos by M.W. Beckelman on activities in Vilna: 10/24/39 dated 11/3/39, 11/8/39(2), 11/11/39, 11/20/39. Short Statement by D. Guzik and L. Neustadt on their activities in Poland for the JDC Sept.-Oct. 1939, 11/12/39. Polish Relief Extended by ARC, Quakers, Pate Commission, et al: 10/16/39 Memo H. Katzki, 10/17/39 Baerwald to Davis, 11/2/39 Memo I. Rosen, 11/6/39, 11/8/39 Davis to Baerwald, 11/15/39 Statement by P. Baerwald, 11/19/39, 11/20/39, 11/25/39 Memo – 12/1/39, 12/8/39 Hyman to Davis, 12/27/39. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, M.W. Beckelman, H.K. Buchman, Norman H. Davis, D. Guzik, Herbert Hoover, J.C. Hyman, L. Neustadt, I. Rosen, J.J. Schwartz, M.C. Troper.

File 797: Poland: Administration, General, 1940 (Jan.-March)

Verbatim Minutes and Summary of Meetings of the JDC Committee on Poland, 1/10/40, 1/11/40 Memo, 3/6/40. JDC Activities in Poland: 2/5/40, Summary of Activities of the JDC Warsaw 9/1/39 – 12/30/39, 2/19/40, 2/24/40, 3/26/40 Troper to JDC N.Y. Report by M.W. Beckelman, 1/30/40 attachment to 2/15/40. On Happenings in Poland: 1/10/40 Summary, 1/12/40 Troper to N.Y., 1/15/40(3), 1/24/40, 2/20/40 Baerwald – Troper phone conversation, 2/26/40 Hyman to Bronfman, 2/27/40 Hyman to Hayes, 2/28/40 Summary. Polish Relief Extended by the ARC, the Quakers, the Pate Commission, et al: 1/2/40(2), 1/19/40, attachment to 1/22/40, 1/26/40 Memo, 1/26/40 Hyman to Davis, 1/29/40 Troper to Baerwald, 1/31/40(2), 2/7/40, 2/14/40, 2/26/40, 3/20/40 Memo, 3/29/40. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, M.W. Beckelman, H.K. Buchman, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, L. Rajchman, J.J. Schwartz, L.L. Strauss, M.C. Troper.

File 798: Poland: Administration, General, 1940 (April-Aug.)

Minutes of Meetings of the JDC Committee on Poland, 4/11/40, 6/5/40. Memo by M.W. Beckelman: 4/9/40. JDC Activities in Poland, 4/4/40 Summary of cables, 4/27/40, 7/5/40, 7/16/40. Polish Relief Extended by the ARC, the Quakers, the Pate Commission, et al: 4/4/40, 4/24/40 – 5/2/40, 5/22/40, 5/27/40, 5/31/40 – 6/3/40, 7/8/40. Correspondence: M.W. Beckelman, H.K. Buchman, J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt, M. Pate, M.C. Troper.

File 799: Poland: Administration, General, 1940 (Sept.-Dec.)

JDC Activities in Poland: 9/4/40, 9/6/40, 9/10/40 cable, 9/11/40, 11/18/40, 11/22/40, 12/12/40, 12/13/40 Draft Memo. Report on German Occupied Poland, 10/25/40. Notes on the Report of JDC Activities 1/1/40 – 9/30/40 (Note: The report itself is not in the files). Fin. Reports: JDC Warsaw 1/1/40 – 12/31/40, JDC Cracow Dec. 1940, 4/7/41. Correspondence: J. Blum, S.B. Jacobson, A. Jaretzki, Jr., E.M. Morrissey, J.J.

File 800: Poland: Administration, General, 1941 - 1942 (Aug.)

JDC Activities in Poland: 1/3/41 (Communities receiving JDC aid), 6/24/41, 9/11/41, 9/28/41, 11/13/41, 1/12/42 Memo, 2/13/42 Addendum to Report, 4/1/42 Hyman to Sievers, 5/29/42, 6/4/42, 6/25/42, 7/23/42, 7/24/42. Reports: A. Kahn – “Binding a Nation’s Wounds”, 4/4/41 and “The Truth About Relief for Polish Jews”, 11/28/41 attachment to 12/3/41; Elders Council of Jewish Communities in East Upper Silesia – 2/24/41; M.C. Troper – 11/4/41. Fin. Reports – JDC Warsaw 1941; Jan., Feb, Sept. Correspondence: H.K. Buchman, A. Kahn, J.C. Hyman, M.B. Leavitt, J.J. Schwartz, S. Strakacz, M.C. Troper.

File 801: Poland: Administration, General, 1942 (Sept.) - 1943

Schemes for shipping food packages to Poland Board of Deputies, London: 9/23/42, 11/13/42 attachment to 12/11/42, 5/18/43, 6/8/43, 9/2/43, 11/17/43. World Jewish Congress: 11/6/42, 11/13/42, 11/18/42, 11/20/42, 11/27/42, 10/6/43 Hyman to Long. JDC Portugal: 9/29/42, 11/4/42, 11/17/42(2), 12/7/42, 12/11/42, 12/13/42, 1/6/43, 2/1/43, 3/6/43, 3/8/43, 3/18/43, 3/23/43, 5/4/43, 6/4/43, 6/24/43, 7/9/43, 8/2/43, 8/3/43, 8/19/43, 9/10/43(2), 11/2/43; also see: SM Archives File 51(1). Correspondence: P. Baerwald, H.K. Buchman, J.C. Hyman, H. Katzki, M.A. Leavitt, I.M. Minkoff, L. Osborne, M.L. Perlzweig, J.J. Schwartz, S.S. Wise.

File 802: Poland: Administration, General, 1944

The U.S. Treasury authorized JDC remittances of $12,000 per month for food parcels from Portugal to individual recipients in Poland, 3/20/44 U.S. License – 3/29/44, 6/26/44, 7/19/44. The JDC extended aid to Jewish refugees in Poland via Dr. Emil Sommerstein of the Polish Committee of National Liberation, 5/24/44 attachment to 9/12/44, 7/5/44, 7/6/44, 8/16/44(2), 8/17/44(3), 8/21/44, 8/22/44, 8/31/44. JDC Weekly Digest – 9/8/44, 9/18/44, 10/10/44, 10/12/44, 10/14/44, 10/17/44(2), 10/19/44, 10/27/44 Weekly Review, 11/6/44 Hayes to Leavitt, 11/11/44 Cable to Winant, 11/28/44 Cable to U.S. Consulate Jerusalem, 11/30/44 Magnes to Leavitt, 12/15/44. The JDC requested Soviet permission to send a representative to liberated parts of Poland, 8/3/44, 8/9/44, 9/12/44 Cable, 9/14/44, 9/22/44 Gromyko to Baerwald, 10/2/44, 10/17/44 Leavitt to Parkridge, 11/16/44(2), 12/26/44. Report: “Review of Pre-War Poland, Polish Jewry and “JDC Activities” by N. Aronovici, 8/29/44 attachment to 9/5/44. Also see: SM Archives, File 51(1). Correspondence: P. Baerwald, H.K. Buchman, A. Gromyko, J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt, C. Passman, K. Pilpel, L.H. Sobel, J.J. Schwartz, S. Strakacz.

File 803: Poland: Administration, General, Galicia

Proposals for regional JDC aid to Galicia: 4/1/37, 4/12/37, 5/10/37, 10/14/37, 1/9/38, 9/14/38, 10/20/38, 2/2/39, 3/7/39, 4/16/39. Also see below: File 820, WUZET. Correspondence: H.K. Buchman, I. Giterman, J.C. Hyman, S. Low, L. Neustadt, M.C. Troper.

File 804: Poland: Administration, General, Fund-Raising Campaigns Overseas for Aid to Poland

Following the Nazi invasion of Poland, Jewish communities and groups in a number of overseas countries launched fund-raising drives on behalf of the Jewish victims. The funds raised were forwarded to the JDC for transmission to Poland. The most successful in that group were: Argentina $18,000, Canada $50,000 Cuba $2,400, and Mexico $13,000. 1. Argentina, 1940 – 1941: Some $18,000 were raised by an ad hoc group, Organismo de Ayuda a Las Victimas Judias de la Guerra en Polonia Buenos Aires, 1/10/40 attachment to 1/31/40, 2/15/40, 2/23/40, 2/28/40(2), 3/5/40, 3/7/40, 3/8/40, 3/9/40, 3/13/40, 3/15/40, 3/19/40, 4/19/40, 4/25/40, 7/13/40, 10/29/40, 11/22/40, 2/14/41, 3/21/41 – 4/14/41, 6/20/41, 9/16/41. Correspondence: J. Hellmann, M.F. Helman, A. Hirsch, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, L. Lapaco, M.A. Leavitt, R. Pilpel, J.J. Schwartz. 2. Australia, 1940. 3. Brazil, 1940 – 1941. 4. Canada, 1940: Correspondence S. Hayes, J.C. Hyman. 5. Cuba, 1940 – 1941: See: 2/16/40, 2/28/40, 3/21/41, 6/4/41. Correspondence: H. Chervony, R. Pilpel, J.J. Schwartz. 6. Mexico, 1933 – 1944: The Relief Committee for Jewish War Sufferers raised over $13,000 for Polish Relief. See: 2/6/40, 2/16/40, 3/2/40, 3/7/40, 3/8/40, 5/13/40, 5/22/40, 7/23/40 Rafalin to the JDC. Correspondence: J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, M.A. Leavitt, R. Pilpel, D.S. Rafalin, M. Rubinstein, J.J. Schwartz.

File 805: Poland: Administration, Financial, Claims Against the JDC

File 806: Poland: Administration, Financial, Statements, Budgets, et al, 1937 - 1938

a. Statement of Sums Appropriated in 1937, Schedules A-H. b. Economic Work, Proposed Budget for Poland, 1938. c. General Budget for 1938, L. Neustadt.

File 807: Poland: Administration, Financial, Statements, Budgets, et al, 1939

7/1/39 – 12/31/39

File 808: Poland: Administration, Financial, Statements, Budgets, et al, 1939 - 1941

Fin. Statements, Schedules and Memos: March 1939, 7/1/39, 7/17/39, 7/31/39, 8/1/39, 8/25/39, 11/22/39, 1/12/40, 2/19/40, 4/9/40, 11/4/41.

File 809: Poland: Administration, Financial, JDC Transfer of $40,000 Allocation to Warsaw Discount Bank

On 8/30/39, on the very eve of hostilities, the Chase Bank acting for the JDC cabled $40,000 to the Warsaw Discount Bank. The funds were to be transmitted to the JDC Warsaw office, but it never reached there. The file records the unsuccessful efforts to recover the funds made by the JDC.

File 810: Poland: Administration, Publicity, General, 1933 - 1937 (April)

JDC Publicity Releases on Poland: 6/7/36, 1/21/37. Article: A Word to Poles — Brother Polish Citizen, by Sholem Asch. Correspondence: A. Horowitz, J.C. Hyman, A. Kalin, B. Kahn, H.J. Seligman.

File 811: Poland: Administration, Publicity, General, 1937 (May) - 1942; 1944

JDC Publicity Releases on Poland: 8/30/37, 11/3/39, 2/3/40, 5/10/40 (Yiddish), 5/12/42, 5/29/42, 6/8/42. JDC Brochures: Lifeline, 2/16/41 (Report of JDC’s National Meeting in N.Y.); How the JDC Does It, by E.M.M. Warburg, Feb. 1941 (tells how the JDC aided Jews in occupied Europe without helping the German economy or breaking the British blockade). Other publicity materials: Jewish Daily Forward, 2/23/40 (rotogravure page on Poland); Berliner Illustrierte Zeitung, 12/5/40 (Picture Section on the Lublin Ghetto); L. Schupakevitch attack on the JDC and its rebuttal, 10/17/41 – 12/16/41; News from Poland (Unser Tsait), monthly publication of the American Representation of the General Jewish Workers Union of Poland, 1942: Feb.-Aug. (2). Correspondence: J.C. Hyman, N. Katz, M.A. Leavitt, L. Schupakevitch, M.C. Troper.

File 812: Poland: Administration, Publicity, JDC Bulletins

a. Bulletins on Poland, 2/1/39 – 8/1/39: #1-14 (#11 missing) The Bulletins were issued by the JDC Office in Poland for the information of the JDC N.Y. They were scheduled to appear at 10-day intervals, but sometimes skipped an interval or two under the pressure of events. They focused most heavily on refugee and reconstruction activities and on organizational events. b. Present Activities of the JDC, 10/1/39 – 12/2/40: #1-10 (#1, #7 missing) These Bulletins were issued by the JDC N.Y. They appeared originally at fortnightly intervals and then stretched out to monthly and finally to quarterly intervals. The sections dealing with individual countries were more general in character than the Bulletins on Poland. Most issues were multi-themed, but a few dealt with only a single theme, e.g. Poland and Refugees from Poland.

File 813: Poland: Administration, Reports, Jewish Social Work in Poland

by L. Neustadt, June 1936. Yiddish

File 814: Poland: Administration, Reports, Relief Activities for the Jews in Poland

by Emanuel Pat, March 1941, English and Yiddish copies, with an English duplicate. The report was based on data published in the Krakau “Yiddischer Zeitung” and included information from the monthly reports that Kehillas and other Jewish institutions were required to submit to the Nazi authorities. The report covered the span from Sept. 1940 to Dec. 1941.

File 815: Poland: Administration, Reports, Brief Reports, 1935 - 1939

These reports were written by non-JDC personalities mostly, and covered a fairly wide range of topics. The reports include those written by S. Asch, T. Bienenstock. R. L. Buell, I. Cohen, M.R. Cohen, A.G. Duker, F.M. Isserman, J. Lishinski, S. Mendelsohn, B. Smolar and L. Spizman. Other reports were issued by various organizations but with no authorship attributed. During the war years, underground and eyewitness accounts predominated. Brief reports by JDC personalities will be found above in Poland, General.

File 816: Poland: Administration, Reports, Brief Reports, 1940 - 1944

These reports were written by non-JDC personalities mostly, and covered a fairly wide range of topics. The reports include those written by S. Asch, T. Bienenstock. R. L. Buell, I. Cohen, M.R. Cohen, A.G. Duker, F.M. Isserman, J. Lishinski, S. Mendelsohn, B. Smolar and L. Spizman. Other reports were issued by various organizations but with no authorship attributed. During the war years, underground and eyewitness accounts predominated. Brief reports by JDC personalities will be found above in Poland, General.

Series 2: Poland: Organizations

(General List) The references to the organizations listed below will all be found in the files on Poland, except for those preceded by an asterisk. The latter, referring to the category Organizations, will be found in the section which directly follows this list. Also see: Files 849-873 for data on individual loan kassas, arranged by localities. Aid Committee of the Grand Rabbinat, Istanbul, see: File 886.e. Agudas Israel, see: File 828. *Ahawath Chesed, Lemberg, see: File 819. American Friends Service Committee, Wash., D.C. see: Files 796-798. American Red Cross, Wash., D.C., see: General, Files 795, 797, 798. *Bank dla Spoldzielni, Warsaw, see: File 819. *Belgian Red Cross, Brussels, see: File 819. Beth Jacob Schools, see: File 829. *Beth Lechem Institutions, Lemberg, see: File 819. Board of Deputies of British Jewry, London, see: File 801. *Bund (Yiddischer Arbeiter Wirtschafts Komite), Warsaw, see: File 818. CEKABE, Warsaw (Central Society for Interest-Free Loans and for the Fostering of Production Work Among the Jewish Population of Poland), see: File 848.. CENTOS, Warsaw, see: File 822. Central Jewish Educational Committee, Vilna, see: File 826. Central Jewish School Organ., Warsaw, see: File 828. *Central Refugees Committee, Warsaw, see: File 819. Child Care Association “CENTOS”, Warsaw, see: File 822. Chorev, Warsaw, see: File 828. *Commission for Polish Relief, see: File 817. *Committee for Polish Jewish Affairs, New York, see: File 819. Federation of Polish Jews in America, New York, see: Files 225 – 232. *Fund for Jewish Refugee Writers, New York, see: File 819. General Aid Committee for Jewish Refugees from Germany in Poland, see: File 874, 874a. HICEM Poland, see: File 838. *Jewish Colonization Committee in Poland, Warsaw, see: File 819. Jewish Relief Association, Bombay, see: Refugees, File 883. Juedische Soziele Selbsthilfe, Krakau) see: SM Archives, Juedische Unterstuetzungs Stelle, Krakau) File 51(1). Juedisches Spital, Lublin, see: File 840. *Jewish Women’s Association of Wilno,see: File 819. Kehilla Refugee Relief Committee, Vilna, see: File 875. Medem Sanitorium, Miedzeszyn/Warsaw, see: Medical Care, File 840. Nurses Training School, Warsaw, see: File 840. Ohel Sara, see: File 828. Organismo de Ayuda a Los Victimes Judias de la Guerra en Polonia, Buenos Aires, see: File 804.1. ORT Poland, Warsaw,see: File 819. Pate Commission, Washington, D.C., see: Files 796-798. Polish (Flood) Relief Commission, see: General, File 788. *Polish Women’s Relief Committee, New York, see: File 820. Relief Campaign for Jewish War Sufferers, Mexico City,see: File 804.6. Sanatorium “Jehudys”, Warsaw, see: File 841. Society for the Preservation of Health Among the Jews in Poland (TOZ), Warsaw, see: File 840. *South African Board of Deputies, Johannesburg, see: File 820. Szul-Kult, Warsaw, see: File 828. Tarbuth Schools, Warsaw, see: File 830. TOZ, Warsaw, see: Medical Care, File 840. Union of Cooperative Kassas in Poland (Verband), Warsaw, see: File 845. *United British Appeal for Poland, London, see: File 826. *United British Appeal for Polish Jewry, London, see: File 820. United Galician Jews of America, New York, see: File 338. Warsaw Discount Bank, see: Poland, Fin., File 809. World Jewish Congress, N.Y., see: Files 346-348. *WUZET, Lwow, see: File 820. Yavneh Schools, Warsaw, see: File 831. Yeshivot and Other Institutions of Higher Learning. Baranowicz, Ohel Torah, see: File 833. Bialystok, Beth Meir, see: File 833. Bobowa, Etz Chaim, see: File 833. Brzesc (Brisk), Torath Chesed, see: File 833. Grodno, Shaar Hatora, see: File 833. Kamenitz-Litovsk, Kneseth Beth Isaac, see: File 833. Kletzk, Etz Chaim, see: File 833. Kobryn, Yeshivot Kobryn, see: File 833. Lomza, Rabbinical Yeshiva of Lomza, see: File 833. Lublin, Chachmei Lublin, see: File 834. Lwow, Teachers Seminary, see: File 835. Mir, Mirrer Yeshiva, see: File 836. Nowogrodek, Beth Joseph, see: File 835. Radun, Chofetz Chaim, see: File 835. Sokolow/Podl, Beth Israel, see: File 835. Stolin, Beth Israel, see: File 835. Warsaw, Institute for Judaistic Sciences, see: File 835. Warsaw, Mechanim Seminar, see: File 835. Warsaw, Tomchei-Tmimim (Lubavitch), see: File 837. Warsaw, Torat Chaim, see: File 835. Warsaw, Yeshiva Umesifta, see: File 835. Warsaw, Yeshivot Govoha “Emek Halacha”, see: File 835. Wilno (Vilna), Rameiles, see: File 835. Wilno (Vilna), Tachkemoni Seminary, see: File 835. Wolozin, Etz Chaim, see: File 835. *Yiddischer Arbeiter Wirtschaft Komite (Bund), Warsaw, see: File 818. *Youth Theatre Project of Warsaw, see: File 820.

File 817: Poland: Organizations, Commission for Polish Relief (CPR)

The CPR was formed in Sept. 1939 to distribute non-sectarian relief in Poland and among Polish refugees in neighboring countries. (Chairman: Henry McCracken, Vice Chairman and active head, Maurice Pate). In the first year of operations, it distributed relief in the value of $901,000, of which some $372,000 went for use in German occupied Poland, and the rest for Polish refugees in Lithuania, France, Romania and Hungary, in the main. The JDC contributed $20,000 to the CPR in Sept. 1940. Activities of the CPR and the JDC: 10/15/39, 10/19/39, 11/13/39, 11/14/39, 11/19/39, 11/20/39, 11/21/39(3), 12/6/39, 1/24/40, 1/26/40, 2/7/40, 2/21/40, 4/10/40, 5/3/40, 6/14/40, 6/15/40, 7/8/40, 9/20/40, 11/29/40, 12/19/40, 1/31/41. CPR News Bulletins: #1, 10/20/39; #2, 10/29/30; #3, 11/10/39; #4, 11/22/39; #5, 12/29/39; #6, 2/10/40. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, M.W. Beckelman, H.K. Buchman, Norman H. Davis, J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt, C. McCormick, M. Pate, C.E. Pickett, J.J. Schwartz, L.L. Strauss.

File 818: Poland: Organizations, Yiddischer Arbeiter Wirtschafts Komite (Bund), Warsaw

The Polish Bund represented the Jewish socialist labor movement in Poland. Until the outbreak of W.W. II it went its own way and refused to cooperate with Zionist or religious groups. During the Nazi occupation it played an active role in the Jewish resistance movement. Relations Between the JDC and the Bund: 6/10/39, 7/3/39, 7/7/39 – 8/7/39, 9/22/39, 10/16/39(2), 11/20/39, 12/28/39(2), 1/12/40, 2/1/40 – 3/22/40, 4/9/40, 4/16/40, 7/11/40, 9/5/40, 10/21/41, 11/12/41. Correspondence: M.W. Beckelman, H.K. Buchman, I. Giterman, J.C. Hyman, A. Kahn, B. Kahn, I. Minkoff, S. Mendelson, E. Novogrodski, J. Pat, J.J. Schwartz, M.C. Troper.

File 819: Poland: Organizations, Miscellaneous 1

a. Ahawath Chesed, Lemberg, 1937 – 1938: A Gemiloth Chesed Kassa. JDC Allocations: 1938 – $500. Correspondence: H.K. Buchman, A. Kahn, B. Kahn. b. Bank dla Spoldzielni, Warsaw, 1938 – 1939: Correspondence: O.E. d’Avigdor Goldsmid, B. Kahn, L. Oungre, R. Szereszowski. c. Belgian Red Cross, Brussels, 1940. d. Beth Lechem Institutions, Warsaw (BLI), 1936 – 1941: The BLI Warsaw was a relief organization distributing bread, fuel and clothing in the main to needy persons. In the 1930’s, the JDC granted them over $3,000 in all, most of it for Passover supplies. Correspondence: N. Ben-Horin, H.K. Buchman, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, M.A. Leavitt, E.A. Swift. e. Central Refugees Committee, Warsaw, 1939: JDC Allocations as of 3/16/39 ZI 159,000. Report by the Committee including tables: refugees in individual cities and towns, contributions from abroad and sums remitted by local committees, 3/22/39. f. Fund for Jewish Refugee Writers, New York, 1940 – 1942, In 1940, the JDC granted $1,250 to the Fund to aid refugee writers and scholars in Eastern Europe who were in need. Correspondence: Sholem Asch, H.K. Buchman, W. Edlin, M.A. Leavitt. g. Jewish Colonization Committee in Poland (JCC), Warsaw, 1938 – 1939: In 1938, at the instance of the Polish Gov’t, the JCC was organized (Chairman: Prof. Moses Schorr) to aid in expediting Jewish emigration from Poland. Ambitious plans were put forward, but nothing came of them. Correspondence: C. Adler, P. Baerwald, H.K. Buchman, I. Giterman, M.C. Troper. h. Jewish Women’s Association of Wilno, 1937: JDC Allocations: 1934 – 1936, $1,545. i. ORT Poland, Warsaw, 1935 – 1940: Fin. Report ORT Poland 1936, 12/31/36. Fin. Report ORT Union, Paris (including Poland) 1936, 12/31/36. Correspondence: I. Giterman, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn.

File 820: Poland: Organizations, Miscellaneous 2

a. Polish Women’s Relief Committee, New York, 1942 – 1944: The Committee was formed in 1940 to send relief parcels to Polish PW’s in Nazi captivity. The aid was distributed on a non-sectarian basis. JDC Allocations — 1942: $ 5,400; 1943: 3,000; 1944: 2,600; Total: $11,000. Fin. Statements by the Committee: 9/30/42, 2/9/43; Nov. 1939 – June 1943, July 1943 Publication White Eagle. Correspondence: J.C. Hyman, A. Strakacz, A. Znamiecki. b. South African Board of Deputies, Johannesburg (S.A.), 1936 – 1940; 1944, JDC Allocations: 1938, $12,500 to match the contribution of the S.A. B. of D. for Polish relief, 6/21/38; 1939/1940, $75,000 to match a comparable sum contributed by the S.A. B. of D. 12/13/39 – 2/14/40. For other materials on the S.A. B. of D., see: Union of South Africa, Files 1,053 – 1,054. Correspondence: M.W. Beckelman, A. Brotman, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, E. Saron. c. United British Appeal for Polish Jewry (UBA), London, 1935 – 1940: In 1935/1936, the UBA allocated $190,000 for Polish Jewry and the funds were distributed via the JDC and with the guidance of B. Kahn, 11/6/35(2), 2/3/36. In 1939, the JDC allocated L 12,500 in aid of Polish refugees to match an allotment by the UBA in the same sum, 1/9/40. Report: UBA L 5,000 Assignment for Gemiloth Chesed Kassas, Feb. 1937. Also see: Files 789-790. Correspondence: A. Horwitz, B. Kahn, N. Laski. d. WUZET, Lwow, 1938 – 1939: The WUZET is the association for vocational training in Galicia. The JDC allocations in 1938 – 1939 were matching sums to those granted by the United Galician Jews of America, New York. JDC Allocations — 1938: $7,500; 1939: $2,500; Total: $10,000. List of organizations in Galicia supported by the WUZET, 12/16/37. Correspondence: H.K. Buchman, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, L. Neustadt. e. Youth Theatre Project of Warsaw, 1938: JDC Allocation: $250.

Series 3: Poland: Subject Matter

Child Care — Between 1933 – 1940, the JDC allocated $1,020,000 in all for child care aid in Poland. A great share of the funds were distributed via the Child Care Association “Centos”, and to a smaller degree by the medical organization “TOZ”. The distribution ran as follows: 1933: $50,064; 1934: 74,291; 1935: 128,590; 1936: 193,598; 1937: 196,735; 1938: $152,122; 1939: 150,150; 1940: 75,000; Total: $1,020,550. In addition, between 1932 – 1940 a Baltimore philanthropist, Jacob Epstein, earmarked over $100,000 all told, for child care aid in Poland. The funds were distributed by the JDC. Materials on the Epstein gifts will be found below in File 821, CENTOS, File 822, and TOZ, File 840. Cultural and Religious — Between 1933 – 1940, JDC expenditures in aid of Jewish cult. and religious institutions, organizations and activities reached some $302,000 in all. In addition, about $17,900 went to Jewish institutions and organizations following their flight to Lithuania in 1939/40, in the aftermath of the Nazi invasion of Poland. 1933: $1,965; 1934: 3,819; 1935: 20,907; 1936: 41,953; 1937: $58,181; 1938: 54,147; 1939: 121,387; 1940: 249; Total: $302,608. In the main, the funds aided Jewish primary and secondary schools and yeshivot and other institutions of higher learning. The JDC Cult. Committee allocated most of the funds at its disposal to the three original constituent committees of the JDC for distribution – the American Jewish Relief Committee (AJRC), the Central Relief Committee (CRC) and the People’s Relief Committee (PRC). For the general scope of the arrangement, see: File 89, Introduction. The primary and secondary schools in Poland fell into three broad categories, and JDC aid was extended to all three: (1) Religious, (2) Yiddish, secular, (3) Hebrew, secular. For detailed data, see below: Files 826, 827. For data on earlier years, see: Archives 1921 – 1932, Files 344-352. Yeshivot — JDC aid to yeshivot in Poland fell into several broad categories: – Maintenance. – Building repairs (where the gov’t threatened to close the schools in question unless bldg. repairs were carried out) – Transplanting a number of Polish yeshivot to overseas lands (via Lithuania, Russia and Japan), by underwriting transportation costs of teachers and students, e.g. Mir, Tomchei Tmimim, Warsaw, et al. For additional data, see: Yeshivot, Files 356-362. Lithuania, Files 738-739. Japan, File 727. China, File 462. For materials on aid to yeshivot in earlier years, see: JDC Archives 1921 – 1932, Files 353-355. Medical Care — JDC allocations for medical care between 1933 – 1941 came to $661,461 in all, and were distributed via the TOZ, in over-whelming degree. The TOZ (Society for the Preservation of Health Among the Jews in Poland) was the Polish affiliate of the OSE. It was organized in 1922 as a national Jewish health organization to conduct med. activities and institutions established originally by the JDC, along with programs in public health education. It received large JDC appropriations over the years. JDC allocations for medical care took the following pattern: 1933: $25,187; 1934: 25,471; 1935: 31,800; 1936: 47,409; 1937: 94,047; 1938: $93,253; 1939: 86,994; 1940: 157,300; 1941: 100,000; Total: $661,461. Reconstruction — JDC allocations for reconstruction activities in Poland were granted for loan kassas and credit cooperatives, in over-whelming degree. Direct allocations, most of which stemmed from the JDC Foundation, reached $738,860, all told, and were second in size only to child care allocations. They took the following pattern: 1934: $765; 1935: — ; 1936: 104,762; 1937: 289,769; 1938: $176,775; 1939: 137,200; 1940: 29,589; Total: $738,860. But in those years, JDC aid to the Kassas and cooperatives was several fold greater, in reality. Large-scale JDC allocations to those organizations dated back to 1926. The allocations were used in revolving funds, and when individual loans were repaid, the funds were available for fresh loans. The JDC never withdrew any of the funds. For other materials, see above: File 819, Ahawath Chesed, Lemberg, and Bank dla Spoldzielni, Warsaw. Loan Kassas — The Loan Kassas granted small, personal, short-term, interest-free loans, in contrast with the Loan and Savings Kassas which granted larger, interest-bearing loans, both short and long-term. Also see: File 819, Ahawath Chesed. For a list of loan kassas arranged by localities, see below: File 849-873. Refugees — Between 1933 – Oct. 1938, some 6,000 refugees arrived in Poland from Germany. All but a handful were Polish citizens who had been expelled by the Nazi Gov’t. In the night of Oct. 27-28, 1938, the Nazi authorities abruptly expelled en masse about 16,000 Polish Jews in Germany across the German-Polish frontier. The refugees had no belongings and literally lacked everything – money, food, shelter and warm clothing. The JDC moved into the breach and was followed by other Jewish agencies. Local Jewish communities also collected substantial sums in aid. For details, see below: Files 878-879. Between Jan.-July 1939, the refugees were joined by another 4,000 family members coming from Germany. Other refugees also came to Poland from Czechoslovakia in the wake of the Munich Pact. Following the Nazi invasion of Poland, scores of thousands of Jews fled to adjoining lands – Russia, Lithuania, Hungary and Romania, and many emigrated to Palestine and overseas lands. For Polish refugees in overseas lands, see: Files 880-886. JDC Allocations for Refugee Aid and Repatriation in Poland: 1933: $6,340; 1934: 7,653; 1935: –; 1936: 4,000; 1937: $27,043; 1938: 39,421; 1939: 186,109; Total: $270,566. But the sum of $270,566 was only a fragment of the totality for the aid of Polish refugees that the JDC expended. In addition, large sums aided Polish refugees in other countries and were charged to other budgets where refugee outlays were all intermingled. In many instances, the segments for Polish refugees can no longer be segregated from the others. Moreover, the JDC granted $375,000 for non-sectarian relief to Polish refugees, among whom the number of Jewish refugees was high. The sum included $350,000 expended via the Free Polish Gov’t, $20,000 via the Commission for Polish Relief and $5,600 via the Polish Women’s Relief Committee For other materials, see above: File 819, Fund for Refugee Writers. Polish Jews in Poland became refugees only after the Nazi invasion in Sept. 1939. Polish Jews elsewhere – e.g. Germany, Austria, Czechoslovakia, could become refugees already in pre-war days, as a result of some Nazi political action, e.g. the annexation of Austria, the signing of the Munich Pact and the like. In wartime emigration, unexpected delays en route were a commonplace and refugees often found themselves marooned for long stretches at a single place. Hence, in the case of refugees traveling to overseas lands via the Trans-Siberian R.R., materials may also be found below under Japan, China, Burma and India; or in the case of refugees traveling to Palestine from Italy, materials may also be found under Turkey.

File 821: Poland: Subject Matter, Child Care, General

Over the years, Jacob Epstein’s gifts for child care in Poland were received at the rate of $1,000 per month, on the average, and the distribution ran as follows: 1932: $9,000; 1933: 4,400; 1934: 10,000; 1935: 12,000; 1936: 12,000; 1937: $12,000; 1938: 12,000; 1939: 13,000; 1940: 12,000; 1941: 5,000; Total: $101,400. Report: JDC Expenditures for Child Care in 1937, 12/31/37. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, H.K. Buchman, J. Epstein, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, E.M. Morrissey, J.N. Rosenberg.

File 822: Poland: Subject Matter, Child Care, Child Care Association CENTOS

The CENTOS was an association of the major Jewish child care organizations in Poland and its existence dated back to 1924. It supervised a wide range of activities, stretching from orphan care to summer camps, to vocational training, and until the latter 1930’s it was able to cover locally a large share of its budget. Reports: Organization for Child Protection and Aid for Orphans in Poland and tables of activities 1926 – 1934, 1/1/36. Tables of activities and fin. statements 1926 – 1935, 3/31/36. The Plight of the Jewish Children in Ostrog, Oct. 1937. CENTOS application for JDC allocation and fin. statements, 7/28/37. JDC Report, CENTOS Child Care Work in Poland, 1937 – 1938, August 1938. Fin. Statement 9/6/39 – 12/31/39, 1/21/40. Correspondence: H.K. Buchman, J.C. Hyman, S.B. Jacobson, B. Kahn.

File 823: Poland: Subject Matter, Child Care, Summer Camps, 1936 - 1937

JDC Reports: Summer Colonies Initiated and Supported by the AJDC, narrative and photos, 1936. The Summer Colonies in Poland 1937, by L. Neustadt.

File 824: Poland: Subject Matter, Child Care, Summer Camps, 1938 - 1939

JDC Report: The Summer Colonies in Poland, 1938, by L. Neustadt, Dec. 1938. Preliminary Statement on Summer Camp Activities in 1938, 1/26/39.

File 825: Poland: Subject Matter, Concentration Camps

Auschwitz (Oswiecim) and Birkenau were two nearly adjoining concentration camps in Upper Silesia to which Jews from many countries, including Poland, were sent. When Auschwitz was opened following the Nazi invasion of Poland, it was initially billed as a place of resettlement for the Jews of Silesia and a “central emigration bureau” was established there. There were no recorded cases of emigration from Auschwitz in the accepted meaning of the word. Reports: The Mass Extermination of Jews in German Occupied Poland by the Gov’t of Poland, 12/10/42; Report on Auschwitz Crematorium, undated and without authorship, Jan. 1944 (?). List of Interned Persons at Birkenau, 4/27/44; German Extermination Camps – Auschwitz and Birkenau, Nov. 1944; Jewish Survivors Report – 18 months in the Oswiecim Extermination Camp, May 1945; Concentration Camp Auschwitz-Birkenau, Aug. 1945. Also see: SM Archives, Files 52-53.

File 826: Poland: Subject Matter, Cultural and Religious, General

JDC cultural activities in Poland: 5/22/35, 9/11/36(2), 9/28/36, 2/24/37 Adler to Kahn, 3/16/37, 4/5/37, 4/29/37, 6/10/37, 6/18/37, 6/25/37, 10/14/37, 12/14/37, 1/21/39, 11/21/39, 11/9/39, 12/13/39, 1/15/40, 3/11/40 Paris Cable-4/16/40, 5/1/40, 5/10/40, 10/18/40. United British Appeal for London allotted funds for distribution in Poland by the JDC: L 3,000, 3/13/36-4/27/36; L 2,500, 9/30/38. JDC subsidies for equipment and repair of schools: 1936, 8/13/36, 12/31/36; 1937, 12/31/37; 1938, 12/27/38 attachment to 1/20/39; 1939, 3/15/39-3/26/39, 4/3/39, 5/24/39, 6/13/39(3)-6/22/39(3), 7/18/39, 8/23/39. Reports: Educational and Cultural Institutions Subventioned by the JDC in 1936, 12/31/36; Structure of Jewish School Organizations in Poland, 4/22/37; Fin. Condition of the School Organizations in Poland, 1/14/39 attachment to 1/17/39; Proposal for a Survey of Cultural Institutions in Poland by M.W. Beckelman, 8/22/39 attachment to 8/27/39; Present Situation of Elementary and Other Schools in Vilna City and Province, 3/20/40 attachment to 4/19/40. Correspondence: C. Adler, M.W. Beckelman, H.K. Buchman, A. Horowitz, J.C. Hyman, Cordell Hull, L. Jung, B. Kahn, M.A. Leavitt, E.M. Morrissey, J.J. Schwartz, M.C. Troper.

File 827: Poland: Subject Matter, Cultural and Religious, Elementary and Secondary Schools, Reports

Yiddish Schul-Wesen in Poilen 1934 – 1935, April 1936. Applications for Assignments and Assignments Made 3/10/37, see: File 791. Jewish Private Public Instruction in Poland by L. Neustadt, 5/12/37. Jewish Schools in Poland (JDC), August 1938. Survey of Activities of Jewish School Organizations in Poland by L. Neustadt, July 1939. The Bldg. and Equipment Campaign as Carried on by the Jewish School Organizations in Poland by L. Neustadt, 8/4/39.

File 828: Poland: Subject Matter, Cultural and Religious, Elementary and Secondary Schools, Miscellaneous

a. Agudas Israel, 1935 (Religious): For materials on earlier years, see: Archives 1921 – 1932, File 346. Correspondence: C. Adler, J.C. Hyman. b. Central Jewish Education Committee, Vilna, 1934 – 1940 (Yiddish, Secular). JDC Allocations: 1934: $350; 1935: 60; 1936: 102; 1937: $170; 1938: 200; 1939: 300; Total: $1,182. Correspondence: H.K. Buchman, J.C. Hyman, A. Kahn. c. Central Jewish School Organ., Warsaw (CISCHO), 1938 – 1940 Yiddish, Secular). JDC Allocations: 1933: $1,440; 1934: 3,015; 1935: 5,350; 1936: 8,113; 1937: $10,300; 1938: 16,983; 1939: 18,400; Total: $63,601. For materials on earlier years, see: Archives, 1921 – 1932, File 351. Correspondence: D.M. Bressler, H.K. Buchman, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, S. Mendelson, E.M. Morrissey, J. Pat, B.C. Vladeck. d. Chorev Schools, 1937 – 1941 (Religious). JDC Allocations: 1936: $5,000; 1937: 5,000; 1938: $6,800; 1939: 10,150; Total: $26,150. Correspondence: M. Beckelman, H.K. Buchman, J.C. Hyman. e. Ohel Sara, 1938 – 1939 (Religious, Beth Jacob). JDC Allocations: 1938: $100; 1939; Total: $400. f. Szul-Kult, Warsaw, 1937 – 1939 (Secular). JDC Allocations: 1936: $1,000; 1937: 2,600; 1938: $3,300; 1939: 5,600; Total: $12,500. Correspondence: C. Adler, M.W. Beckelman, H.K. Buchman, S. Gourary, Ch. O. Grodzienski, A. Horowitz, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, E.M. Morrissey.

File 829: Poland: Subject Matter, Cultural and Religious, Elementary and Secondary Schools, Beth Jacob Schools

(Religious, Girls) JDC Allocations: 1933: $320; 1934: 420; 1935: 760; 1936: 5,966; 1937: $8,833; 1938: 8,125; 1939: 3,932; 1940: 250; Total: $28,606. Activities report by L. Deutschlaender, April 1935. List of Beth Jacob Schools in Poland, 4/24/37. A Holocaust Document, 8/11/42. Also see: File 828, Ohel Sara. For materials on earlier years, see: Archives 1921 – 1932, Files 347-347a. Correspondence: C. Adler, H.K. Buchman, L. Deutschlaender, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, L. Jung, L. Rosenbaum.

File 830: Poland: Subject Matter, Cultural and Religious, Elementary and Secondary Schools, Tarbuth Schools

(Hebrew Language and Culture) JDC Allocations: 1933: 700; 1934: 1,050; 1935: 3,450; 1936: 3,950; 1937: $2,400; 1938: 15,150; 1939: 3,880; Total: $30,580. Tarbuth Publications (Hebrew): Tarbuth 1934: July, Dec,; Mesiloth 1935 – 1936. For materials on earlier years, see: Archives 1921 – 1932, Files 348-350. Correspondence: C. Adler, H.K. Buchman, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn.

File 831: Poland: Subject Matter, Cultural and Religious, Elementary and Secondary Schools, Yavneh Schools

(Mizrachi) JDC Allocations: 1934: $315; 1935: 3,450; 1936: 3,950; 1937: $3,990; 1938: 2,625; Total: $14,330. Yavneh Publication: Activities of the Association “Yavne”, 1937. Correspondence: C. Adler, H.K. Buchman, J.C. Hyman, S. Kahane, I. Rubenstein.

File 832: Poland: Subject Matter, Cultural and Religious, Yeshivot and Seminaries, General

a. General, 1933 – 1940: JDC Allocations for Building Repairs (1938/39) and War Emergency Needs (1940): 1938: $4,000; 1939: 11,750; 1940: $10,000; Total: $25,750. Correspondence: C. Adler, M.W. Beckelman, H.K. Buchman, S. Gourary, Ch. O. Grodzienski, A. Horowitz, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, M.A. Leavitt, E.M. Morrissey. b. German Refugee Students at Polish Yeshivot, 1936 – 1939: Correspondence: C. Adler, H.A. Goodman, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, J. Rosenheim.

File 833: Poland: Subject Matter, Cultural and Religious, Yeshivot and Seminaries, Miscellaneous 1

a. Baranowicz, Ohel Torah, 1936 – 1941: JDC Allocations: 1936: $250; 1937: 695; 1938: $480; Total: $1,425. b. Bialystok, Beth Meir, 1937 – 1938: JDC Allocations: 1937: $120; 1938: 120; Total: $240. c. Bobowa, Etz Chaim, 1936 – 1937; 1939: JDC Allocations: 1934: $30; 1935: 40; 1936: $500; 1937: 200; Total: $770. d. Brzesc (Brisk), Torath Chesed, 1937 – 1940: JDC Allocations: 1937: $500; 1938: 200; 1939: $70; Total: $770. e. Grodno, Shaar Hatora, 1936 – 1939, JDC Allocations: 1934: $160; 1935: 160; 1936: 160; 1937: $740; 1938: 480; Total: $1,700 f. Kamenitz-Litovsk, Kneseth Beth Isaac, 1937 – 1939, JDC Allocations: 1937: $1,340; 1938: 1,080; Total: $2,420. Publication: “History of the Grand Rabbinical College ‘Kneseth Beth Isaac’ of Kamenitz-Litovsk, Poland”. g. Kletzk, Etz Chaim, 1937 – 1942. h. Kobryn, Yeshivot Kobryn, 1939. i. Lomza, Rabbinical Yeshiva of Lomza, 1934 – 1943: JDC Allocations: 1937: $520; 1938: 520; Total: $1,040. Between 1921 – 1936 the JDC granted $37,395 to the Lomza Yeshiva, 10/23/36.

File 834: Poland: Subject Matter, Cultural and Religious, Yeshivot and Seminaries, Lublin, Chachmei Lublin

JDC Allocations: 1936: $1,562; 1937: 700; 1938: $500; Total: $2,762. Publications: Essays on the Lublin Yeshiva by Hillel Seidman, 1934. Fin. Statement 1938, 12/31/38. Correspondence: C. Adler, H.K. Buchman, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, E.M. Morrissey.

File 835: Poland: Subject Matter, Cultural and Religious, Yeshivot and Seminaries, Miscellaneous 2

a. Lwow, Teachers’ Seminary, 1938 – JDC Allocations: 1938: $200. b. Nowogrodek, Nowogrodek Yeshivot “Beth Joseph”, 1937 – 1938 – JDC Allocations: Bialystok: $800; Luck (Lutzck): 358; Miedzyrzec: 720; Ostow-Maz: $340; Pinsk: 320; Warsaw: 640; Total: $3,178. c. Radun, Chofetz Chaim, 1934; 1939; 1941 – JDC Allocations: 1937: $480; 1938: 480; 1939: $100; Total: $1,060. d. Sokolow/Podl, Beth Israel, 1937 – JDC Allocations: 1937: $300. e. Stolin, Beth Israel, 1937 – 1938 – JDC Allocations: 1937: $237; 1938: 217; Total; $454. f. Warsaw Institute for Judaistic Sciences, 1937 – 1938 – JDC Allocations: 1936: $1,000; 1937: 1,000; 1938: $500; Total: $2,500. Correspondence: C. Adler, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, M.S. Lazaron, J. Morganstern, M. Schorr. g. Warsaw, Mechanchim Seminar, 1937 – 1939: Teacher training institute for religious schools. JDC Allocations: 1936: $200; 1937: 750; Total: $950. h. Warsaw, Yeshiva Umesifta, 1937 – 1938 – JDC Allocations: 1937: $1,075; 1938: 480; Total: $1,555. i. Warsaw, Torat Chaim, 1939; 1943; 1945 – JDC Allocations: 1937: $735; 1938: 545; Total: $1,280. j. Warsaw, Yeshivat Gavoha “Emek Halacha”, 1933 – 1944. k. Wilno (Vilna), Rameiles, 1937 – 1938 – JDC Allocations: 1937: $510; 1938: 320; Total: $830. l. Wilno (Vilna), Tachkemoni Seminary, 1933 – 1941: JDC Allocations: 1934: $105; 1935: 140; 1936: 140; 1937: $400; 1938: 400; Total: $1,185. m. Wolozin, Etz Chaim, 1933 – 1944: JDC Allocations: 1937: $240; 1938: 340; Total: $580.

File 836: Poland: Subject Matter, Cultural and Religious, Yeshivot and Seminaries, Mir, Mirrer Yeshiva,

JDC Allocations: 1921 – 1932 = $40,000. 1933: $185; 1934: 480; 1935: 2,240; 1936: 680; 1937: $4,215; 1938: 1,920; 1939: 2,450; Total: $12,170. Faculty and students flee to Lithuania from Poland, 2/14/40, 2/21/40. They prepared to move to Japan en route to the U.S. with JDC aid, 10/31/40, 11/4/40(2), 11/17/40, 1/8/41-1/21/41. Fin. statement by Rabbi Kalmanowitz on the transfer of the Mirrer Yeshiva from Lithuania to Japan, 4/30/41. The transfer from Japan to Shanghai, 8/21/41 – 10/18/41, 11/3/41 and attachments, 11/27/41, 1/1/42 – 3/25/42. For additional materials, see: Lithuania, Files 738-739. Japan, File 727. China, File 462, Aug.-Dec. 1941. Yeshivot, Files 356-362. Correspondence: C. Adler, P. Baerwald, M.W. Beckelman, H.K. Buchman, L.J. Finkel, A. Horowitz, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, A. Kalmanowitz, M.A. Leavitt, Ch. Schmuelowicz, P.J. Schoen.

File 837: Poland: Subject Matter, Cultural and Religious, Yeshivot and Seminaries, Warsaw, Tomchei-Tmimim (Lubavitch), Warsaw-Otwock,

JDC Allocations: 1937: $915; 1938: 1,005; 1939: $2,000; Total: $3,920. Faculty and students fled to Vilna from Poland and then prepared to move to Japan en route to the U.S., with JDC aid, 1/5/40, 1/6/40, 1/19/40, 1/29/40, 8/1/40-8/16/40, 1/14/41, 1/21/41, 1/29/41, 2/7/41, 2/19/41, 3/19/41, 3/26/41, 3/28/41, 8/13/41, 9/19/41, 10/5/41, 2/18/42, 2/25/42, 1/20/43. For additional materials, see: the same references as in File 836. Correspondence: C. Adler, H.K. Buchman, I. Coons, S. Gourary, S. Hayes, A. Horowitz, B. Kahn, M.A. Leavitt, Joseph Isaac Schneerson.

File 838: Poland: Subject Matter, Emigration

Between 1933 – 1940, the emigration of Polish refugees from Europe was administered by the HICEM and the JDC covered about one-third of the transportation costs. Between 1940 – 1944, the JDC shouldered the emigration costs of Polish refugees in full or in overwhelming degree. In Dec. 1938, the Polish Gov’t sought to expedite Jewish emigration by pressing leading Jews in Poland to serve on a Jewish Colonization Committee and to make delegation visits to the U.S., England, et al so as to drum up support and fiscal backing for the scheme. The scheme came to nothing when it ran into strong opposition abroad. For details, see below, as well as File 819.g. Palestine and the U.S. were the principal countries of emigration for Polish refugees. Emigration to Palestine was cut when Italy entered the war in May 1940 and for the next year or so it could be conducted only by an overland route via Vilna, Moscow and the Trans-Siberian R.R. to Vladivostok and thence overseas to Japan. By mid – 1941, emigration came to a standstill. For additional materials, see: Germany, Files 667-673. Lithuania, Files 738-739. Japan, Files 723-727 China, File 488. a. General, 1936 – 1941: HICEM Report on Jewish emigration from Poland, 12/11/37. Emigration from Poland 1937, 3/16/38. Minutes of Meeting JDC-AJC on emigration from Poland, 2/16/39(2). Correspondence: C. Adler, M. Bohrer, H.K. Buchman, J.C. Hyman, L. Oungre, M.C. Troper. b. Palestine, 1939 – 1942: Correspondence: M. Birman, H.K. Buchman, L.I. Margolis.

File 839: Poland: Subject Matter, Feeding

JDC Warsaw Report on the Feeding Campaign in 1936/37, Oct. 1937. Summary of Conference on Feeding in Poland, 10/30/37. Child Feeding at the Jewish School Centers, 9/24/36. Correspondence: H.K. Buchman, M.A. Leavitt, L. Neustadt.

File 840: Poland: Subject Matter, Medical Care, TOZ, Warsaw

Narrative Reports and Summaries of TOZ Activities: 1930 – 1933, 12/31/33; 1937, 5/26/38, Aug. 1938; 9/1/39 – 7/1/40(2); 5/27/40(2); 6/28/40; 8/4/40; 9/23/40; 11/6/41. Statistical Reports: Annual 1940, 12/31/40, 7/28/41; Monthly – 1940: Feb., March, May (2), June; 1941: Jan., March, April (2), May. Fin. Reports and Statements: 4/1/36 – 3/31/37; Sept.-Dec. 1939; 12/5/41; 12/9/41. JDC allocates funds for the purchase of medicaments in Switzerland for shipment to the TOZ, 2/3/41 – 2/15/41, 6/11/41 – 7/7/41, 10/8/41, 10/10/41, 12/15/41; for additional materials, see: SM Archives, File 27d. For materials on TOZ in earlier years, see: Archives 1921 – 1932, Files 369-373. Correspondence: H.K. Buchman, Norman H. Davis, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, M. Koenigstein, B. Tschlenoff, L. Wulman.

File 841: Poland: Subject Matter, Medical Care, Other Organizations

a. Juedisches Spital, Lublin, 1935 – 1940: In 1937, the hospital received Zl. 3,000 from the TOZ for repairs and renovations. b. Medem Sanitorium, Miedzeszyn/Warsaw, 1935 – 1942: The Medem was a children’s TB sanatorium and it received the following JDC allocations (Also see: File 805.g): 1934: $1,053; 1935: 6,306; 1936: 1,828; 1937: 8,168; 1938: $10,457; 1939: 11,518; Toatl: $39,330. Correspondence: H.K. Buchman, A. Held, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn. c. Nurses Training School (NTS) Warsaw, 1934; 1936 – 1940: The Nurses Training School was organized in 1923 with JDC aid, and it earned a name as a model institution of its kind, in Poland and abroad. JDC allocations between 1922 – 1939 came to $140,000 in all. For materials in earlier years, see: Archives 1921 – 1932, Files 364-368. NTS Activity Reports: 4/1/36 – 3/31/37, 4/1/37 – 3/31/38, 4/1/38 – 3/31/39. Correspondence: M.W. Beckelman, H.K. Buchman, N. Lubowska, M.C. Troper. d. Sanatorium “Jehudys”, Warsaw, 1939: On 1/1/39, the children’s sanatorium “Jehudys”, conducted under orthodox auspices, opened its doors. In 1939, the JDC granted it $3,095 in allocations.

File 842: Poland: Subject Matter, Persecutions (Pre-War)

1. Anti-Schechita Law, 1936 – 1937: Correspondence: C. Adler, Ch. O. Grodzienski, A. Horowitz, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn. 2. Jewish University Students, 1937 – 1938: Correspondence: B. Kahn, L. Neustadt, D.J. Schweitzer. Note: For data on boycotts and programs in Jewish communities, see: Localities, Individual communities, Files 890-895.

File 843: Poland: Subject Matter, Reconstruction, General, 1934-39; 1941; 1944

Reports and Memos: On repayments of reconstruction loans to credit institutions, 10/30/35 attachment to 11/1/35, 11/27/35, 12/12/35; Capital Investments Poland 1924-36, 12/2/36; Reconstruction in Poland by N. Aronovici, 8/7/37 attachment to 8/16/37; Situation of the Cooperative Banks in Poland by A. Kahn, 12/1/37; 12/2/37; Activities and Plans of the JDC in Poland, Dec. 1937; Assignments of Credit for Reconstructive Aid, attachment to 1/12/38; Problems for Consideration for the Committee on Poland, 3/28/38; JDC Economic Aid in Poland, 4/11/38; 7/18/39. Correspondence: N. Aronovici, D.M. Bressler, O.E. d’Avigdor Goldsmid, J.C. Hyman, A. Kahn, B. Kahn, A.A. Landesco, L. Oungre, D. Schweitzer.

File 844: Poland: Subject Matter, Reconstruction, General, Proposals for the Improvement of Economic Opportunities for Jews in Poland,

Between 1935 – 1939, JDC leaders, personalities and committees came to grips with a wide range of proposals for the improvement of economic opportunities for Jews in Poland. The proposals focused on the creation of new businesses for the manufacture of goods suitable for the export trade. Many proposals were submitted, a few were chosen and an agreement to undertake the first was reached at long, long last on August 30, 1939. On Sept. 1, the Nazi armies marched into Poland and launched W.W. II. But even in the best of cases, effective large scale aid of this character would have been in work of decades and not of single years. Polish trade and commerce were more at home in the 18th or the 19th centuries than in the 20th. Moreover, anti-Jewish political, economic and social discrimination in Poland were widespread, and dimmed the prospects for achieving Jewish economic progress. A loan of 1,500,000 zlotys for the economic rehabilitation of Jews in need was extended in equal parts by the Polish Gov’t, the JDC and other Jewish agencies and by Polish Jewry, March 1935, 4/22/36, 6/7/36. Proposals for a constructive program of aid: Minutes of the JDC Exec. Committee, 3/8/37; by N. Katz, 3/9/37; by Norman Gerstenfeld, 10/8/37, 10/20/37 attachment to 10/31/27, 4/4/38; Proposal to manufacture new products in Poland by bringing in skilled refugee artisans from Vienna, 1/21/38, 4/27/38, 6/13/38 attachment to 7/15/38; Proposals for constructive help by Jacob Lestschinsky, 11/16/37, 4/11/38 attachment to 4/14/38; Shipment of samples of articles manufactured in Poland considered suitable for the American market, 4/29/38, 6/18/38, 8/9/38, 12/19/38. Proposal for the promotion of Polish-American exports with the aid of JDC credits, 12/22/38, 12/23/38, 1/10/39, 1/19/39, 5/15/39-8/30/39. Summary of the session of the Central Negotiating Commission of the Jewish Economic Committee on Poland, June 1939. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, H.K. Buchman, N. Gerstenfeld, I.E. Goldwasser, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, N. Katz, E.I. Kaufman, E.A. Norman, J.N. Rosenberg, B.C. Vladeck.

File 845: Poland: Subject Matter, Reconstruction, Credit Cooperatives

The kassas affiliated with the credit cooperatives granted short and long-term loans that were interest-bearing. Interest rates were low by prevailing Polish standards, but high by prevailing American standards. The most important kassas were affiliated with the Union of Cooperative Kassas in Poland (Verband), and raised their funds in part locally and in part from credits granted mainly by the JDC Foundation. In the harsh economic climate of the depression 1930’s, many kassas were in need of reorganization or had fallen into inactivity. The JDC Foundation launched a reorganization program in 1937. List of kassas affiliated with the Verband where misappropriations of funds occurred between 1929 – 1933, 5/24/33. Capital Investments in Credit Cooperatives by the JDC Foundation 1924 – 1936, 12/2/36. Statistical statements on the activities of the Jewish Credit Cooperatives 1/1/37-3/31/37, 3/31/37. Reports and Memos: Situation of Cooperative Banks in Poland by Alexander Kahn, 12/1/37; Remarks on Poland by N. Aronovici, 1/27/39; Discussions on Poland held in Paris 4/26/39-4/27/39. Fin. Statements 1939, May: 6/8/39; June: 7/28/39. Other data on the credit kassas: 4/28/37, 6/25/37, 12/31/38, 2/13/39, March 1939, 5/5/39, 6/30/39. For a Summary Statement of the Fin. Transactions of the JDC Foundation with Poland 1924 – 1935, see: File 846, 12/31/35. For a list of loan kassas in contact with the JDC Foundation, see: File 846, 6/30/36. Correspondence: G. Bider, M. Flaum, O.E. d’Avigdor Goldsmid, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, L. Oungre, D.J. Schweitzer, M.C. Troper.

File 846: Poland: Subject Matter, Reconstruction, Gemiloth Chesed Kassas (G.C.), General, 1933 - 1937 (July)

The Pol. Gov’t granted a subvention of Zl. 100,000 for G.C. Kassas, 4/22/34, 9/7/34. On the activities of the G.C. Kassas: 5/8/34, May 1934, 11/27/34, 1/5/35, April 1935, 10/2/35, 10/30/35(2), 11/27/35, 11/27/36, 2/15/37, 4/28/37, 7/21/37. Summaries of Fin. Transactions with Poland by the JDC Foundation: 1924 – 1935, 12/31/35; Jan. 1936, 4/22/36; 12/2/36. Lists of loan kassas in Poland: 6/30/36, 12/19/36, 6/30/37. Reports: Expenditures for G.C. Kassas by the United British Appeal for Polish Jewry via the JDC (L 5,000), Feb. 1937; Activities of the G.C. Kassas June 1936-June 1937, 6/30/37; Report on my Trip July/August 1936, by N. Aronovici, Publication: Volks Hilf, published by the Gemiloth Chesed Kassas in Poland (Yiddish). Correspondence: N. Aronovici, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, L. Oungre, D.J. Schweitzer.

File 847: Poland: Subject Matter, Reconstruction, Gemiloth Chesed Kassas (G.C.), General, Aug. 1937 - 1940; 1943

On the activities of the G.C. Kassas: 10/1/37-10/17/37, 3/19/38, 4/11/38, 4/27/38, 9/1/38. Summaries of Fin. Transactions with Poland by the JDC Foundation: 9/30/37. Lists of loan kassas in Poland: 9/23/37, 12/31/37. Reports-N. Aronovici: 8/7/37(2), 1/27/39. On Economic Aid to Poland, 4/11/38. Correspondence: N. Aronovici, P. Baerwald, H.K. Buchman, I. Giterman, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, L. Oungre, D.J. Schweitzer, S. Tarschansky, M.C. Troper.

File 848: Poland: Subject Matter, Reconstruction, Gemiloth Chesed Kassas (G.C.), CEKABE (CKB), Warsaw (Central Union of Free Loan Societies)

Most of the G.C. Kassas in Poland were affiliated with the CKB, and the Polish Gov’t recognized it as the official representative of those kassas. It also acted as a clearing house for allocations to the kassas granted by the JDC Foundation. In March 1939, the JDC agreed to grant the CKB full control over the distribution of those allocations and the transfer was scheduled for completion by Sept. 1939. But Hitler intervened. For materials, see: 12/13/38, 2/23/39, 3/17/39 and Schweitzer report attached thereto, 3/31/39. Correspondence: H.K. Buchman, I. Giterman, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, D.J. Schweitzer.

File 849: Poland: Subject Matter, Reconstruction, Gemiloth Chesed Kassas (G.C.), Arranged by Localities, A and Ba - Bi

Nearly every city, town and locality in Poland boasting a perceptible Jewish population supported one or more interest-free loan kassas and they played a significant role in Jewish economic life. Over the years, the JDC Recon. Found. granted these kassas very sizeable allocations, and yet the enormous needs outpaced the funds available. In a bid to stimulate fund-raising, the JDC offered to match any contributions in their favor stemming from landsmannschaften in the U.S. The offer remained in effect from Jan. 1937 until the Nazi invasion of Poland. Files 849-873 contain materials on some 370 loan kassas, arranged by localities. Nearly all were aided by individual landsmannschaften together with matching JDC grants. Nonetheless, these loan kassas formed but a fraction of those in actual operation. Note: For an interesting account of the economic difficulties besetting Jewish life in a small town and the role played by the local loan kassas, see below: File 872, Memo on Wengrow. A: Andrzejewo (d. Bial.); Antopol (d. Bial.); Ba – Bi: Baranowicze (d. Polesie); Bedzin (d. Kielce); Belzyce (d. Lubel.); Belchatow (d. Lodz); Beresteczko (d. Wolyn); Bereza-Kartuska (d. Polesie); Berezne (d. Wolyn); Bereznica (d. Lwow); Biala Rawska (d. Warsaw); also see: Bledow; Bialy Kamien (d. Tarnopol); Bialystok (d. Bial.); Bielsk Podlaski (d. Bial.); Bilgoraj (d. Lublin); Bircza (d. Lvov);

File 850: Poland: Subject Matter, Reconstruction, Gemiloth Chesed Kassas (G.C.), Arranged by Localities, Bl - By

Nearly every city, town and locality in Poland boasting a perceptible Jewish population supported one or more interest-free loan kassas and they played a significant role in Jewish economic life. Over the years, the JDC Recon. Found. granted these kassas very sizeable allocations, and yet the enormous needs outpaced the funds available. In a bid to stimulate fund-raising, the JDC offered to match any contributions in their favor stemming from landsmannschaften in the U.S. The offer remained in effect from Jan. 1937 until the Nazi invasion of Poland. Files 849-873 contain materials on some 370 loan kassas, arranged by localities. Nearly all were aided by individual landsmannschaften together with matching JDC grants. Nonetheless, these loan kassas formed but a fraction of those in actual operation. Note: For an interesting account of the economic difficulties besetting Jewish life in a small town and the role played by the local loan kassas, see below: File 872, Memo on Wengrow. Bl – By: Blazowa (d. Lwow); Bledow (d. Warsaw); Blonie (d. Warsaw); Bocki (d. Bial.); Bodzetyn (d. Kielce); Bohorodczany (d. Stan.); Bolimow (d. Warsaw); Boremel (d. Wolyn); Borszczow (d. Tarnopol); Bransk (d. Bial.); Brody (d. Tarn.); Brok n/B (d. Bial.); Brzesc Kujawski (d. Warsaw); Brzesko (d. Cracow); Brzezany (d. Tarn.); Buczacz (d. Tarn.); Budzanow (d. Tarn.); Busk (d. Tarn.); Byten (d. Nowogr.);

File 851: Poland: Subject Matter, Reconstruction, Gemiloth Chesed Kassas (G.C.), Arranged by Localities, C

Nearly every city, town and locality in Poland boasting a perceptible Jewish population supported one or more interest-free loan kassas and they played a significant role in Jewish economic life. Over the years, the JDC Recon. Found. granted these kassas very sizeable allocations, and yet the enormous needs outpaced the funds available. In a bid to stimulate fund-raising, the JDC offered to match any contributions in their favor stemming from landsmannschaften in the U.S. The offer remained in effect from Jan. 1937 until the Nazi invasion of Poland. Files 849-873 contain materials on some 370 loan kassas, arranged by localities. Nearly all were aided by individual landsmannschaften together with matching JDC grants. Nonetheless, these loan kassas formed but a fraction of those in actual operation. Note: For an interesting account of the economic difficulties besetting Jewish life in a small town and the role played by the local loan kassas, see below: File 872, Memo on Wengrow. C: Checiny (d. Kielce); Chelm (d. Lublin); Chmielnik (d. Kielce); Chodorow (d. Lwow); Chomsk (d. Polesie); Chorostkow (d. Tarnop.); Chyrow (d. Lwow); Ciechanow (d. Warsaw); Ciechanowiec (d. Bial.) also see; local. Wysokie Mazowieckie; Czeladz (d. Kielce); Czernawczyce (d. Polesie); Czarnelica (d. Stanisl.); Czernichow (d. Cracow); Czortkow (d. Tarn.); Czyzewo (d. Bial.);

File 852: Poland: Subject Matter, Reconstruction, Gemiloth Chesed Kassas (G.C.), Arranged by Localities, D

Nearly every city, town and locality in Poland boasting a perceptible Jewish population supported one or more interest-free loan kassas and they played a significant role in Jewish economic life. Over the years, the JDC Recon. Found. granted these kassas very sizeable allocations, and yet the enormous needs outpaced the funds available. In a bid to stimulate fund-raising, the JDC offered to match any contributions in their favor stemming from landsmannschaften in the U.S. The offer remained in effect from Jan. 1937 until the Nazi invasion of Poland. Files 849-873 contain materials on some 370 loan kassas, arranged by localities. Nearly all were aided by individual landsmannschaften together with matching JDC grants. Nonetheless, these loan kassas formed but a fraction of those in actual operation. Note: For an interesting account of the economic difficulties besetting Jewish life in a small town and the role played by the local loan kassas, see below: File 872, Memo on Wengrow. D: Dabrowa (near Tarnow, d. Cracow); Dabrowa Gornicza (d. Kielce); Dabrowica (d. Kielce); Daugieliszki (d. Vilna); Dawidgrodeck (d. Polesie); Deblin-Irena (d. Lublin); Delatyn (d. Stanis lawow); Dereczyn (Nowogr. d.); Dobromil (d. Lwow); Dobrzyn (d. Warsaw); Dokszyce (d. Vilna); Dorohusk (d. Lublin); Drohiczyn (d. Polesie); Drohobycz (d. Lwow); Dubiecko (d. Lwow); Dubienka (d. Lublin); Dubno (d. Wolyn); Dukszty (d. Vilna); Dunilowicze (d. Vilna); Dynow (d. Lwow); Dzialoszyn (d. Lodz); Dziewieniszki (d. Vilna);

File 853: Poland: Subject Matter, Reconstruction, Gemiloth Chesed Kassas (G.C.), Arranged by Localities, F - H

Nearly every city, town and locality in Poland boasting a perceptible Jewish population supported one or more interest-free loan kassas and they played a significant role in Jewish economic life. Over the years, the JDC Recon. Found. granted these kassas very sizeable allocations, and yet the enormous needs outpaced the funds available. In a bid to stimulate fund-raising, the JDC offered to match any contributions in their favor stemming from landsmannschaften in the U.S. The offer remained in effect from Jan. 1937 until the Nazi invasion of Poland. Files 849-873 contain materials on some 370 loan kassas, arranged by localities. Nearly all were aided by individual landsmannschaften together with matching JDC grants. Nonetheless, these loan kassas formed but a fraction of those in actual operation. Note: For an interesting account of the economic difficulties besetting Jewish life in a small town and the role played by the local loan kassas, see below: File 872, Memo on Wengrow. F: Felsztyn (d. Lwow); Frampol (d. Lublin) G: Gabin (d. Warsaw); Gac (d. Bialystok); Glebokie (d. Vilna); Glowno (d. Lodz); Golina (d. Poznan); Gologory (d. Tarnop.); Gomunica (d. Lodz); Goniadz (d. Bial.); Gostynin (d. Warsaw); Goworowo (d. Bial.); Grabowiec (d. Lublin); Grajewo (d. Bial.); Grodek (d. Bial.); Grodek (d. Vilna); Grodek Jagiellonski (d. Lwow); Grodzisk (d. Warsaw); Grojec (d. Warsaw); also see: Bledow; H: Halicz (d. Stan.); Hancewicze (d. Polesie); Horochow (d. Wolyn); Horodec (d. Polesie); Hrubieszow (d. Lublin) also see: Bilgoraj; Husiatyn (d. Tarn.); Hussakow (d. Lwow)

File 854: Poland: Subject Matter, Reconstruction, Gemiloth Chesed Kassas (G.C.), Arranged by Localities, I-J

Nearly every city, town and locality in Poland boasting a perceptible Jewish population supported one or more interest-free loan kassas and they played a significant role in Jewish economic life. Over the years, the JDC Recon. Found. granted these kassas very sizeable allocations, and yet the enormous needs outpaced the funds available. In a bid to stimulate fund-raising, the JDC offered to match any contributions in their favor stemming from landsmannschaften in the U.S. The offer remained in effect from Jan. 1937 until the Nazi invasion of Poland. Files 849-873 contain materials on some 370 loan kassas, arranged by localities. Nearly all were aided by individual landsmannschaften together with matching JDC grants. Nonetheless, these loan kassas formed but a fraction of those in actual operation. Note: For an interesting account of the economic difficulties besetting Jewish life in a small town and the role played by the local loan kassas, see below: File 872, Memo on Wengrow. I: Ilja (d. Vilna); Ilza (d. Kielce); Irena (d. Lublin); Iwje (d. Nowogr.); Izbica Kuajawska (d. Lodz); J: Jablonow (d. Stan.); Jagielnica (d. Tarnow); Janow (d. Lublin); Janow (d. Polesie); Jaryczow Nowy (d. Lwow); Jaworow (d. Lwow); Jazlowiec (d. Tarnop.); Jedwabne (d. Bial.); Jozefow Bilgorajski (d. Lublin); Jezierzany (d. Wolyn); Jezory (d. Bial.); Jezupol (d. Stan.)

File 855: Poland: Subject Matter, Reconstruction, Gemiloth Chesed Kassas (G.C.), Arranged by Localities, Ka - Kl

Nearly every city, town and locality in Poland boasting a perceptible Jewish population supported one or more interest-free loan kassas and they played a significant role in Jewish economic life. Over the years, the JDC Recon. Found. granted these kassas very sizeable allocations, and yet the enormous needs outpaced the funds available. In a bid to stimulate fund-raising, the JDC offered to match any contributions in their favor stemming from landsmannschaften in the U.S. The offer remained in effect from Jan. 1937 until the Nazi invasion of Poland. Files 849-873 contain materials on some 370 loan kassas, arranged by localities. Nearly all were aided by individual landsmannschaften together with matching JDC grants. Nonetheless, these loan kassas formed but a fraction of those in actual operation. Note: For an interesting account of the economic difficulties besetting Jewish life in a small town and the role played by the local loan kassas, see below: File 872, Memo on Wengrow. K: Kalusz (d. Stan.); Kaluszyn (d. Warsaw); Kamieniec Litewski (d. Polesie); Kamionka (d. Tarnop.); Kamionka Strumilowa (d. Tarnop.); Katrynburg (d. Wolyn); Kazimierz Dolny (d. Lublin); Kisielin (d. Wolyn); Kleck (d. Nowogr.); Kleszczele (d. Bial.); Klimontow (d. Kielce); Klobuck (d. Kilelce)

File 856: Poland: Subject Matter, Reconstruction, Gemiloth Chesed Kassas (G.C.), Arranged by Localities, Kn - Kor

Nearly every city, town and locality in Poland boasting a perceptible Jewish population supported one or more interest-free loan kassas and they played a significant role in Jewish economic life. Over the years, the JDC Recon. Found. granted these kassas very sizeable allocations, and yet the enormous needs outpaced the funds available. In a bid to stimulate fund-raising, the JDC offered to match any contributions in their favor stemming from landsmannschaften in the U.S. The offer remained in effect from Jan. 1937 until the Nazi invasion of Poland. Files 849-873 contain materials on some 370 loan kassas, arranged by localities. Nearly all were aided by individual landsmannschaften together with matching JDC grants. Nonetheless, these loan kassas formed but a fraction of those in actual operation. Note: For an interesting account of the economic difficulties besetting Jewish life in a small town and the role played by the local loan kassas, see below: File 872, Memo on Wengrow. Kn – Kor: Knihynicze (d. Stan.); Knyszyn (d. Bial.); Kobryn (d. Polesie); Kolbuszowa (d. Lwow); Kolno (d. Bial.); Kolomyja (d. Stan.); Komarno (d. Lwow); Komarow (d. Lublin); Komorowo (d. Bial.); Koniecpol (d. Lodz); Konskie (d. Kielce); Konstantynow (d. Lodz or Lublin); Koprzywnica (d. Kielce); Kopyczynce (d. Tarnop.); Korelicze (d. Nowogr.); Korolowka (d. Tarnop.); Korzec (d. Wolyn)

File 857: Poland: Subject Matter, Reconstruction, Gemiloth Chesed Kassas (G.C.), Arranged by Localities, Kos - Ku

Nearly every city, town and locality in Poland boasting a perceptible Jewish population supported one or more interest-free loan kassas and they played a significant role in Jewish economic life. Over the years, the JDC Recon. Found. granted these kassas very sizeable allocations, and yet the enormous needs outpaced the funds available. In a bid to stimulate fund-raising, the JDC offered to match any contributions in their favor stemming from landsmannschaften in the U.S. The offer remained in effect from Jan. 1937 until the Nazi invasion of Poland. Files 849-873 contain materials on some 370 loan kassas, arranged by localities. Nearly all were aided by individual landsmannschaften together with matching JDC grants. Nonetheless, these loan kassas formed but a fraction of those in actual operation. Note: For an interesting account of the economic difficulties besetting Jewish life in a small town and the role played by the local loan kassas, see below: File 872, Memo on Wengrow. Kos – Ku: Kossow (d. Stanis.); Kossow Lacki (d. Lublin); Kostopol (d. Wolyn); Koszyce (d. Kielce); Kowel (d. Wolyn); Kozangrodeck (d. Polesie); Kozin (d. Wolyn); Kozlow (d. Kielce); Kozlowszczyzna (d. Nowogr.); Kozowa (d. Tarnop.); Krakowiec (d. Lwow); Krasnik (d. Lublin); Krasnobrod (d. Lublin); Krasnosielc (Warsaw); Krasnystaw (d. Lublin); Krewo (d. Vilna); Krosniewice (d. Warsaw); Krzepice (d. Kielce); Krzemieniec (d. Wolyn); Krzepice (d. Kielce); Krzeszow (d. Lublin); Krzeszowice (d. Cracow); Kurow (d. Lublin); Kuty (d. Stan.)

File 858: Poland: Subject Matter, Reconstruction, Gemiloth Chesed Kassas (G.C.), Arranged by Localities, La - Lo

Nearly every city, town and locality in Poland boasting a perceptible Jewish population supported one or more interest-free loan kassas and they played a significant role in Jewish economic life. Over the years, the JDC Recon. Found. granted these kassas very sizeable allocations, and yet the enormous needs outpaced the funds available. In a bid to stimulate fund-raising, the JDC offered to match any contributions in their favor stemming from landsmannschaften in the U.S. The offer remained in effect from Jan. 1937 until the Nazi invasion of Poland. Files 849-873 contain materials on some 370 loan kassas, arranged by localities. Nearly all were aided by individual landsmannschaften together with matching JDC grants. Nonetheless, these loan kassas formed but a fraction of those in actual operation. Note: For an interesting account of the economic difficulties besetting Jewish life in a small town and the role played by the local loan kassas, see below: File 872, Memo on Wengrow. La to Lo: Lachowicze (d. Nowogr.); Lagow (d. Kielce); Lanczyn (d. Stanisl.); Lapy (d. Bial.); Lask (Lodz); Laszczow (d. Lub.); Lesko (d. Lwow); Lezajsk (d. Lwow); Lida (d. Nowogr.); Limanowa (Cracow); Lipsko (d. Kielce); Lodz (d. Lodz) also see: Local. Lodz; Lohiszyn (d. Polesie); Lokacze (d. Wolyn); Lomazy (d. Lublin); Districts of Lomza and Wysokie Mazowiecki; Lomzyca (d. Bial.); Lopuszno (d. Kielce); Losice (d. Lublin); Lowicz (d. Warsaw);

File 859: Poland: Subject Matter, Reconstruction, Gemiloth Chesed Kassas (G.C.), Arranged by Localities, Lu - Ly

Nearly every city, town and locality in Poland boasting a perceptible Jewish population supported one or more interest-free loan kassas and they played a significant role in Jewish economic life. Over the years, the JDC Recon. Found. granted these kassas very sizeable allocations, and yet the enormous needs outpaced the funds available. In a bid to stimulate fund-raising, the JDC offered to match any contributions in their favor stemming from landsmannschaften in the U.S. The offer remained in effect from Jan. 1937 until the Nazi invasion of Poland. Files 849-873 contain materials on some 370 loan kassas, arranged by localities. Nearly all were aided by individual landsmannschaften together with matching JDC grants. Nonetheless, these loan kassas formed but a fraction of those in actual operation. Note: For an interesting account of the economic difficulties besetting Jewish life in a small town and the role played by the local loan kassas, see below: File 872, Memo on Wengrow. Lu – Ly: Lubartow (d. Lublin); Lubcz (d. Nowogr.); Lubica (d. Pomor.); Luck (d. Wolyn); Lukow (d. Lublin); Luniniec (d. Polesie); Lunna (d. Bial.); Lutowisk (d. Lwow); Lututow (d. Lodz); Luzki (d. Vilna); Lyngniany (d. Vilna); Lyski (d. Nowogr.); Lyskow (d. Bial.); Lysobyki (d. Lublin)

File 860: Poland: Subject Matter, Reconstruction, Gemiloth Chesed Kassas (G.C.), Arranged by Localities, M

Nearly every city, town and locality in Poland boasting a perceptible Jewish population supported one or more interest-free loan kassas and they played a significant role in Jewish economic life. Over the years, the JDC Recon. Found. granted these kassas very sizeable allocations, and yet the enormous needs outpaced the funds available. In a bid to stimulate fund-raising, the JDC offered to match any contributions in their favor stemming from landsmannschaften in the U.S. The offer remained in effect from Jan. 1937 until the Nazi invasion of Poland. Files 849-873 contain materials on some 370 loan kassas, arranged by localities. Nearly all were aided by individual landsmannschaften together with matching JDC grants. Nonetheless, these loan kassas formed but a fraction of those in actual operation. Note: For an interesting account of the economic difficulties besetting Jewish life in a small town and the role played by the local loan kassas, see below: File 872, Memo on Wengrow. M: Magnuszew (d. Kielce); Maniewicze (d. Polesie); Marcinkance (d. Bial.); Michaliszki (d. Vilna); Miechow (d. Kielce); Miedzyrzec (d. Wolyn); Miedzyrzec Podlaski (d. Lublin); Mikolajow (d. Lwow); Mikulince (d. Tarnop.); Milejczyce (d. Bial.); Mir. (d. Nowogr.); Mlawa (d. Warsaw); Mogielnica (d. Warsaw); also see: Bledow Molodeczno (d. Vilna); Monasterzyska (d. Tarnop.); Motol (d. Polesie); Murawica (d. Wolyn); Myszyniec (d. Bial.)

File 861: Poland: Subject Matter, Reconstruction, Gemiloth Chesed Kassas (G.C.), Arranged by Localities, N

Nearly every city, town and locality in Poland boasting a perceptible Jewish population supported one or more interest-free loan kassas and they played a significant role in Jewish economic life. Over the years, the JDC Recon. Found. granted these kassas very sizeable allocations, and yet the enormous needs outpaced the funds available. In a bid to stimulate fund-raising, the JDC offered to match any contributions in their favor stemming from landsmannschaften in the U.S. The offer remained in effect from Jan. 1937 until the Nazi invasion of Poland. Files 849-873 contain materials on some 370 loan kassas, arranged by localities. Nearly all were aided by individual landsmannschaften together with matching JDC grants. Nonetheless, these loan kassas formed but a fraction of those in actual operation. Note: For an interesting account of the economic difficulties besetting Jewish life in a small town and the role played by the local loan kassas, see below: File 872, Memo on Wengrow. N: Nadworna (d. Stan.); Nasielsk (d. Warsaw); Niebylec (d. Lwow); Niemirow (d. Lwow); Nieswierz (d. Nowogr.); Nisko (d. Lwow); Nowe Miasto (d. Lwow); Nowogrodek (d. Nowogr.); Nowy Korczyn (d. Kielce); Nowy Sacz (d. Cracow)

File 862: Poland: Subject Matter, Reconstruction, Gemiloth Chesed Kassas (G.C.), Arranged by Localities, O

Nearly every city, town and locality in Poland boasting a perceptible Jewish population supported one or more interest-free loan kassas and they played a significant role in Jewish economic life. Over the years, the JDC Recon. Found. granted these kassas very sizeable allocations, and yet the enormous needs outpaced the funds available. In a bid to stimulate fund-raising, the JDC offered to match any contributions in their favor stemming from landsmannschaften in the U.S. The offer remained in effect from Jan. 1937 until the Nazi invasion of Poland. Files 849-873 contain materials on some 370 loan kassas, arranged by localities. Nearly all were aided by individual landsmannschaften together with matching JDC grants. Nonetheless, these loan kassas formed but a fraction of those in actual operation. Note: For an interesting account of the economic difficulties besetting Jewish life in a small town and the role played by the local loan kassas, see below: File 872, Memo on Wengrow. O: Obertyn (d. Stan.); Olkienniki (d. Vilna); Olyka (d. Wolyn); Opalin (d. Wolyn); Opoczno (d. Kielce); Opole (d. Lublin); Osiakow (d. Lodz); Osiek (d. Kielce); Ostroleka (d. Bial.); Ostrow Lubelski (d. Bial.); Ostrow Mazowiecki (d. Bial.); Ostrow Siedlecki (d. Lublin); Ostrowiec (d. Kielce); Ostrowiec Swietokrzyski (d. Kielce); Oszmiana (d. Vilna); Ottynia (d. Stan.); Ozarow (d. Kielce); Ozdziutycze (d. Wolyn)

File 863: Poland: Subject Matter, Reconstruction, Gemiloth Chesed Kassas (G.C.), Arranged by Localities, Pa - Po

Nearly every city, town and locality in Poland boasting a perceptible Jewish population supported one or more interest-free loan kassas and they played a significant role in Jewish economic life. Over the years, the JDC Recon. Found. granted these kassas very sizeable allocations, and yet the enormous needs outpaced the funds available. In a bid to stimulate fund-raising, the JDC offered to match any contributions in their favor stemming from landsmannschaften in the U.S. The offer remained in effect from Jan. 1937 until the Nazi invasion of Poland. Files 849-873 contain materials on some 370 loan kassas, arranged by localities. Nearly all were aided by individual landsmannschaften together with matching JDC grants. Nonetheless, these loan kassas formed but a fraction of those in actual operation. Note: For an interesting account of the economic difficulties besetting Jewish life in a small town and the role played by the local loan kassas, see below: File 872, Memo on Wengrow. Pa – Po: Pabinice (d. Lodz); Pajeczno (d. Lodz); Parczew (d. Lublin); Parysow (d. Lublin); Peczenizyn (d. Stan.); Perehinsko (d. Stan.); Piaski (d. Bial.); Pilzno (d. Cracow); Pinczow (d. Kielce); Plissa (d. Vilna); Plonsk (d. Warsaw); Poddebice (d. Lodz); Podhajce (Tarn.); Podkamien (d. Lwow); Podwoloczyska (d. Tarnop.); Polaniec (d. Kielce); Podmiechowek (d. Warsaw); Pomorzany (d. Tarnop.); Poryck (d. Wolyn); Postawy (d. Vilna); Potok Zloty (d. Tarnop.); Powazki (suburb of Warsaw)

File 864: Poland: Subject Matter, Reconstruction, Gemiloth Chesed Kassas (G.C.), Arranged by Localities, Pr - Pu

Nearly every city, town and locality in Poland boasting a perceptible Jewish population supported one or more interest-free loan kassas and they played a significant role in Jewish economic life. Over the years, the JDC Recon. Found. granted these kassas very sizeable allocations, and yet the enormous needs outpaced the funds available. In a bid to stimulate fund-raising, the JDC offered to match any contributions in their favor stemming from landsmannschaften in the U.S. The offer remained in effect from Jan. 1937 until the Nazi invasion of Poland. Files 849-873 contain materials on some 370 loan kassas, arranged by localities. Nearly all were aided by individual landsmannschaften together with matching JDC grants. Nonetheless, these loan kassas formed but a fraction of those in actual operation. Note: For an interesting account of the economic difficulties besetting Jewish life in a small town and the role played by the local loan kassas, see below: File 872, Memo on Wengrow. Pr – Pu: Przasnysz (d. Warsaw); Przedborz (d. Kielce); Przedecz (d. Warsaw); Przemysl (d. Lwow); Przysucha (d. Kielce); Pulawy (d. Lublin); Pultusk (d. Warsaw)

File 865: Poland: Subject Matter, Reconstruction, Gemiloth Chesed Kassas (G.C.), Arranged by Localities, R

Nearly every city, town and locality in Poland boasting a perceptible Jewish population supported one or more interest-free loan kassas and they played a significant role in Jewish economic life. Over the years, the JDC Recon. Found. granted these kassas very sizeable allocations, and yet the enormous needs outpaced the funds available. In a bid to stimulate fund-raising, the JDC offered to match any contributions in their favor stemming from landsmannschaften in the U.S. The offer remained in effect from Jan. 1937 until the Nazi invasion of Poland. Files 849-873 contain materials on some 370 loan kassas, arranged by localities. Nearly all were aided by individual landsmannschaften together with matching JDC grants. Nonetheless, these loan kassas formed but a fraction of those in actual operation. Note: For an interesting account of the economic difficulties besetting Jewish life in a small town and the role played by the local loan kassas, see below: File 872, Memo on Wengrow. R: Radom (d. Kielce); Radomysl Wielki (d. Cracow); Radoszyce (d. Kielce); Radun (d. Nowogr.); Radymno (d. Lwow); Rajgrod (d. Bial.); Rakow (d. Nowogr.); Rawa Mazowiecka (d. Warsaw); Rejowiec (d. Lublin); also see: Bilgoraj; Rohatyn (d. Stan.); Rokitno (d. Polesie); Ropczyce (d. Cracow); Ros (d. Bial.); Rozan (d. Warsaw); Rozana (d. Polesie); Rozwadow (d. Lwow); Rozyszcze (d. Wolyn); Rubiezewicze (d. Nowogr.); Rybnik (d. Slask); Rypin (d. Warsaw)

File 866: Poland: Subject Matter, Reconstruction, Gemiloth Chesed Kassas (G.C.), Arranged by Localities, Sa - Sk

Nearly every city, town and locality in Poland boasting a perceptible Jewish population supported one or more interest-free loan kassas and they played a significant role in Jewish economic life. Over the years, the JDC Recon. Found. granted these kassas very sizeable allocations, and yet the enormous needs outpaced the funds available. In a bid to stimulate fund-raising, the JDC offered to match any contributions in their favor stemming from landsmannschaften in the U.S. The offer remained in effect from Jan. 1937 until the Nazi invasion of Poland. Files 849-873 contain materials on some 370 loan kassas, arranged by localities. Nearly all were aided by individual landsmannschaften together with matching JDC grants. Nonetheless, these loan kassas formed but a fraction of those in actual operation. Note: For an interesting account of the economic difficulties besetting Jewish life in a small town and the role played by the local loan kassas, see below: File 872, Memo on Wengrow. Sa – Sk: Sandomierz (d. Kielce); Sasow (d. Tarnop.); Sedziszow (d. Cracow); Sidra (d. Bial.); Siedliszcze (d. Lublin); Sienno (d. Kielce); Sieradz (d. Lodz); Sierpc (d. Warsaw); Skala on Zbrucz; Skalat (d. Tarnop.); Skidel (d. Bial.); Skierniewice (d. Warsaw); Skole (d. Stan.); Skorkowice (d. Kielce)

File 867: Poland: Subject Matter, Reconstruction, Gemiloth Chesed Kassas (G.C.), Arranged by Localities, Sl - So

Nearly every city, town and locality in Poland boasting a perceptible Jewish population supported one or more interest-free loan kassas and they played a significant role in Jewish economic life. Over the years, the JDC Recon. Found. granted these kassas very sizeable allocations, and yet the enormous needs outpaced the funds available. In a bid to stimulate fund-raising, the JDC offered to match any contributions in their favor stemming from landsmannschaften in the U.S. The offer remained in effect from Jan. 1937 until the Nazi invasion of Poland. Files 849-873 contain materials on some 370 loan kassas, arranged by localities. Nearly all were aided by individual landsmannschaften together with matching JDC grants. Nonetheless, these loan kassas formed but a fraction of those in actual operation. Note: For an interesting account of the economic difficulties besetting Jewish life in a small town and the role played by the local loan kassas, see below: File 872, Memo on Wengrow. Sl – So: Slawatycze (d. Lublin); Slupce (d. Poznan); Smorgony (d. Vilna); Sniatyn (d. Stan.); also see: Czernichow; Sobota (d. Warsaw); Sochaczew (d. Warsaw); Sochocin (d. Warsaw); Sokolka (d. Bial.); Sokoly (d. Bial.); Solec (d. Kielce); Solotwina (d. Stanislawow); Sosnowiec (d. Kielce); also see: Bedzin

File 868: Poland: Subject Matter, Reconstruction, Gemiloth Chesed Kassas (G.C.), Arranged by Localities, Sta - Str

Nearly every city, town and locality in Poland boasting a perceptible Jewish population supported one or more interest-free loan kassas and they played a significant role in Jewish economic life. Over the years, the JDC Recon. Found. granted these kassas very sizeable allocations, and yet the enormous needs outpaced the funds available. In a bid to stimulate fund-raising, the JDC offered to match any contributions in their favor stemming from landsmannschaften in the U.S. The offer remained in effect from Jan. 1937 until the Nazi invasion of Poland. Files 849-873 contain materials on some 370 loan kassas, arranged by localities. Nearly all were aided by individual landsmannschaften together with matching JDC grants. Nonetheless, these loan kassas formed but a fraction of those in actual operation. Note: For an interesting account of the economic difficulties besetting Jewish life in a small town and the role played by the local loan kassas, see below: File 872, Memo on Wengrow. Sta – Str: Stanislawow (d. Stan.); Stara Rafalowka (d. Wolyn); Stara Sol (d. Lwow); Stary Smbor (d. Lwow); Staszow (d. Kielce); Stawiski (d. Bial.); Stoczek Wegrowski (d. Lublin); Stolin (d. Polesie); Stolpce (d. Nowogr.); Stopnica (d. Kielce); Stryj (d. Stan.); Strzyzow (d. Lwow)

File 869: Poland: Subject Matter, Reconstruction, Gemiloth Chesed Kassas (G.C.), Arranged by Localities, Su - Sz

Nearly every city, town and locality in Poland boasting a perceptible Jewish population supported one or more interest-free loan kassas and they played a significant role in Jewish economic life. Over the years, the JDC Recon. Found. granted these kassas very sizeable allocations, and yet the enormous needs outpaced the funds available. In a bid to stimulate fund-raising, the JDC offered to match any contributions in their favor stemming from landsmannschaften in the U.S. The offer remained in effect from Jan. 1937 until the Nazi invasion of Poland. Files 849-873 contain materials on some 370 loan kassas, arranged by localities. Nearly all were aided by individual landsmannschaften together with matching JDC grants. Nonetheless, these loan kassas formed but a fraction of those in actual operation. Note: For an interesting account of the economic difficulties besetting Jewish life in a small town and the role played by the local loan kassas, see below: File 872, Memo on Wengrow. Su – Sz: Suchostaw (d. Tarnop.); Sulmierzyce (d. Poznan); Suprasl (d. Bial.); Swieciany (d. Vilna); Swislocz (d. Bial.); Szczercow (d. Lodz); Szczerzec (d. Lwow); Szumsk (d. Wolyn); Szydlow (d. Kielce); Szydlowiec (d. Kielce)

File 870: Poland: Subject Matter, Reconstruction, Gemiloth Chesed Kassas (G.C.), Arranged by Localities, T

Nearly every city, town and locality in Poland boasting a perceptible Jewish population supported one or more interest-free loan kassas and they played a significant role in Jewish economic life. Over the years, the JDC Recon. Found. granted these kassas very sizeable allocations, and yet the enormous needs outpaced the funds available. In a bid to stimulate fund-raising, the JDC offered to match any contributions in their favor stemming from landsmannschaften in the U.S. The offer remained in effect from Jan. 1937 until the Nazi invasion of Poland. Files 849-873 contain materials on some 370 loan kassas, arranged by localities. Nearly all were aided by individual landsmannschaften together with matching JDC grants. Nonetheless, these loan kassas formed but a fraction of those in actual operation. Note: For an interesting account of the economic difficulties besetting Jewish life in a small town and the role played by the local loan kassas, see below: File 872, Memo on Wengrow. T: Tarczyn (d. Warsaw); Tarlow (d. Kielce); Tarnobrzeg (d. Lwow); Tarnogrod (d. Lublin); Terespol (d. Lublin); Tomaszow Lubelski (d. Lublin); Truskolasy (d. Kielce); Trzcianne (d. Bial.); Turek (d. Poznan); Turobin (d. Lublin); Turzysk (d. Wolyn); Tykocin (d. Bial.); Tyszowce (d. Lublin)

File 871: Poland: Subject Matter, Reconstruction, Gemiloth Chesed Kassas (G.C.), Arranged by Localities, U

Nearly every city, town and locality in Poland boasting a perceptible Jewish population supported one or more interest-free loan kassas and they played a significant role in Jewish economic life. Over the years, the JDC Recon. Found. granted these kassas very sizeable allocations, and yet the enormous needs outpaced the funds available. In a bid to stimulate fund-raising, the JDC offered to match any contributions in their favor stemming from landsmannschaften in the U.S. The offer remained in effect from Jan. 1937 until the Nazi invasion of Poland. Files 849-873 contain materials on some 370 loan kassas, arranged by localities. Nearly all were aided by individual landsmannschaften together with matching JDC grants. Nonetheless, these loan kassas formed but a fraction of those in actual operation. Note: For an interesting account of the economic difficulties besetting Jewish life in a small town and the role played by the local loan kassas, see below: File 872, Memo on Wengrow. U: Ulanow (d. Lwow); Uscilog (d. Wolyn)

File 872: Poland: Subject Matter, Reconstruction, Gemiloth Chesed Kassas (G.C.), Arranged by Localities, W

Nearly every city, town and locality in Poland boasting a perceptible Jewish population supported one or more interest-free loan kassas and they played a significant role in Jewish economic life. Over the years, the JDC Recon. Found. granted these kassas very sizeable allocations, and yet the enormous needs outpaced the funds available. In a bid to stimulate fund-raising, the JDC offered to match any contributions in their favor stemming from landsmannschaften in the U.S. The offer remained in effect from Jan. 1937 until the Nazi invasion of Poland. Files 849-873 contain materials on some 370 loan kassas, arranged by localities. Nearly all were aided by individual landsmannschaften together with matching JDC grants. Nonetheless, these loan kassas formed but a fraction of those in actual operation. Note: For an interesting account of the economic difficulties besetting Jewish life in a small town and the role played by the local loan kassas, see below: File 872, Memo on Wengrow. W: Warez (d. Lwow); Warta (d. Lodz); Wasiliszki (d. Nowogr.); Wasilkow (d. Bial.); Wasniow (d. Kielce); Wawolnica (d. Lublin); Wengrow (d. Lublin); Widze (d. Vilna); Wielkie Oczy (d. Lwow); Wielun (d. Lodz); Wierzbnik (d. Kielce); Wizna (d. Bial.); Wlodzimierz (d. Wolyn); Wodzislaw (d. Kielce); Wysokie Litewski (d. Polesie); Wyszkow (d. Warsaw); Wyszogrod (d. Warsaw); Wyzna Nowa (d. Wolyn)

File 873: Poland: Subject Matter, Reconstruction, Gemiloth Chesed Kassas (G.C.), Arranged by Localities, Z

Nearly every city, town and locality in Poland boasting a perceptible Jewish population supported one or more interest-free loan kassas and they played a significant role in Jewish economic life. Over the years, the JDC Recon. Found. granted these kassas very sizeable allocations, and yet the enormous needs outpaced the funds available. In a bid to stimulate fund-raising, the JDC offered to match any contributions in their favor stemming from landsmannschaften in the U.S. The offer remained in effect from Jan. 1937 until the Nazi invasion of Poland. Files 849-873 contain materials on some 370 loan kassas, arranged by localities. Nearly all were aided by individual landsmannschaften together with matching JDC grants. Nonetheless, these loan kassas formed but a fraction of those in actual operation. Note: For an interesting account of the economic difficulties besetting Jewish life in a small town and the role played by the local loan kassas, see below: File 872, Memo on Wengrow. Z: Zablotow (d. Stan.); Zamosc (d. Lublin); Zareby Koscielne (d. Bial.); Zarki (d. Kielce); Zawichost (d. Kielce); Zawiercie (d. Kielce); Zawisty Dzikie (d. Bial.); Zborow (d. Tarnop.); Zdunska Wola (d. Lodz); Zdzieciol (d. Nowogr.); Zelechow (d. Lublin); Zelwa (d. Bial.); Zmigrod (d. Cracow); Zolkiewka (d. Lublin); Zwolen (d. Kielce); Zyrardow (d. Warsaw)

File 874: Poland: Subject Matter, Refugees, General, 1934; 1937 - 1939

Reports and Memos on Refugee Problems in Poland: JDC Interim Report 6/8/39. JDC Status Statement 6/27/39 attachment to 7/1/39. The Activity of the General Aid Committee for Jewish Refugees from Germany in Poland 11/1/38 – 7/1/39 by Alexander Hafftka, undated (Note: Duplicate copy in File 874a). List of 110 Centers Where Refugees are Staying 7/26/39. JDC Bulletin July 1939. Refugee Situation in Krakow and Katowice by D. Howlett 8/1/39. Refugee Situation in Poland 8/22/39. Nobody’s Land 11/10/39. No Man’s Land between the Russian and Lithuanian Borders by S. Tarschansky, 11/14/39 attachment to 11/21/39. Some Figures About the Activity of the JDC 2/8/40. Statement on Polish Deportations by Guzik and Neustadt attachment to 3/26/40. Beckelman Reports and Statements: 9/1/39, 10/5/39, 10/8/39, 10/10/39, 10/11/39, 11/1/39 Cable Rosen to JDC N.Y., Feb. 1940; also see: Beckelman reports and statements, Files 797-799. Correspondence: M.W. Beckelman, H.K. Buchman, D. Guzik, D. Howlett, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, I. Rosen, I.M. Rubinow, J.J. Schwartz, M.C. Troper.

File 875: Poland: Subject Matter, Refugees, General, 1940 - 1944

JDC Bulletin: War Relief Activities of the JDC (Poland and Refugees from Poland), #5 – 1/11/40. Memo: Some Figures About the Activity of the JDC (in Poland), 2/8/40. Reports: Refugee Problem in Lithuania based on report by M.W. Beckelman, Feb. 1940. First Aid Action and Problems of Methodic Relief by Guzik and Neustadt, undated and attached to 3/26/40. Activities report by the Kehilla Refugee Relief Committee Vilna for Jan. 1940, 5/8/40. Resume of JDC Operations for Refugees in Poland, 11/26/40. The JDC allocated $500,000 to the Polish Gov’t for Jewish Refugee Aid, 9/14/33, 10/27/43, 12/9/43, 3/30/44, 7/19/44, 8/7/44, 9/13/44, 10/4/44, 10/6/44. For JDC aid to the Sommerstein Committee, see above: File 802. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, M.W. Beckelman, Norman H. Davis, J.C. Hyman, M. Jarblum, H. Katzki, I. Schwartzbart, J. Stanczyk, M.C. Troper.

File 876: Poland: Subject Matter, Refugees, Vilna, Lists of Refugees

Name, birthplace and birthdate or city of origin of 10,350 Polish refugees who arrived in Vilna up to 6/5/40, 2/4/40, 6/5/40. For other materials on Polish refugees in Lithuanai, see above: Lithuania, Files 730-732, 738-739, 741.

File 877: Poland: Subject Matter, Refugees, Vilna, Cities of Origin

Cities of origin of 9,064 Polish refugees who arrived in Vilna by 2/4/40

File 878: Poland: Subject Matter, Refugees, Vilna, Zbaszyn, 1938 - 1939, General

Of the 16,000 Polish Jews expelled by the Nazi Gov’t in the night of 10/27-28/38, about one-half were thrust into Zbaszyn, a Polish border town, and some 5,500 were detained there. The JDC made an emergency grant of $250,000 to aid the expellees, and also helped to organize a Central Refugee Aid Committee to raise funds locally for the same purpose. By the spring of 1939, some 2,200 refugees remained in Zbaszyn. Reports on the Condition of the Refugees in Zbaszyn – L. Hellman: 11/10/38. Anonymous Eye-Witness Account: 11/18/38. M.C. Troper: 11/23/38, 12/1/38, 3/31/39, 6/8/39, 7/1/39, 7/26/39. I. Giterman: Attachment to 12/1/38, 12/24/38, 12/30/38, 12/31/38. Central Refugee Committee: 1/31/39, 3/22/39, 7/17/39 attachment to 7/19/39. Correspondence: H.K. Buchman, I. Giterman, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, N. Katz, D.J. Schweitzer, M.C. Troper.

File 879: Poland: Subject Matter, Refugees, Vilna, Zbaszyn, 1938 - 1939, Lists of Refugees at Zbaszyn

Lists of refugees classified by a number of categories – e.g. Polish birthplaces, countries where relatives dwell, and others.

File 880: Poland: Subject Matter, Polish Refugees in Australia, New Zealand and Burma

a. Australia and New Zealand, 1941 – 1944: Visas to 100 Polish refugees stranded in Kobe, Japan and admitting them in the ratio of 50 to Australia, 20 to New Zealand and 30 to Burma, were issued by the respective gov’ts on the strength of JDC guarantees of support for the duration of the war, 4/8/41, 6/11/41. For other materials on Polish refugees to Australia, see: 7/13/41, 8/6/41, 8/21/41, 9/4/41, 9/12/41, 9/18/41(2), 10/16/41, 10/22/41, 10/24/41(2), 11/17/41, 11/27/41, 12/2/41(3), 1/6/42, 1/9/42, 4/9/42. Correspondence: W.L. Brand, H.K. Buchman, M.A. Leavitt. b. Burma, 1941 – 1944: Polish refugees in Burma aided by the JDC: 5/29/41(2), 6/11/41, 9/17/41, 9/25/41 – 10/10/41, 10/31/41, 1/6/42 – 2/27/42, 4/9/42, 5/12/42, 7/8/42 – 3/30/44. Correspondence: L. Aronson, M. Birman, M.A. Leavitt, G. McIntosh White.

File 881: Poland: Subject Matter, Polish Refugees in Canada

In June 1941, the Canadian Gov’t, by an agreement with the Free Polish Gov’t, offered asylum to a restricted number of Polish refugees who were marooned in the Far East, provided that maintenance guarantees for the refugees in Canada were forthcoming. Some 79 Jewish refugees were granted visas and arrived in Canada under the terms of the agreement. The JDC contributed the transportation costs, in major degree. Subsequently, 80 yeshiva students and rabbis in the Far East were also granted visas to Canada and were scheduled to travel there via the U.S. The first group of 29 sailed from Shanghai to San Francisco on the SS Pres. Pierce and arrived on 10/20/41. The second group of 51 was scheduled to sail one month later, but last minute postponements and the intervention of Pearl Harbor brought overseas travel to an end, for the duration of the war. For additional materials on refugees in Canada, see: Canada, Files 453-455. For materials on the 79 refugees mentioned above, see: 5/13/41, 6/5/41 – 7/9/41, 7/15/41, 7/16/41 Hayes to Tartakower. For materials on the 80 yeshiva students, see: 8/20/41, 8/27/41 – 9/8/41, 9/15/41 Razovsky to Leavitt, 9/29/41, 9/30/41, 10/11/41, 10/20/41, 10/21/41, 10/23/41, 10/30/41 Buchman to Berman, 11/6/41, 11/14/41, 11/19/41, Razovsky to Warren, 11/24/41, 11/28/41, 1/2/42, 1/30/42, 2/16/42, 2/25/42, 5/27/42. Correspondence: H. Birman, H.K. Buchman, S. Hayes, J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt, L.L. Margolis, C. Razovsky.

File 882: Poland: Subject Matter, Polish Refugees in China, East Africa, Hungary and Italy

a. China: At the opening of 1942, some 16,000 – 18,000 Jewish refugees lived in Shanghai; about two-thirds stemmed from Germany and Austria, and the others from eastern Europe mostly, including Poland. The Polish refugees arrived in numbers mainly in 1941, and immediate friction erupted with the local Refugee Aid Committee which was heavily German-refugee oriented. The JDC enlarged its allocations for refugee aid in Shanghai, but the standards of eligibility demanded by it were community-wide in scope and not based upon national origin. For additional materials, see: China, Files 461-462. Relationship of the JDC and the Polish-Jewish Refugees: 11/30/40, 12/3/40, 3/21/41, 3/25/41, 4/4/41, April 1941, 4/26/41, 8/29/41, 9/5/41, 9/9/41, 9/11/41, 10/4/41, 10/10/41, 12/3/41, 4/10/42. Correspondence: M.W. Beckelman, H.K. Buchman, J. Ciechanowski, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, M.A. Leavitt, I. Rosen, A. Tartakower. b. East Africa, 1933 – 1944: Correspondence: A.H. Abraham, H. Behr, J.B. Foley. c. Hungary, 1939: Lists of Polish refugees in Budapest and in Detention Camps. d. Italy: On the Situation of Polish Refugees in Italy: 2/20/40, 4/17/40, 5/9/40, 5/20/40. Many refugees sailed for Palestine and some landed for a time in Greece 6/17/40, 6/19/40, and then in Turkey. For the stopover in Turkey, see below: File 886.e

File 883: Poland: Subject Matter, Polish Refugees in India

The Jewish Relief Association, Bombay (JRA), aided Jewish refugees from Europe who made temporary stopovers in Bombay en route to other destinations. During W.W. II, the JDC and the HICEM provided additional aid to individuals, and in those years the JDC also covered the greatest part of the HICEM budget. Between 9/1/39 – 11/1/42, 181 Polish refugees arrived in India and all but a handful made their departure before the end of the war. On the Situation of Polish Refugees in India: 1/6/41(3), 8/11/41, 9/26/41, 12/18/41, 1/29/42, 3/20/42, 4/9/42, 5/12/42, 6/16/42, 8/4/42, 9/11/42, 11/4/42, 4/9/43, 5/17/43, 7/2/43, 2/17/44, JRA Report for 1945, 12/31/45. Correspondence: H.K. Buchman, A. Dubin, F. Klein, M.A. Leavitt.

File 884: Poland: Subject Matter, Polish Refugees in Jamaica, 1941 - 1942

The first 152 refugees arrived in Jamaica on the SS Serpa Pinta: 12/15/41 – 2/3/42 Hyman to Simmonds, 2/9/42, 2/15/42 – 2/23/42(2), 3/12/42(2), 4/17/42. Relations between the JDC and the Refugees: 5/13/42(3) – 5/28/42, 6/9/42, 6/10/42, 6/13/42, 7/16/42, 7/17/42, 8/8/42, 10/2/42, 10/17/42, 10/29/42, 12/12/42 – 12/30/42. Report by C.H. Jordan, 12/17/42. Correspondence: H.K. Buchman, J. Ciechanowski, S. Cohen, I. Dijour, B. Glasscheib, O.K. Henriques, J.C. Hyman, S.B. Jacobson, C.H. Jordan, M.A. Leavitt, M. Matalon, R. Pilpel, E.A. Rae, J.J. Schwartz. In Aug. 1941, the Polish Gov’t in Exile sought a temporary haven in overseas lands for a group of 180 Polish-Jewish refugees in Lisbon. The British Gov’t expressed the willingness to receive the refugees in Jamaica but demanded a guarantee of support for the duration of the war. The Polish Gov’t pressed the JDC to provide the guarantee, as it professed itself powerless to give such a guarantee itself. The JDC and the British Gov’t agreed to a 12-month guarantee. The need to evacuate Jewish refugees out of Portugal grew acute when the threat of a Nazi invasion of that country loomed in the wake of Pearl Harbor. On 2/9/42, 152 Polish refugees arrived in Jamaica on the SS Serpa Pinta and they were lodged in Gibraltar Camp II (G.C. II). The camp commandant was E.A. Rae. The refugees were accompanied on the overseas journey by a JDC representative, S. Bertrand Jacobson. In the months that followed, 38 more refugees joined the others to make 190 in all. The British authorities stressed that the refugees were treated as guests of a friendly power, but the Polish refugees were disposed to compare camp conditions with those of a concentration camp. By reason of the war, air and water transportation in the Western Hemisphere was short in supply and high in cost until 1944. In that year, many of the refugees succeeded in migrating to Cuba, Canada, the U.S. and other countries, and by November, only 18 refugees remained in G.C. II. Relations with the refugees in Jamaica remained a JDC sore spot for a long period. The refugees swiftly alienated the local Jewish community of Kingston, which finally refused its help altogether, with the exception of a local resident, Samuel Cohen, who displayed an active and helpful interest in the group. The turning point came in Dec. 1942, when Charles H. Jordan, the JDC representative in Cuba, made a special inspection trip to Jamaica. His report, dated 12/17/42, will be found in File 884, and it offers a lucid account of conditions, problems and happenings at G.C. II. The JDC put Jordan’s recommendations into effect, and the atmosphere at the camp improved perceptibly, with but occasional expressions of discontent by selected individuals. Jordan’s successor in Cuba, Oscar Gurfinkel (Nov. 1943) continued to attend to JDC interests in Jamaica. In 1944, he aided numbers of refugees in Jamaica to gain admission to Cuba where they could find gainful employment. JDC costs for the transportation and support of the 190 refugees in Jamaica reached the neighborhood of $70,000, and called for a great volume of sustained effort on the part of many persons. Mr. O.K. Henriques, a prominent local resident, served as a voluntary JDC representative.

File 885: Poland: Subject Matter, Polish Refugees in Jamaica, 1943 - 1944

Relations Between the JDC and the Refugees: 2/9/43 attachment to 2/18/43, 2/23/43, 3/17/43 attachment to 3/24/43, 3/25/43, 4/12/43, 5/13/43 Leavitt to Cohen, 6/8/43, 8/6/43, 9/20/43, 10/23/43, 10/29/43, 12/23/43, 1/5/44, 7/22/44, 8/22/44, 10/25/44, 11/2/44, 11/10/44. Report: Visit to G.C. II by R. Debicki, Polish Minister to Cuba. Correspondence: H.D. Biele, S. Cohen, I. Dijour, 0. Gurfinkel, O.K. Henriques, J.C. Hyman, C.H. Jordan, M. Kwapiszewski, M.A. Leavitt, R. Pilpel, E.A. Rae. In Aug. 1941, the Polish Gov’t in Exile sought a temporary haven in overseas lands for a group of 180 Polish-Jewish refugees in Lisbon. The British Gov’t expressed the willingness to receive the refugees in Jamaica but demanded a guarantee of support for the duration of the war. The Polish Gov’t pressed the JDC to provide the guarantee, as it professed itself powerless to give such a guarantee itself. The JDC and the British Gov’t agreed to a 12-month guarantee. The need to evacuate Jewish refugees out of Portugal grew acute when the threat of a Nazi invasion of that country loomed in the wake of Pearl Harbor. On 2/9/42, 152 Polish refugees arrived in Jamaica on the SS Serpa Pinta and they were lodged in Gibraltar Camp II (G.C. II). The camp commandant was E.A. Rae. The refugees were accompanied on the overseas journey by a JDC representative, S. Bertrand Jacobson. In the months that followed, 38 more refugees joined the others to make 190 in all. The British authorities stressed that the refugees were treated as guests of a friendly power, but the Polish refugees were disposed to compare camp conditions with those of a concentration camp. By reason of the war, air and water transportation in the Western Hemisphere was short in supply and high in cost until 1944. In that year, many of the refugees succeeded in migrating to Cuba, Canada, the U.S. and other countries, and by November, only 18 refugees remained in G.C. II. Relations with the refugees in Jamaica remained a JDC sore spot for a long period. The refugees swiftly alienated the local Jewish community of Kingston, which finally refused its help altogether, with the exception of a local resident, Samuel Cohen, who displayed an active and helpful interest in the group. The turning point came in Dec. 1942, when Charles H. Jordan, the JDC representative in Cuba, made a special inspection trip to Jamaica. His report, dated 12/17/42, will be found in File 884, and it offers a lucid account of conditions, problems and happenings at G.C. II. The JDC put Jordan’s recommendations into effect, and the atmosphere at the camp improved perceptibly, with but occasional expressions of discontent by selected individuals. Jordan’s successor in Cuba, Oscar Gurfinkel (Nov. 1943) continued to attend to JDC interests in Jamaica. In 1944, he aided numbers of refugees in Jamaica to gain admission to Cuba where they could find gainful employment. JDC costs for the transportation and support of the 190 refugees in Jamaica reached the neighborhood of $70,000, and called for a great volume of sustained effort on the part of many persons. Mr. O.K. Henriques, a prominent local resident, served as a voluntary JDC representative.

File 886: Poland: Subject Matter, Polish Refugees in Japan, Mexico, Romania, Spain and Turkey

a. Japan, 1940 – 1941: On the Situation of Polish Refugees in Japan: 10/25/40, 12/19/40, 3/29/41, 4/9/41, 4/24/41, 5/1/42(2). For additional materials, see: Japan, Files 723-725. Correspondence: M.W. Beckelman, H.K. Buchman, B. Kahn, S. Tarschansky, K. Zyngol. b. Mexico, 1943: Correspondence: L. Bechar, J.C. Hyman, F.S. Levine, A.S. Petluck, R. Pilpel. c. Romania, 1933 – 1944: Lists of Polish Refugees in Romania, 10/16/39, 11/29/39, 12/16/39. Reports and Memos to JDC by Millstein/Ussoskin, 10/20/39, 10/25/39, 11/5/39, 10/19/40. Other materials on the Status of Polish Refugees in Romania: 10/6/39, 10/23/39(2), 1/20/40, 1/22/40. Correspondence: J. Millstein, M.C. Troper, M. Ussoskin. d. Spain, 1943, 1945: Correspondence: H. Katzki, M.A. Leavitt, H. Trobe. e. Turkey, 1940 – 1941: Some 270 refugees, from Poland mostly, sailed for Palestine from Trieste following the entrance of Italy into the war in May 1940, and were marooned without means first in Salonika and then for a longer span in Istanbul. In both cities they received JDC aid. In Istanbul, the aid was distributed by the Aid Committee of the Grand Rabbinat. Correspondence: Ch. Barlas, P. Eisenstadt, J.J. Schwartz, H. Soriano. USSR: See: Iran, Files 712-713; See: Japan, Files 723-725; See: Relief Supplies, Files 421-429.

File 887: Poland: Subject Matter, Relief Supplies, General

The JDC contributed $30,000 for the purchase of flour in Slovakia for shipment to Poland, 7/31/40 – 9/12/40, 10/14/40, 10/16/40, 11/18/40, 12/2/40. A Special JDC Committee was appointed to consider the dispatch of additional food shipments to Poland, 11/22/40, 11/25/40, 12/4/40 – 12/19/40, 1/18/41, 2/25/41. The JDC tried unsuccessfully to buy food supplies in Russia for shipment to Poland, 3/1/41 – 3/12/41, 4/5/41 – 4/25/41. The JDC allocated funds for the purchase of 17,000 cans of milk stored in a Warsaw warehouse, 6/5/41 – 6/13/41, 6/18/41 – 8/6/41 Cable. The JDC obtained U.S. Gov’t license to ship food packages from Lisbon to Poland, 11/17/42 – 2/12/43, 3/8/43 – 4/30/43. The JDC shipped supplies to the Sommerstein Committee, 7/15/44, 8/16/44 – 10/23/44, 11/4/44 – 1/3/45; also see: File 802, 7/5/44 and ff. Relief Supplies, Files 421 – 429 SM Archives, File 51(1) Correspondence: M.W. Beckelman, J. Blum, H.K. Buchman, J.C. Hyman, S.B. Jacobson, M.A. Leavitt, M.C. Troper.

File 888: Poland: Subject Matter, Relief Supplies, Lists of Individual Recipients of Food Parcels

Lists of Individual Recipients of Food Parcels, 1941; 1943

File 889: Poland: Subject Matter, Vocational Training (V.T.)

JDC Allocations for Vocational Training in Poland: 1937 attachment to 6/15/38; 1938, 6/26/39. JDC Report, Professional Training in Poland, Aug. 1938. Memos and Tables on V.T.: Extract on V.T. from Report on Poland by A. Kahn, Oct. 1937; Table of CENTOS V.T. schools and courses, Nov. 1937; Trade Schools in Poland and the Need for a Joint Survey, 3/24/38; Needs and Prospects for Jewish Trade Training in Poland, 10/7/38. Also see above: File 819, Ort Poland, Warsaw File 820, Wuzet, Lwow Correspondence: M.W. Beckelman, H.K. Buchman, J.C. Hyman, A. Kahn, B. Kahn, E.M. Morrissey, D.M. Schweitzer.

Series 4: Poland: Localities

File 890: Poland: Localities, A - D

A: Aleksandrie (d. Wolyn); Aleksandrie (d. Wolyn); B: Baranow (d. Lublin); Biala (d. Cracow) see: Bielsko (d. Slask); Biealystok (d. Bial.); Bielsk (d. Bial.) also see: File 849; Bielsko (d. Slask); Bielsk (d. Warsaw); Bilgoraj (d. Lublin) also see: File 849; Bobrka (d. Lwow); Borszczow (d. Tarnop.) see: File 850; Bransk (d. Warsaw) see: File 850; Branszczyk (d. Bial.); Brok n/B (d. Bial.)see: File 850; Brzesc Litewski (d. Polesie); Brzozdowce (d. Lwow); Buczacz (d. Tarnop.) see: File 850; Burzenin (d. Lodz); C: Checiny see: Loan Kassas Ciechanowiec (d. Bial.) see: Wysokie Mazowieckie and Loan Kassas; Cieszyn (d. Slask); Cisna (d. Bial.); Cracow (d. Cracow); Czarnow (d. Kielce); Czernawczyce (d. Polesie) see: Loan Kassas; Czestochowa (d. Kielce); Czyzewo (d. Bial.) see: Wysokie Mazowieckie; D: Dawidgrodek (d. Polesie) see: File 852; Dlugosiodlo (d. Bial.); Drzewica (d. Kielce); Dubno (d. Wolyn);

File 891: Poland: Localities, E - K

E: Eiszyszki (d. Nowogr.); G: Gdynia (d. Pomorskie); Grodno (d. Bial.); H: Horodenka (d. Stanis.); J: Jabkonka Koscielna (d. Bial.); Jedwabne (d. Bial.)see: Wysokie Mazowieckie; K: Kielce (d. Kielce); Kleck (d. Nowogr.)see: File 855; Klewan (d. Wolyn); Klwow (d. Kielce); Kolomyja (d. Stan.)see: File 856; Korczyna (d. Lwow); Kossow (d. Polesie); Kulesze Koscielne (d. Bial.); Kutno (d. Warsaw);

File 892: Poland: Localities, L - O

L: Lapy (d. Bial.)see: Zambrow and File 858; Lebiedziewo (d. Vilna); Lida (d. Nowogr.) see: File 858; Lodz (d. Lodz) also see: File 858; Lublin (d. Bial.) see: File 859; Lwow (d. Lwow); M: Minsk Mazowiecki (d. Warsaw); Mordy (d. Lublin); N: Nowogrodek (d. Nowogr.); Nowy Sacz (d. Cracow) see: File 861; O: Odrzywot (d. Kielce); Olpiny (d. Cracow); Orla Podlaska (d. Bial.); Ostrog (d. Wolyn);

File 893: Poland: Localities, P - R

P: Piekuty Krasowo (d. Bial.); Pinsk (d. Polesie); Probuzna (d. Tarnop.); Przemysl (d. Lwow); Przemyslany (d. Tarnop.); Przyszew (d. Warsaw); Przytyk (d. Kielce); R: Raciaz (d. Warsaw); Radom (d. Radom); Radziejow (d. Warsaw); Radzilow (d. Bial.); Rawa Mazowiecka (d. Warsaw) see: File 865; Rozana (d. Wolyn); Rozana (d. Polesie) see: File 865; Rutki Kosaki (d. Bial.); Rybnik (d. Slask); Rymanow (d. Lwow); Rzeszow (d. Lwow);

File 894: Poland: Localities, S - T

S: Sarny (d. Wolyn); Sasow (d. Tarnop.)also see: File 866; Siedlce (d. Lublin); Sniadowo (d. Bial.); Sniatyn (d. Stanisl.); Sokolka (d. Bial.)also see: File 867; Sokolka Podlaski (d. Lublin); Sokolow (d. Lublin); Sokoly (d. Bial.) see: Wysokie Mazowieckie; Stoki (d. Lublin) also see: Wyszkow; Suchawola (d. Bial.); Suwalki (d. Bial.); Szczebrzeszyn (d. Lublin); Szczerzec (d. Lwow)see: File 869; T: Tarnow (d. Cracow); Tomaszow Mazowiecki (d. Lodz); Truskolasy (d. Kielce); Trzcianka (d. Bial.); Tykocin (d. Bial.) also see: Wysokie Mazowieckie;

File 895: Poland: Localities, W - Z

W: Warsaw Nov. 1939 – 1943 Wengrow (d. Lublin) see: File 872; Wilna (d. Wilna) also see: Files 876-877; Wlodawa (d. Lublin); Wysokie Mazowieckie (d. Bial.); Wyszonki Koscielne (d. Bial.); Z: Zagorow (d. Lodz); Zaklikow (d. Lublin); Zambrow (d. Bial.); Zbaszyn (d. Poznan) also see: Files 878-879; Zelow (d. Lodz);

Record Group 4.48: Portugal

File 896: Portugal: General, 1933; 1939 - 1942

Reports and memos on the status of refugees – Comissao: 12/22/39, 11/5/40 attachment to 11/9/40, 2/28/41 d’Esaguy to Goldmann, 4/22/41, 6/4/41 d’Esaguy, 10/21/42. Comite: 1942, Jan., Feb., April, June. JDC: 11/4/40, 11/26/40, 5/5/41, 6/21/41, 10/14/41, 12/16/41, 1/8/42, 4/14/42, 5/14/42, 6/30/42, 8/15/42, 9/2/42. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, A. d’Esaguy, J.C. Hyman, H. Katzki, M.A. Leavitt, E.M. Morrissey, A. Nussbaum, J.J. Schwartz, M.C. Troper.

File 897: Portugal: General, 1943 - 1944

On the status of refugees: 3/9/43, 7/31/43, 9/21/43, 2/15/44, 5/18/44, 7/7/44, 8/3/44, 8/22/44, 8/30/44, 10/18/44, 12/19/44 Pilpel to JDC. Portuguese Jews expelled from France reached Portugal, 9/21/43, 10/14/43, 11/16/43. Lists of refugees emigrating from Spain and Portugal 1943/44: 3/15/43 – 5/31/43, 6/5/43; July/August, 11/30/43; 10/26/43 – 2/15/44, 3/9/44. Fin. and Statistical Reports: Comite, Jan. 1943; Transmigration Bureau Lisbon, 7/31/43; Summary of Fin. and Statistical Reports Lisbon submitted to the JDC 1/1/43 – 6/30/43, 11/23/43. Correspondence: D.B. Hurwitz, J.C. Hyman, H. Katzki, R. Pilpel, J.J. Schwartz.

Record Group 4.49: Portuguese East Africa

File 897a: Portuguese East Africa (Lourenco Marques)

The Council for Refugee Settlement in Africa Outside the Union of South Africa (Council) was a creation of the South African Jewish Board of Deputies in the latter 1930’s. It helped to support Jewish refugees from Europe in a number of African territories, among them Portuguese East Africa. In Jan. 1941, the aid pipeline was cut when the South African Gov’t imposed wartime restrictions on currency transfers to non-sterling countries. The Board of Deputies and the JDC arranged a clearing system whereby the JDC transmitted to the Council the dollars needed by it for Portuguese South Africa. In turn, the Council transmitted the sterling equivalent to Palestine, where it was applied to JDC projects. The arrangement was approved by gov’t officials in the United States and South Africa. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, H. Behr, J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt.

Record Group 4.50: Romania

Series 1: Romania: Administration

File 898: Romania: Administration, General, 1934 - 1938 (April)

Reports and Memos – B. Kahn: April 1936, 8/3/36, 1/19/37; N. Aronovici: 4/22/37; B. Smolar: Sept. 1937; J. Millstein and M. Ussoskin: 11/30/37; Expenditures in Romania, 3/4/37; Non-JDC Reports – “The New Romanian Gov’t and the Problem of Minorities, and of the Jews in Particular”, 3/15/38; “La Situation des Juifs en Roumanie” by the WJC, Jan. 1938. Minutes of the JDC Foundation Meeting 4/26/38, 4/27/38. For additional data 1938, see: EUREXCO, File 179. Correspondence: N. Aronovici, O.E. d’Avigdor Goldsmid, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, N. Katz, I. Millstein, B. Smolar, M. Ussoskin.

File 899: Romania: Administration, General, 1938 (May-Dec.)

Virtually all the documents in this file turn on the attempts by the Romanian Gov’t to close the Jewish credit institutions in the country, and the ins and outs of the discussions which followed with the JDC and the JDC Foundation. The JDC enlisted the aid of the U.S. State Dept. and the British Foreign Office, and the JDC Foundation had the services of Major-Gen. F.J. Duncan, a former British Military Attache in Bucharest. The ultimate outcome was that most of the kassas in Romania continued to function until June 22, 1941, when that country joined with Germany in the attack on Russia. Reports and Memos – J.C. Hyman: 6/6/38; Gen. F.J. Duncan: 11/4/38 attachment to 11/7/38; B. Smolar: 12/2/38 and Summary 12/22/38. Correspondence: F.J. Duncan, J.C. Dunn, O.E. d’Avigdor Goldsmid, J.C. Hyman, R. Irimescu, B. Kahn, A.A. Landesco, P. Moffat, E.M. Morrissey, L. Oungre.

File 900: Romania: Administration, General, 1939 - 1941

Reports and memos of the Situation of the Romanian Jews – Horia Carp: 1/13/39, 1/25/39; J.C. Hyman: 3/2/39 attachment to 3/3/39; B. Smolar: 3/13/39 attachment to 3/21/39; N. Aronovici: 3/22/39; E.K. Schwartz: 5/2/39; Moses Moskowitz: April 1940 attachment to 4/17/40; S.B. Jacobson: 8/5/40 attachment to 9/4/40; M. Ussoskin: 8/26/40, 2/26/41(2). Ch. Barlas: 10/8/40; Anonymous: 5/8/39, 7/3/40, 11/21/41. Also see: 2/8/41 attachment to 3/11/41, 2/20/41, 10/4/41. For additional data, see: EUREXCO, Files 180-181. Correspondence: N. Aronovici, H.K. Buchman, H. Carp, F.J. Duncan, J.C. Hyman, S.B. Jacobson, A.A. Landesco, M.A. Leavitt, E.M. Morrissey, M. Moskowitz, B. Smolar, M.C. Troper, M. Ussoskin.

File 901: Romania: Administration, General, 1942 - 1944

On the Situation of the Romanian Jews: 6/25/42, 7/9/43, 4/29/44, 5/10/44(2), 8/23/44, 10/13/44 JTA, 10/16/44, 10/28/44 – 11/3/44, 11/16/44, 12/12/44, 12/26/44 Schwartz to Leavitt. Reports and Memos – M. Ussoskin: 5/11/43, 1/10/44; M. Reifer: 8/25/44; E. Costiner: 10/2/44; M. Leclerc 11/21/44; M. Kessler, 12/15/44. My Life by Wilhelm Filderman undated, and a brief biography of him in the Encyclopedia Judaica, Vol. 6. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, E. Costiner, Wm. Filderman, J.C. Hyman, M. Kessler, Ch. Kolb, J.L. Magnes, R. Pilpel, R.B. Resnik, J.J. Schwartz, Laurence A. Steinhardt, M. Ussoskin.

File 902: Romania: Administration, General, 1941 - 1945

1.Transnistria, 1943 – 1945: When Germany invaded Russia on 6/22/41, a coattail army, the Romanian, accompanied them in the invasion of Bessarabia and the Ukraine. From Sept. 1941 onward, the Romanians deported some 147,000 Jews to Transnistria, an impoverished territory in the Ukraine between the Bug and the Dniester Rivers, ceded to them by the Nazis. The deportations were only for forced labor ostensibly, but in fact a mere 40% of the victims survived. In 1943 – 1944, JDC aid in the form of individual packages were forwarded to the refugees in Transnistria via the CICR. The JDC remitted $100,000 to the CICR for the purchase of supplies for distribution to refugees in Transnistria: 10/27/43, 11/5/43, 12/1/43, 12/20/43, 1/10/44, 1/17/44, 1/27/44, 3/6/44, 4/7/44, 4/22/44 – 5/1/44, 6/19/44; for additional materials, see: SM Archives, Files 54-55. On the return of deportees from Transnistria to Romania: 12/14/43, 1/6/44, 1/10/44. On emigration from Transnistria to Palestine: 2/21/44, 3/1/44 – 3/3/44(2), 6/19/44. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, I.A. Hirshman, Cordell Hull, J.C. Hyman, H. Katzki, M.A. Leavitt, J.L. Magnes, J.J. Schwartz, L.A. Steinhardt, H.K. Travers. 2. Transylvania, 1941 – 1942: On the situation of the Jews in Transylvania: 2/13/41 – 10/23/41, 3/13/42, 6/12/42. Correspondence: H.K. Buchman, S.B. Jacobson, B. Kahn, M.A. Leavitt, J.J. Schwartz.

File 903: Romania: Administration, Financial

Claims Against the JDC, 1941 – 1944: The JDC raised large sums in Romania for aid to Jews there and in Transnistria, based on the JDC promise of post-war repayment in dollars. Payment requests in 1944 were received from a number of claimants, among them Abraham Goldstein, Nathan Gruenberg and Max Cukier. For additional material on claimants, see: SM Archives, File 57.

Series 2: Romania: Subject Matter

Reconstruction — From 1920 – 1940, the Jewish credit institutions in Romania were organized along provincial and not along national lines, in keeping with the differences in their national origins, and their developments. In 1929, a Central Committee of the Jewish Cooperatives in Romania was created, but it functioned (until 1940) only as an advisory body. The Bessarabian cooperatives were the most developed. They went their own way and they affiliated themselves with the others only in pro-forma fashion. In 1940, Bessarabia was returned to Russia along with N. Bukovina and the respective Jewish credit institutions were closed. In 1941, N. Transylvania was transferred to Hungary. Aid to the Jewish credit institutions in Romania was extended via the JDC Foundation. Moshe Ussoskin and Isaac Millstein served the Foundation as Inspectors of Loan Kassas, while Fred Saraga was president of the Central Committee of Jewish Cooperatives. JDC allocations for loan kassas and cooperatives took the following pattern: 1936: $18,857; 1937: 28,339; 1938: 11,693; 1939: $24,937; 1940: 13,886; 1941: 10,000; Total: $107,712. But JDC aid in those years was considerably greater in reality. Allocations to the kassas and cooperatives dated back into the 1920’s, and the moneys were used as revolving funds. When individual loans were repaid, the funds became available for fresh loans. The JDC never withdrew any of the funds it granted. In addition, some JDC allocations for the credit institutions were charged to other budgets. For additional data on the credit institutions in Romania, see: File 909, “Struggle for Survival”, by Moshe Ussoskin. Also see above: Introduction to File 899.

File 904: Romania: Subject Matter, Child Care

Brief Reports – Child Feeding: Transylvania, 3/27/33; Old Romania and Bukovina, 6/26/33; Bessarabia, 8/26/33, 8/21/40. Summer Camps, 12/31/36. Other: Central Orphan Care Organization in Cluj 1937, 4/11/38. Also see below: File 915, Morgenroit. Correspondence: B. Kahn, M. Ussoskin.

File 905: Romania: Subject Matter, Cultural and Religious

1. Elementary and Religious Schools: a. Bessarabia, Tarbuth Schools, 1937; 1940 – 1941 b. Iasy (Jassy), Talmud Torah and Yeshivah Or Chodosh, 1938 – 1946, Requests for aid and fin. drafts were submitted over the years by Rabbi Avram Sabsa. This was a notable case. For additional materials, see: SM Archives, File 56(3). Correspondence: H.K. Buchman, A. Gurin, A. Horowitz, M.A. Leavitt, J. Rosenheim, A. Sabsa. c. Transylvania, Jewish Schools, 1937; 1940 2. Yeshivot and Seminaries: a. Cernauti (Czernowitz), Hebrew Teacher’s Seminary, 1938 – 1939 b. Marmoros, Viseul de Sus, Yeshiva Beth Israel, 1936 – 1941 Correspondence: C. Adler, L. Fabricant, M. Heger, A. Horowitz, J.C. Hyman. c. Sacueni, Yeshiva Beth Jehuda, 1939 – 1940 d. Satmar, Yeshiva Ohs Chaim, 1937 – 1941 e. Sighet, Yeshiva Etz Chaim, 1939 – 1941

File 906: Romania: Subject Matter, Emigration

1. General, 1939 – 1945: Controversy over a newspaper advertisement by the Committee for a Jewish Army of Stateless and Palestine Jews, 2/24/43 – 3/9/43. Controversy between Wm. Filderman and A.L. Zissu, Jewish Agency Delegate, on priorities of Jewish emigration from Romania, 5/10/44, 6/16/44 – 6/22/44, 6/30/44 Zimmer to Filderman, 7/4/44, 8/10/44. For individual sailings from Romania, see: File 374, SS Mefkure; File 338, SS Salahatin; and File 389, SS Struma. Also see: File 910, 5/2/39. Correspondence: H.K. Buchman, L. Danneberg, Wm. Filderman, J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt, J.L. Magnes, H. Montor, Ch. Passman, J.J. Smertenko, M. Zimmer. 2. Palestine, 1940 – 1944: Report by M. Zingher on the emigration from Constanza to Palestine of a group of 110 chalutzim, 1/9/41. The JDC granted $19,000 for the transportation to Palestine, with the aid of the IRC, of 270 children from Romania and Hungary, 9/2/42 – 10/27/42. Correspondence: M.A. Leavitt, J.J. Schwartz, A. Tartakower, M. Ussoskin, M. Zingher.

File 907: Romania: Subject Matter, Reconstruction, General

On the status of the Jewish credit institutions in Romania: 1/27/36 attachment to 1/30/36 and summary 2/25/36, 4/30/36, 1/6/37, 11/18/37, 11/23/38 Memo by W. Filderman, 1/24/39. On the attempts by the Romanian Gov’t to close the Jewish kassas: 4/21/38 – 4/3/39, 4/20/39, 4/21/39(2), 5/12/39, 6/20/39, 7/1/39, 7/15/39, 2/26/41, 7/28/44. Memos, Minutes and Reports: Minutes of meetings between Foundation Managers and Romanian Jewish representatives 4/26/38 – 4/27/38. Report by Gen. F.J. Duncan on his discussions with Romanian authorities, 11/23/38. For narrative and statistical reports on the credit institutions, see below: File 908. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, F.J. Duncan, J.C. Dunn, Wm. Filderman, O.E. d’Avigdor Goldsmid, J.C. Hyman, S.B. Jacobson, M. Irimescu, B. Kahn, A.A. Landesco, I. Millstein, P. Moffat, L. Oungre, F. Saraga, D.J. Schweitzer, M. Ussoskin.

File 908: Romania: Subject Matter, Reconstruction, Reports and Memos - Narrative, Fin. and Statistical

“Activities for 1934 of the Central Committee of Jewish Cooperatives in Romania”, undated (Yiddish). Reports for 1936 of GM Kassas for: Bukovina by M. Ussoskin 10/6/36, Transylvania by I. Millstein and Old Romania by I. Millstein and M. Ussoskin undated (German). M. Ussoskin undated (German). “Small Credit Banks of the Old Kingdom” by Wm. Filderman, 11/23/38. Fin. Reports for 1938: Bessarabia 4/15/39, Old Romania, Transylvania and Bukovina 6/4/39. Annual Report 1939 for GM Kassas in Romania by I. Millstein (French). Statistical Report of the 42 kassas affiliated with the Verband, Bucharest, 8/1/40. Fin. Statement of the kassas in Transylvania following the transfer of the territory to Hungary, 3/18/42.

File 909: Romania: Subject Matter, Reconstruction, Publication

“Struggle for Survival”, Moshe Ussoskin, Jerusalem 1975. A comprehensive history of the Jewish credit cooperatives in Romania. It also contains many snapshot photos of Jewish personalities.

File 910: Romania: Subject Matter, Refugees

The materials in this file deal with non-Romanian refugees who were in transit through Romania or were marooned there for a time, and with Romanian refugees en route to other countries, Palestine mostly, who were marooned in Turkey. JDC expenditures charged to the refugee budget for Romania and set forth in the table below, pertain to the first category. Expenditures for the benefit of Romanian refugees in other countries were charged to other budgets (e.g. Turkey, general budget), and can no longer be segregated with precision. For Polish refugees in Romania, see: Poland, File 886. 1936: $375; 1939: 19,753; 1940: $12,781; 1941: 11,000; Total: $43,909. General, 1939 – 1945: Reports and Memos: “The Situation of Refugees in Constanza”, 5/2/39. Note: The authors were not named, but presumably it was the handiwork of Ussoskin and Millstein. Reports on refugees in Romania – Ch. Grey, JDC representative: 10/9/39 attachment to 10/25/39; I. Millstein: 10/14/39 attachment to 10/25/39; Millstein/Ussoskin: 11/5/39; M. Ussoskin: 10/7/40 attachment to 10/19/40, 10/10/40 attachment to 10/30/40. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, H.K. Buchman, Ch. Grey, J.C. Hyman, I. Millstein, Ch. Passman, L.A. Steinhardt, M. Ussoskin.

File 911: Romania: Subject Matter, Vocational Training, General

n vocational training, the JDC aided apprentice homes and trade schools in the main. Data on the apprentice homes will be found below in the first section and on the Morgenroit Trade School, Czernowitz (Cernauti), in the second. 1. Apprentice Homes, 1938 – 1941: Reports – M. Ussoskin: 9/23/40 attachment to 10/18/40, 11/19/40. Brief Reports and Memos: 4/12/41 – 10/3/41. 2. Jewish Workingmen’s School “Morgenroit”, Czernowitz (Cernauti): The JDC allocated $5,033 to the Morgenroit School between 1933 – 1939 as outlined below. Early in 1941, the Russian Army occupied N. Bukovina (including Czernowitz) and direct communication with the school was broken. The school’s leaders were evacuated to Siberia when the Nazi and Romanian armies invaded N. Bukovina. For materials on activities of the school in earlier years, see: Archives, 1921 – 1932, File 422a. Allocations: 1933: $330; 1934: 80; 1935: 140; 1936: 258; 1937: $550; 1938: 1,375; 1939: 2,300; Total: $5,033. Reports and memos on the activities of the Morgenroit: 6/25/35, 6/15/37, 1/13/39 attachment to 2/17/39. Correspondence: H.K. Buchman, J.C. Hyman, A. Kahn, J. Kisman, M.C. Troper, B.C. Vladeck.

Series 3: Romania: Localities

File 912: Romania: Localities

1. General, 1939: Payments to organizations in various cities and towns, attachments to 5/29/40. For additional cities and towns in receipt of JDC funds, see: Files 905, 907-908. 2. Individual: a. Chisinau (Kishinev), Bessarabia 1933, 1937 b. Chotin, Bessarabia 1939 c. Raudouti, Bukovina, 1940 – 1941 d. Sadagura, Bukovina, 1938 – 1939

Record Group 4.51: Spain

Series 1: Spain: Administration

Correspondence, reports, memos and addenda.

File 913: Spain: Administration, General, 1934 - 1939

The affair of “Rabbi” Fernando Friedman, who made fund-raising tours for refugee relief throughout the U.S. and Canada on behalf of the non-existent “Synagoga Central de Israelitas Ashkenasim of Barcelona” , 7/22/34 – 10/31/35. The JDC Paris made small grants for refugees in Spain, 11/14/34, 4/5/37. Reports: B. Kahn, 11/14/34. Correspondence: C. Adler, B. Braunstein, D.M. Bressler, I. Dijour, F.N. Friedman, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, J.B. Lightman.

File 914: Spain: Administration, General, 1940 - 1942

efugees in Miranda de Ebro Concentration Camp: 12/10/40, Aug. 1942 attachment to 9/24/42, 11/2/42, 12/24/42, 12/29/42, also see: materials on Mrs. Virginia Wedell: 1/30/41 – 2/12/41, 2/24/41, 2/25/41, 3/17/41 – 4/8/41, 6/25/41, 8/15/41, 9/3/41, 10/8/41, 11/1/41, 12/1/41, 2/5/42, 2/9/42, 2/25/42, 3/16/42, 4/11/42 attachment to 4/23/42, 6/22/42; Mrs. Dorsey Stevens: 5/7/42, 6/6/42(3), Refugees escaping to Spain from Southern France in 1942: 8/13/42, 8/15/42, 9/24/42, 9/29/42 – 11/8/42, 11/20/42(2), 12/11/42, 12/17/42. Lists of refugees in Spain in receipt of JDC aid, 1/18/42, 12/29/42. Reports and Memos on Spain: Brief reports on refugees and transmigrants by S. Sequerra, 10/18/40, 4/25/42 “Situation of Refugees Coming from France and Detained in Spain”, 6/19/41; “Renewal of U.S. Visas by German Refugees at Barcelona”, by M.C. Troper, 10/11/41; Refugee Problem in Spain, 4/21/42. Correspondence: P.A. Conard, C.J.H. Hayes, J.C. Hyman, H. Katzki, M.A. Leavitt, M.P. Schauffler, J.J. Schwartz, S. Sequerra, D. Stephens, M.C. Troper, J.G. Vail, V.C. Wedell.

File 915: Spain: Administration, General, 1943 (Jan. - June

Refugees in Miranda de Ebro, 1/4/43 Cables #112, #204, 1/20/43 – 1/22/43, 1/29/43 attach. 2/1/43, 2/3/43, 2/6/43, 2/12/43, 2/24/43 Cables #241, #244, 3/3/43, 3/8/43, 3/9/43, 3/15/43, 3/22/43, 3/24/43 Gen. Letter #72, 3/26/43 – 3/27/43, 4/6/43 – 4/10/43, 4/17/43, 4/28/43, 5/17/43, 6/10/43, 6/28/43. Reports and Memos – H. Katzki: 3/9/43, 3/24/43, 4/6/43. For lists of Yugoslav refugees in Spain, see: File 1,058.c, 6/26/43. Correspondence: H.M. Emerson, H. Katzki, J.J. Schwartz, G.L. Warren.

File 916: Spain: Administration, General, 1943 (July - Dec.)

Refugees in Miranda de Ebro, 7/27/43, 8/3/43, 8/7/43, 8/21/43, 8/23/43 Blickenstaff to Conard, 9/6/43, 11/9/43. General Situation of Refugees in Spain, 8/7/43, 8/12/43, 8/28/43, 9/1/43, 10/26/43, 11/19/43, 12/17/43. Evacuation of Refugees to N. Africa from Spain, 8/27/43, 12/4/43, 12/8/43, 12/20/43. Sephardi Jews Coming to Spain, 7/1/43, 8/16/43, 8/21/43 (2), 8/23/43, 8/27/43, 9/7/43 Katzki to JDC, 9/8/43, 9/17/43, 9/28/43, 10/24/43, 11/6/43, 12/17/43, 12/20/43. Reports and Memos on Refugees in Spain – David Blickenstaff, 8/23/43 Letter #402, 8/7/43, 11/10/43, 11/15/43, November 1943, 12/8/43; Elias Canetti, 9/18/43 attachment to 9/28/43; Philip A. Conard, 11/20/43 ; H.P. Theodore, 7/27/43. For lists of Yugoslav refugees in Spain, see: File 1, 058.d, 9/10/43. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, D. Blickenstaff, E. Canetti, P.A. Conard, H.M. Emerson, C.R. Joy, J.C. Hyman, H. Katzki, M.A. Leavitt, H.P. Theodore, J.G. Vail.

File 917: Spain: Administration, General, 1944

Sephardi Refugees in Spain, 2/19/44, 3/31/44, 4/20/44. Evacuation of Refugees to N. Africa from Spain, 2/24/44, 3/31/44, 4/20/44, 5/3/44, 6/6/44, 6/26/44. Other Data on Refugees in Spain, 1/31/44, 4/11/44 Letter #931, 5/29/44, 6/12/44 (2), 6/19/44, 7/13/44, 7/26/44, 9/20/44. Reports and Memos on Refugees in Spain – N.W. Beckelman: 1/23/44; J. and D. Blickenstaff and L.B. Parrish, attach. 10/6/44; Philip A. Conard, 10/31/44; C.J.H. Hayes: 1/24/44; H. Rosenstiel: 9/28/60. Brief Statistical Rep. on Refugees in Spain, 7/28/44. Monthly Fin. and Statistical Reports, by D. Blickenstaff and by ORSARO: 2/4/44, 2/10/44, 2/21/44, 2/23/44, 5/12/44, 5/16/44, 6/17/44, 7/19/44, 7/24/44 (2), 7/25/44 Pilpel to N.Y., 8/30/44 (2) Letters #908, #909, 9/29/44, 9/30/44, 10/31/44. Statistical Graphs on JDC Refugee Aid in 1944, undated. Correspondence: M.W. Beckelman, D. Blickenstaff, J. Blickenstaff, P.A. Conard, C.J.H. Hayes, D.B. Hurwitz, J.C. Hyman, H. Katzki, L.K. Jessup, M.A. Leavitt, L.B. Parrish, R. Pilpel, J.J. Schwartz.

File 918: Spain: Administration, General, Financial

Fin. and Statistical Reports, Barcelona: 1943: Sept., 8/30/44. 1944: Feb., 4/25/44; April, 9/24/44; May, 9/21/44; June, 9/22/44, 10/2/44; Sept., Oct., Nov., 1/21/45.

File 919: Spain: Administration, General, Reports

JDC Barcelona, Annual Report for 1944, by Samuel Sequerra, undated (French).

Series 2: Spain: Subject Matter

File 920: Spain: Subject Matter, Refugees

Maintenance lists of refugees in Spain, 1943, Oct., Nov. For Polish refugees in Spain, see: Poland, File 886.d

Record Group 4.52: Sweden

File 921: Sweden, General

Situation of the Refugees in Sweden: 7/29/40, 1/9/42, 5/18/43, 7/22/43, 8/18/43(2), 10/13/43, 4/19/44. Danish-Jewish Refugees in Sweden: 10/8/43-10/16/43, 10/11/43 attach. 11/10/43, 11/26/43, 12/13/43, 12/29/43, 5/5/44, 6/30/44, Stateless Jews from Finland in Sweden: 6/20/44(2), 6/28/44, 7/19/44, 7/26/44, 8/3/44 – 8/16/44, 11/3/44. Hillel Storch of the WJC and the JDC: 9/16/42, 1/21/43, 3/11/43, 5/24/43 attach. 6/4/43, 7/27/43, Report Nov. 1944 PP. 13-14. Laura Margolis arrived in Sweden as the JDC representative: 10/18/44, 11/30/44, Report Nov. 1944, 12/4/44(2), 12/11/44, 12/13/44, 12/15/44, 12/20/44, 1/1/45. Reports: L. Margolis, Nov. 1944; Mosaiska Foersamlingen Stockholm, Annual Report 1944 (Swedish). Fin. and Statistical Reports, Hachscharah, 1942, 12/31/42; 1943, 12/31/43. Correspondence: S. Adler-Rudel, F. Arnheim, P. Baerwald, J. Coons, M. Ehrenpreis, F. Hollander, J.C. Hyman, O.H. Lamm, M.A. Leavitt, L. Margolis, S. Mayer, R. Pilpel, O. Storch, H. Storch.

Record Group 4.53: Switzerland

Series 1: Switzerland : Administration

For materials on the years 1938 – 1945, see: SM Archives: General 1940 – 1946, Files 1, 6 see: SM Archives: Allocations 1938 – 1945, Files 2 – 3 see: SM Financial 1938 – 1945, File 4

File 922: Switzerland: Administration, General, 1945 - 1956; 1966

Reports on JDC activities in Switzerland: European Executive Council, 8/18/47, and SM, 10/11/49. Dispute VSJF and the JDC (James Rice) in re JDC allocations to Switzerland, 9/15/50 – 1/25/51. Statistical roundup of expenditures for refugees in Switzerland by the JDC, 1935 – 1964, and by the SIG and the VSJF, 1944 – 1964, D. Lack to C. Jordan, 4/25/66. For additional materials, see: SM File 6 and Central Files, Overseas Hq., Financial. For post – 1965 materials, see: Central Files, Switzerland.

File 923: Switzerland: Administration, General, Miscellaneous

a. Pierre Bigar and Commission Mixte de Secours of the CICR (CMdS), 1946 – 1949: Bigar, a prominent Swiss-Jewish communal leader, became Administrator/Delegate of the CMdS in April 1946. To cover its administrative costs, the CMdS levied a charge of 1 – 2% of the value of the donor’s contribution. During Bigar’s administration, the JDC contributed some SFr. 12,000,000 to the CMdS and Bigar levied a charge of 1 and 1/2%. In 1948, the organization which was then in liquidation, filed suit against Bigar claiming that 2% was the leftful charge and demanded reimbursement for the difference. Ultimately, a Court of Honor arbitrated the case and Bigar was found not liable. b. Rothmund Affair, 1954: Dr. Hans Rothmund was Chief of the Division of Police in the Federal Department of Justice and Police in the Swiss Gov’t. In the 1930s and 1940s he had worked closely with SM and other Jewish leaders on problems of Jewish refugees in Switzerland. In 1954, a Swiss newspaper, the Swiss Observer, charged Dr. Rothmund with responsibility for suggesting to the Nazi Gov’t in 1938 that it designate Jews by the letter “J” on their German passports. Various aspects of the case are discussed in the file.

File 924: Switzerland: Administration, Cables, JDC N.Y. - SM

a. JDC N.Y. – SM 1945 – 1947 #1 – 32, a few omissions. b. SM – JDC N.Y. 1945 – 1947 #50 – 108, a few omissions. The cables deal with day-to-day business matters, on a wide variety of topics.

File 925: Switzerland: Administration, Cables, JDC Lisbon - SM

JDC Lisbon – SM 1945 (Jan.-June) #188 – 319, many omissions. The cables deal with day-to-day business matters, on a wide variety of topics.

File 926: Switzerland: Administration, Cables, JDC Paris - SM

JDC Paris – SM 1945 – 1947 #11 – 252, many omissions. The cables deal with day-to-day business matters, on a wide variety of topics.

File 927: Switzerland: Administration, SM Telephone Conversations with JDC Paris, Milan and New York, 1945 (July-Dec.)

With Paris mostly, also N.Y. and Milan. Summaries and notes of telephone conversations, mostly between SM – Paris, often with J.J. Schwartz, but also with H. Katzki, M. Goldstein, H. Biele, L. Sobel and others. The conversations with N.Y. were usually with M.B. Leavitt. The summaries and notes spanned a wide range, and were prepared by SM except where noted otherwise.

File 928: Switzerland: Administration, SM Telephone Conversations with JDC Paris, Milan and New York, 1946 (Jan.-Sept.)

With Paris mostly, also N.Y. and Milan. Summaries and notes of telephone conversations, mostly between SM – Paris, often with J.J. Schwartz, but also with H. Katzki, M. Goldstein, H. Biele, L. Sobel and others. The conversations with N.Y. were usually with M.B. Leavitt. The summaries and notes spanned a wide range, and were prepared by SM except where noted otherwise.

File 929: Switzerland: Administration, SM Telephone Conversations with JDC Paris, Milan and New York, 1946 Oct. - 1947 (July)

With Paris mostly. Summaries and notes of telephone conversations, mostly between SM – Paris, often with J.J. Schwartz, but also with H. Katzki, M. Goldstein, H. Biele, L. Sobel and others. The conversations with N.Y. were usually with M.B. Leavitt. The summaries and notes spanned a wide range, and were prepared by SM except where noted otherwise.

File 930: Switzerland: Administration, SM Telephone Conversations with JDC Paris, Milan and New York, 1947 Aug. - 1950 (July)

With Paris. Summaries and notes of telephone conversations, mostly between SM – Paris, often with J.J. Schwartz, but also with H. Katzki, M. Goldstein, H. Biele, L. Sobel and others. The conversations with N.Y. were usually with M.B. Leavitt. The summaries and notes spanned a wide range, and were prepared by SM except where noted otherwise.

File 931: Switzerland: Administration, Financial, Cables and Correspondence, 1946 - 1947
File 932: Switzerland: Administration, Financial, Cables and Correspondence, 1948 - 1949
File 933: Switzerland: Administration, Financial, Cables and Correspondence, 1950 - 1955
File 934: Switzerland: Administration, Financial, Cables and Correspondence, 1956 - 1959
File 935: Switzerland: Administration, Financial, Cables and Correspondence, 1960 - 1964

For 1959 – 1964, also see: Central Files, Overseas Hq., Financial

File 936: Switzerland: Administration, Financial, Payments and Accounts,

Accounts Book
(SM Accounts Book)

File 937: Switzerland: Administration, Financial, Payments and Accounts, Other

a. June 1940 – Oct. 1941. b. 1943 (Jan.-June). c. 1946 (July) SM notes on the status of some wartime credits in Nazi occupied countries. d. Transfer of Funds to individuals 1945 – 1948. For individual cases of refugees, see: Files 984 – 985. e. Financial Statements, various, 1945. f. SM Account Notebook (1947).

File 938: Switzerland: Administration, Financial, Reports, Audit Reports (Drafts)

a. JDC 1947 – 1949 (Annual) b. Subventioned organizations in Switzerland, 1948 c. Field Audit Report, 1940 – 1946

File 939: Switzerland: Administration, Financial, Reports, Monthly Reports

a. 1947 b. 1949 (Aug.-Oct.) c. Administration Expenditures, Switzerland, 1946 – 1949, Monthly or weekly, many omissions.

Series 2: Switzerland : Subject Matter

Medical care in Switzerland became a major JDC program only in the post-war years. During W.W. II, the Union OSE, Geneva received JDC allocations, but the funds were earmarked mostly for the use of refugees newly arrived in Switzerland from France. In the early post-war years, the JDC Medical Department Paris laid special stress on a TB care program for Jewish DPs, and several hundred were transported to Switzerland for individual treatment in TB sanatoria. In these cases, SM concluded the financial arrangements, and supervision of the sanatoria was conducted via the VSJF. The TB patients were enrolled mostly in three sanatoria: The Bella Lui, Montana, the Mon Repos, Davos (both opened by the Union OSE in 1946) and the Juedische Heilstaette “Etania”, Davos. In addition, the JDC sponsored a TB Rehabilitation Project between 1947 – 1949, for which patients were eligible following their discharge from the Swiss sanatoria. JDC allocations to the Swiss TB Program ended in 1949/50. For additional materials, see: Reports on Swiss Sanatoria by JDC staff members, File 952: 8/18/47 – 8/25/47; 11/25/47; 12/15/47 – 12/24/47; 10/22/48 – 11/6/48; 3/10/49; File 953: 1/17/50 – 1/26/50, 9/27/50 – 4/15/51, 1/15/51 – 1/10/51.

File 940: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Aged
File 941: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Child Care, General

a. 1940 – 1949. b. Czech children in Switzerland, 1946 – 1947 Summer vacations at Zugerberg).

File 942: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Child Care, Internationale Vereingung fuer Kinderhilfe, Geneva

File 943: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Child Care, Schweizer Hilfswerk fuer Emigrantenkinder, (SHEK), Zurich

The SHEK Zurich, an interconfessional body, was established in October 1933 to aid refugee children in Switzerland most notably, where it conducted eleven branches. Operations continued until 1948. For a roundup of activities between 1933 – 1946, see: Timetable, in 11th Report of the Central Office 1946, File 945 (English), File 946 (German). Also see: File 946, annual narrative reports 1939 – 1948. In all, expenditures for the support of refugee children in Switzerland came to some SFr. 13,870,000, of which the SHEK raises SFr. 3,027,000 and the JDC contributed SF. 1,702,000, File 945, N. Sutro to SM, 1/18/50.

File 944: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Child Care, Schweizer Hilfswerk fuer Emigrantenkinder, (SHEK), Zurich

The SHEK Zurich, an interconfessional body, was established in October 1933 to aid refugee children in Switzerland most notably, where it conducted eleven branches. Operations continued until 1948. For a roundup of activities between 1933 – 1946, see: Timetable, in 11th Report of the Central Office 1946, File 945 (English), File 946 (German). Also see: File 946, annual narrative reports 1939 – 1948. In all, expenditures for the support of refugee children in Switzerland came to some SFr. 13,870,000, of which the SHEK raises SFr. 3,027,000 and the JDC contributed SF. 1,702,000, File 945, N. Sutro to SM, 1/18/50.

File 945: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Child Care, Schweizer Hilfswerk fuer Emigrantenkinder, (SHEK), Zurich

The SHEK Zurich, an interconfessional body, was established in October 1933 to aid refugee children in Switzerland most notably, where it conducted eleven branches. Operations continued until 1948. For a roundup of activities between 1933 – 1946, see: Timetable, in 11th Report of the Central Office 1946, File 945 (English), File 946 (German). Also see: File 946, annual narrative reports 1939 – 1948. In all, expenditures for the support of refugee children in Switzerland came to some SFr. 13,870,000, of which the SHEK raises SFr. 3,027,000 and the JDC contributed SF. 1,702,000, File 945, N. Sutro to SM, 1/18/50.

File 946: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Child Care, Schweizer Hilfswerk fuer Emigrantenkinder, (SHEK), Zurich, Reports

a. Narrative, annual 1939 – 1948. b. Statistical, monthly, #9 – 58, 1943 – 1947 (some missing). The SHEK Zurich, an interconfessional body, was established in October 1933 to aid refugee children in Switzerland most notably, where it conducted eleven branches. Operations continued until 1948. For a roundup of activities between 1933 – 1946, see: Timetable, in 11th Report of the Central Office 1946, File 945 (English), File 946 (German). Also see: File 946, annual narrative reports 1939 – 1948. In all, expenditures for the support of refugee children in Switzerland came to some SFr. 13,870,000, of which the SHEK raises SFr. 3,027,000 and the JDC contributed SF. 1,702,000, File 945, N. Sutro to SM, 1/18/50.

File 947: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Cultural and Religious, General
File 948: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Cultural and Religious, Organizations

a. Comite pour le Development des Etudes Juives, Geneva: The JDC supported the teaching position in Jewish studies at the University of Lausanne held by Dr. Ch. Lehrmann. b. Foundation Haffkine, Lausanne, 1944 – 1945; 1953 c. Jeschiwah Ez Chajim, Montreux, 1946 – 1961 d. Jewish Teachers’ Seminary, Basel, 1944 – 1948 e. La Revue Juive de Geneve, 1946 – 1947 f. Verband Israelitischen Religionsleherer und Kantoren in der Schweiz, Bern, 1946

File 949: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Intellectuals, 1939 - 1943

Comite International pour le Placement des Intellectuals Refugees, Geneva The Comite International, an inter – confessional body, was established in 1933. It extended professional aid to intellectuals in Switzerland and after 1939 it also provided support and emigration aid wherever it could. JDC allocations grew larger in the 1940’s and reached $100,000 in 1946. Direct JDC allocations ended in July 1949 and indirect allocations in 1950. Fanny Schulthess – Hirsch (Fanny Silberschein) was director of the Comite from 1939 onwards. For the years 1933 – 1938, see above: File 408.

File 950: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Intellectuals, 1944 - 1946

Comite International pour le Placement des Intellectuals Refugees, Geneva The Comite International, an inter – confessional body, was established in 1933. It extended professional aid to intellectuals in Switzerland and after 1939 it also provided support and emigration aid wherever it could. JDC allocations grew larger in the 1940’s and reached $100,000 in 1946. Direct JDC allocations ended in July 1949 and indirect allocations in 1950. Fanny Schulthess – Hirsch (Fanny Silberschein) was director of the Comite from 1939 onwards. For the years 1933 – 1938, see above: File 408.

File 951: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Intellectuals, 1947 - 1950

Comite International pour le Placement des Intellectuals Refugees, Geneva The Comite International, an inter – confessional body, was established in 1933. It extended professional aid to intellectuals in Switzerland and after 1939 it also provided support and emigration aid wherever it could. JDC allocations grew larger in the 1940’s and reached $100,000 in 1946. Direct JDC allocations ended in July 1949 and indirect allocations in 1950. Fanny Schulthess – Hirsch (Fanny Silberschein) was director of the Comite from 1939 onwards. For the years 1933 – 1938, see above: File 408.

File 952: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Medical Care, General, 1945 - 1949

File 953: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Medical Care, General, 1950 - 1952
File 954: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Medical Care, Alpenruhe Heim, Saanen Reports by Chaplain Dr. Eugen J. Messinger on his visits.
File 955: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Medical Care, Association Israelite "Pro-Leysin", Lausanne, 1939 - 1942; 1946 - 1950

The “Pro-Leysin” was a private Jewish sanatorium specializing in bone TB. The JDC met the costs of patients referred there through channels.

File 956: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Medical Care, Association Israelite "Pro-Leysin", Lausanne, F - K

The “Pro-Leysin” was a private Jewish sanatorium specializing in bone TB. The JDC met the costs of patients referred there through channels.

File 957: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Medical Care, Association Israelite "Pro-Leysin", Lausanne, L - W

The “Pro-Leysin” was a private Jewish sanatorium specializing in bone TB. The JDC met the costs of patients referred there through channels.

File 957a: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Medical Care, Bella Lui Sanatorium, Montana

a. General, 1947 – 1950. b. Financial, 1947 – 1948. c. Reports by Chaplain Dr. Messinger on his visits, 1947 – 1950.

File 958: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Medical Care, Juedische Heilstaette "Etania", Davos, 1939 - 1940
File 959: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Medical Care, Juedische Heilstaette "Etania", Davos, Individual Cases
File 960: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Medical Care, Juedische Heilstaette "Etania", Davos, Reports

a. Narrative, Annual Reports 1946 – 1947. b. Financial Statements, Annual 1943 – 1948. c. Statistical, Monthly, with omissions 1944 – 1949.

File 961: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Medical Care, Mon Repos Sanatorium, Davos, General
File 962: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Medical Care, Mon Repos Sanatorium, Davos, Financial
File 963: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Medical Care, Mon Repos Sanatorium, Davos, Individual Cases
File 964: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Medical Care, Union OSE, Direction Centrale, 1945 - 1947

The principal headquarters of the Union OSE was in Geneva between 1945 – 1949, and it was transferred to Paris in the latter year. In Paris, it was known as OSE Union and subsequently as World Union OSE.

File 965: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Medical Care, Union OSE, Direction Centrale, 1948 - 1950

The principal headquarters of the Union OSE was in Geneva between 1945 – 1949, and it was transferred to Paris in the latter year. In Paris, it was known as OSE Union and subsequently as World Union OSE.

File 966: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Medical Care, Union OSE, Direction Centrale,

The principal headquarters of the Union OSE was in Geneva between 1945 – 1949, and it was transferred to Paris in the latter year. In Paris, it was known as OSE Union and subsequently as World Union OSE.

File 967: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Medical Care, Union OSE, Direction Centrale, 1955 - 1957

The principal headquarters of the Union OSE was in Geneva between 1945 – 1949, and it was transferred to Paris in the latter year. In Paris, it was known as OSE Union and subsequently as World Union OSE.

File 968: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Medical Care, Union OSE, Direction Centrale, 1958 - 1963; 1968; 1972

The principal headquarters of the Union OSE was in Geneva between 1945 – 1949, and it was transferred to Paris in the latter year. In Paris, it was known as OSE Union and subsequently as World Union OSE.

File 969: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Medical Care, Financial, General
File 970: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Medical Care, Financial, Countries

a. Switzerland, 1933 – 1944 1. French artists, writers, journalists, 1943 – 1945. 2. Doctors, nurses, etc. from OSE institutions in France, 1943 – 1944. b. Rumania

File 971: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Medical Care, TB Rehabilitation Project (Readaptation)
File 972: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Refugees, General, 1938 - 1940

Reports and memos on refugees – Saly Mayer: 8/23/38 attachment to 8/15/38, 10/4/38(2), 1/15/40; Armand Dreyfus: 6/20/39; H. Rothmund: 10/21/39, 11/23/40(2); M.C. Troper: 1/30/40; S.S. Guggenheim: 4/8/40. Correspondence: S.S. Guggenheim, E. Haymann, J.C. Hyman, H. Katzki, S. Mayer, H. Rothmund, J.J. Schwartz, S.S. Guggenheim, M.C. Troper.

File 973: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Refugees, General, 1941

Reports and memos on refugees – H. Rothmund, 2/19/41, 8/10/41; S. Mayer (draft report, undated, unattributed and mostly in longhand), 1941; Unattributed: “Study of refugees in St. Gallen who were candidates for emigration”, April 1941; Refugee Labor Camps: 2/24/41, Dec. 1941, also see: File 972, 3/28/40, 4/8/40, 5/10/40. Correspondence: B. Kahn, S. Mayer, H. Rothmund.

File 974: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Refugees, General, 1942 - 1943 (Aug.)

Reports and memos on refugees: Discussion on refugees in the Swiss Bundesrat, 9/2/42. “Israelitische Fluechlingshilfe St. Gallen Annual Report 1942”, 3/31/43. “Jewish Refugee Aid 1933 – 1943 by the SIG”, attachment to 7/12/43. On immigration from France, 8/13/42 – 8/17/42, 9/28/42 – 10/29/42, 2/1/43, 2/22/43 and attachment, 2/25/43, 4/14/43, 5/3/43, 6/13/43, 6/21/43. Correspondence: J.C. Hyman, H. Katzki, M.A. Leavitt, R. McClelland, J.J. Schwartz

File 975: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Refugees, General, 1943 Sept. - 1944

Reports and memos on refugees: VSJF, 9/23/43, 11/9/43, 11/11/43, also see: File 1,008, VSJF Annual Rep. 1943; R. Olgiati, 1/1/44; Summary of VSJF, Rep. on Refugees 1933 – 1943, 4/21/44; “JDC Work in Switz. 1933 – 1943”, 2/8/46. Refugees in Switz: Greek, 7/7/43, 7/16/43 Hurwitz to JDC; Italian, 9/26/43, 10/6/43, 4/16/44, also see: SM, Files 47 – 49; Yugoslav, see: SM, Files 66 – 67; Hungarian, 12/8/44, 12/10/44, File 980, 3/25/45; also see: SM, File 13, 9/16/44, 10/6/44, Files 38, 40(1). Correspondence: H. Katzki, M.A. Leavitt, M. McClelland, R. Pilpel, J.J. Schwartz, L.H. Sobel.

File 976: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Refugees, General, 1945 - 1946

List of 1,200 Theresienstadt inmates who reached Switzerland, 3/5/45 attachment to 3/22/45. Regulations governing the distribution of welfare aid, 7/20/45.

File 977: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Refugees, General, 1947 - 1951; 1954

Report on VSJF by Otto H. Heim (1953 – 1954), 1954.

File 978: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Refugees, Various

a. Canteen expenditures in Refugee Camp Diepoldsau, 1939 – 1940 b. Vocational training for refugees, 1940; 1942 c. Special funds for refugees (small sums), 1944 – 1947 d. Internees at USSR Camp Karaganda, Central Asia (Correspondence in re German and Austrian refugees in camp), 1947 – 1948

File 979: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Refugees, Commission of Experts on Refugee Questions, Bern, 1944 (Jan.-Oct.)
File 980: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Refugees, Commission of Experts on Refugee Questions, Bern, 1944 Nov. - June 1945
File 981: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Refugees, Emigration, General

Emigration from Switzerland to countries other than Palestine. For emigration to Palestine (Israel) from Switzerland, see: Central Files, Jewish Agency, 1945 – 1950.

File 982: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Refugees, Emigration, Conference JDC Paris

SM notes and correspondence on Emigration Conference and emigration problems.

File 983: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Refugees, Fund-Raising

a. Switzerland, 1938 – 1950 b. U.S. (Swiss Jews in U.S.), 1941 – 1945

File 984: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Refugees, Individual Cases, B - K
File 985: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Refugees, Individual Cases, L - W
File 986: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Refugees, Legal Status
File 987: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Refugees, Reports

Lists of refugees aided by JDC subventioned organizations, 1948 – 1949

File 988: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Refugees, Aide aux Emigres, Zurich (Swiss branch of International Migration Service)
File 989: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Refugees, Intergovernmental Committee for Refugees (IGCR), Zurich

For materials covering the years 1938 – 1944, see above: Files 255 – 256.

File 990: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Refugees, International Refugee Organization (IRO), Geneva, General

The formal existence of the IRO began in August 1948 when the 15th member state required ratified its constitution. For additional data see: Encyclopedia Judaica, 14: 31 – 32.

File 991: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Refugees, International Refugee Organization (IRO), Geneva, Minutes of IRO Sessions

The formal existence of the IRO began in August 1948 when the 15th member state required ratified its constitution. For additional data see: Encyclopedia Judaica, 14: 31 – 32.

File 992: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Refugees, Schweizerischer Israelitischer Gemeindebund, (SIG), Zurich, General

a. 650th Anniversary Celebration of Swiss Confederation, 1941 b. Obituaries of Jules Dreyfus – Brodsky, former Pres. of SIG, 1942 – 1943, and Saly Braunschweg, 1946. c. See: File 922, D. Lack to C. Jordan, 4/25/66

File 993: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Refugees, Schweizerischer Israelitischer Gemeindebund, (SIG), Zurich, Annual Meetings, Protocols
File 994: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Refugees, Schweizerischer Israelitischer Gemeindebund, (SIG), Zurich, Publicity, 1939; 1941; 1944 - 1946
File 995: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Refugees, Schweizerischer Israelitischer Gemeindebund, (SIG), Zurich, Publicity, 1947 - 1949
File 996: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Refugees, Schweizerischer Israelitischer Gemeindebund, (SIG), Zurich, Annual Reports, 1931 - 1939

Note: For the Annual Report of SIG activities 1940, see SM Archives, File 2. No reports in the SM files for 1941 or 1942.

File 997: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Refugees, Schweizerischer Israelitischer Gemeindebund, (SIG), Zurich, Annual Reports, 1943 - 1950; 1958; 1962; 1965; 1974
File 998: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Refugees, Schweizerischer Israelitischer Gemeindebund, (SIG), Zurich, Annual Reports (Duplicates), 1933 - 1950 (some missing), 1958
File 999: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Refugees, Schweizerischer Israelitischer Gemeindebund, (SIG), Zurich, Financial and Statistical Reports, 1939 - 1941
File 1000: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Refugees, Schweizerischer Israelitischer Gemeindebund, (SIG), Zurich, Financial and Statistical Reports, 1942 - 1944
File 1001: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Refugees, Schweizerischer Israelitischer Gemeindebund, (SIG), Zurich, Financial and Statistical Reports, 1945 - 1946
File 1002: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Refugees, Schweizerischer Israelitischer Gemeindebund, (SIG), Zurich, Financial and Statistical Reports, 1947 - 1949
File 1003: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Refugees, Verband Schweizerischer Israelitischer Armenpflegen (VSIA), Zurich

Annual Meetings, Protocols, 1933; 1938 – 1943

File 1004: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Refugees, Verband Schweizerischer Juedischer Fluechtlingshilfen (VSJF), Zurich, Annual Meetings, Protocols
File 1005: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Refugees, Verband Schweizerischer Juedischer Fluechtlingshilfen (VSJF), Zurich, Circulars to Jewish Communities, 1938 - 1943
File 1006: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Refugees, Verband Schweizerischer Juedischer Fluechtlingshilfen (VSJF), Zurich, Circulars to Jewish Communities, 1944
File 1007: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Refugees, Verband Schweizerischer Juedischer Fluechtlingshilfen (VSJF), Zurich, Circulars to Jewish Communities, 1945 - 1949
File 1008: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Refugees, Verband Schweizerischer Juedischer Fluechtlingshilfen (VSJF), Zurich, Reports (Annual)

1943; 1946 – 1950; 1958. For 1974 reports, see: File 997, SIG Annual Report for 1974. Duplicate reports, 1947 – 1950.

File 1009: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Refugees, Verband Schweizerischer Juedischer Fluechtlingshilfen (VSJF), Zurich, Reports (Financial), 1939 - 1945

Monthly Expenditures for Refugees and Emigrants

File 1010: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Refugees, Verband Schweizerischer Juedischer Fluechtlingshilfen (VSJF), Zurich, Reports (Financial), 1946 - 1948

Monthly Expenditures for Refugees and Emigrants. (These reports were prepared by the VSIA, 1939 – 1947, and by the VSJF, 1948 – 1949)

File 1011: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Refugees, Verband Schweizerischer Juedischer Fluechtlingshilfen (VSJF), Zurich, Reports (Financial), 1939 - 1945 (June)

Monthly Expenditures for Refugees and Emigrants (VSJF St. Gallen Branch only)

File 1012: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Refugees, Verband Schweizerischer Juedischer Fluechtlingshilfen (VSJF), Zurich, Reports (Financial), 1945 (July) - 1949

Monthly Expenditures for Refugees and Emigrants (VSJF St. Gallen Branch only)

File 1013: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Refugees, Verband Schweizerischer Juedischer Fluechtlingshilfen (VSJF), Zurich, Reports (Financial), Other

a. Expenditures, monthly, 1945 – 1948 b. VSJF Audit Report 1947 (Draft). Several pages missing.

File 1014: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Relief Supplies, Miscellaneous

a. American Friends Service Committee, Philadelphia. 1943 – 1945 b. Centre d’ Entr’ Aide International aux Populations Civiles, Geneva, 1946 – 1947

File 1015: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Relief Supplies, Comite International de la Croix Rouge (CICR), General
File 1016: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Relief Supplies, Comite International de la Croix Rouge (CICR), Claims, Hans Weyermann, 1944 - 1946 (March)

Hans Weyermann was a CICR delegate to Hungary in 1945 whom the JDC entrusted with several million Swiss Francs for transmission in local currency to Jewish leaders and individuals in that country. In 1946, the CICR and the JDC initiated a criminal proceeding against him for gross financial irregularities in the management of the moneys. The case stretched over a number of years and the SM files fail to disclose the ultimate outcome.

File 1017: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Relief Supplies, Comite International de la Croix Rouge (CICR), Claims, Hans Weyermann, 1946 April - 1950

Hans Weyermann was a CICR delegate to Hungary in 1945 whom the JDC entrusted with several million Swiss Francs for transmission in local currency to Jewish leaders and individuals in that country. In 1946, the CICR and the JDC initiated a criminal proceeding against him for gross financial irregularities in the management of the moneys. The case stretched over a number of years and the SM files fail to disclose the ultimate outcome.

File 1018: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Relief Supplies, Comite International de la Croix Rouge (CICR), Claims, Hans Weyermann, Redemption Certificates

Hans Weyermann was a CICR delegate to Hungary in 1945 whom the JDC entrusted with several million Swiss Francs for transmission in local currency to Jewish leaders and individuals in that country. In 1946, the CICR and the JDC initiated a criminal proceeding against him for gross financial irregularities in the management of the moneys. The case stretched over a number of years and the SM files fail to disclose the ultimate outcome.

File 1019: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Relief Supplies, Comite International de la Croix Rouge (CICR), Claims, Collaro - Minnich
File 1020: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Relief Supplies, Comite International de la Croix Rouge (CICR), Financial, 1945 (March - Aug.)
File 1021: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Relief Supplies, Comite International de la Croix Rouge (CICR), Financial, 1945 Oct. - 1947
File 1022: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Relief Supplies, Comite International de la Croix Rouge (CICR), Supplies (Specific), General, 1944 - 1946 (April)
File 1023: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Relief Supplies, Comite International de la Croix Rouge (CICR), Supplies (Specific), General, 1946 (May - Dec.)
File 1024: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Relief Supplies, Comite International de la Croix Rouge (CICR), Supplies (Specific), Other Countries

1. Austria. 2. France. 3. Hungary. 4. Italy. 5. Rumania. 6. Yugoslavia.

File 1025: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Restitution, Heirless Assets of Nazi Victims in Switzerland, 1946 - 1961

From 1947 onwards, the SIG, the JDC and the Jewish Agency pressed the Swiss Government to reach a settlement in their favor of the heirless assets of Nazi victims in that country. On and off, discussions stretched over a quarter of a century. Finally, in December 1974, the Swiss Government voted to turn over to the SIG, on behalf of the Jewish Agency and the JDC, two-thirds of the SFr 2,000,000 in heirless assets that remained in its custody.

File 1026: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Restitution, Heirless Assets of Nazi Victims in Switzerland, 1962

From 1947 onwards, the SIG, the JDC and the Jewish Agency pressed the Swiss Government to reach a settlement in their favor of the heirless assets of Nazi victims in that country. On and off, discussions stretched over a quarter of a century. Finally, in December 1974, the Swiss Government voted to turn over to the SIG, on behalf of the Jewish Agency and the JDC, two-thirds of the SFr 2,000,000 in heirless assets that remained in its custody.

File 1027: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Restitution

a. 1945 – 1957: In June 1946, the Paris Repatriations Conference for the Rehabilitation and Resettlement of Non-Repatriable Victims of German Action allotted $25,000,000 to the IGCR or to its successor organization. The funds stemmed from the proceeds of German assets in neutral countries, notably Switzerland and Sweden, and were transferred to the IGCR as a trustee for the resettlement of Jewish refugees. Payments arrived in installments over a number of years. In turn, the IRO, the successor organization, transferred 90% of the funds to the Jewish Agency and the JDC in the ratio of 60:40. The remaining 10% was earmarked for the benefit of non-Jewish victims. For the 40% ($9,000,000) received by the JDC, see: Memo, 5/21/57. b. Cementra Holding A.G. Switzerland: In 1947, the Cementra Holding Co. agreed to transfer to the JDC the number of its capital shares owned by Nazi victims who died heirless in the event that its cash and security accounts with two N.Y. banks were unblocked by the Secretary of the Treasury. Hungarian Jews, in the main, were the owners of its capital shares. A settlement was effected in 1960 and the JDC received $60,000.

File 1028: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Hungarian Students in Switzerland, General
File 1029: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Hungarian Students in Switzerland, Financial

a. Lists of students and payments, 1942 – 1947. b. Receipts by students, 1945 (Feb. -May).

File 1030: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Hungarian Students in Switzerland, Individual Cases, A - H
File 1031: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Hungarian Students in Switzerland, Individual Cases, K - W
File 1032: Switzerland: Subject Matter, International Student Service (ISS), Geneva, 1939 - 1944

The ISS, a world-wide non-sectarian agency, participated in the education and support of refugee students. It was the parent organization of the Central European Service and the World Student Service (Geneva). JDC grants were earmarked for the Central European Service. see: Narrative reports: 1/11/43, 1/15/45, 9/8/45; Statistical reports: 5/17/44, 3/18/46, 1/30/47; The years 1933 – 1939: File 409.

File 1033: Switzerland: Subject Matter, International Student Service (ISS), Geneva, 1945 - 1946 (June)

The ISS, a world-wide non-sectarian agency, participated in the education and support of refugee students. It was the parent organization of the Central European Service and the World Student Service (Geneva). JDC grants were earmarked for the Central European Service. see: Narrative reports: 1/11/43, 1/15/45, 9/8/45; Statistical reports: 5/17/44, 3/18/46, 1/30/47; The years 1933 – 1939: File 409.

File 1034: Switzerland: Subject Matter, International Student Service (ISS), Geneva, 1946 August - 1948

The ISS, a world-wide non-sectarian agency, participated in the education and support of refugee students. It was the parent organization of the Central European Service and the World Student Service (Geneva). JDC grants were earmarked for the Central European Service. see: Narrative reports: 1/11/43, 1/15/45, 9/8/45; Statistical reports: 5/17/44, 3/18/46, 1/30/47; The years 1933 – 1939: File 409.

File 1035: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Union of Jewish Students in Switzerland (UJSS), 1946 - 1947

The UJSS was organized in 1946 as a central organization for groups of Jewish students in Switzerland. They also provided scholarships for needy refugee students. The ISS provided most of the scholarship funds in 1946 – 1947, but from mid – 1948 onwards the funds all stemmed from the JDC.

File 1036: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Union of Jewish Students in Switzerland (UJSS), 1948 - 1949; 1950 - 1951; 1958

The UJSS was organized in 1946 as a central organization for groups of Jewish students in Switzerland. They also provided scholarships for needy refugee students. The ISS provided most of the scholarship funds in 1946 – 1947, but from mid – 1948 onwards the funds all stemmed from the JDC.

File 1037: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Union of Jewish Students in Switzerland (UJSS), Allocations Commission Meetings #32, #118

The UJSS was organized in 1946 as a central organization for groups of Jewish students in Switzerland. They also provided scholarships for needy refugee students. The ISS provided most of the scholarship funds in 1946 – 1947, but from mid – 1948 onwards the funds all stemmed from the JDC.

File 1038: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Union of Jewish Students in Switzerland (UJSS), Individual Cases

The UJSS was organized in 1946 as a central organization for groups of Jewish students in Switzerland. They also provided scholarships for needy refugee students. The ISS provided most of the scholarship funds in 1946 – 1947, but from mid – 1948 onwards the funds all stemmed from the JDC.

File 1039: Switzerland: Subject Matter, Union of Jewish Students in Switzerland (UJSS), Reports

The UJSS was organized in 1946 as a central organization for groups of Jewish students in Switzerland. They also provided scholarships for needy refugee students. The ISS provided most of the scholarship funds in 1946 – 1947, but from mid – 1948 onwards the funds all stemmed from the JDC. a. Payments: Stipends, tuition and administrative expenditures, 1948 – 1949 (Dec. 1947 for administrative expenditures). b. Status reports on stipends, 1948 – 1949.

Series 3: Switzerland : Organizations

For organizations not covered in files 1040 – 1043, see the following: Aide aux Emigres, Geneva File 988; Alpenruhe Heim, Saanen File 954; American Friends Service Committee, Philadelphia File 1,014.a; Association Israelite “Pro Leysin”, Lausanne File 955-957; Bella Lui Sanatorium, Montana File 957.a; Centre d’Entre Aide Internationale aux Populations Civiles, Geneva File 1,014.b; Children’s International Union See: Internationale Vereinigung fuer Kinderhilfe Files; Comite International d’Aide aux Intellectuels, Geneva See: Comite International pour le Placement des Intellectuels Refugies Comite Internationale de la Croix Rouge, Geneva (CICR) File 1,015 – 1,024; Comite Internationale pour le Placements des Intellectuels Refugies, Geneva (CICR) File 941 – 951; Comite pour le Development des Etudes Juives, Geneva File 948.a; Commission Mixte of the Comite International de la Croix Rouge, Geneva See: Comite Internationale de la Croix Rouge; Etania, Zurich See: Juedische Heilstaette “Etania”; Fonds Europeen de Secours aux Etudiants, Geneva See: International Student Service; Foundation Haffkine, Lausanne File 948.b; Fuersorgedienst fuer Ausgewanderte, Geneva See: Aide aux Emigres; Intergovernmental Committee for Refugees (IGCR), Geneva File 989; International Refugee Organization (IRO), Geneva File 990 – 991; International Student Service (ISS), Geneva File 1,032 – 1,034; Internationale Vereinigung fuer Kinderhilfe, Geneva File 942; Israelitische Fluecht-lingshilfe, St. Gallen File 1,010 – 1,011; Jeschiwah Ez – Chajim, Montreux File 948.c; Jewish Agency for Palestine (Israel See: Central Files for 1948 – 1950 File 257 – 258; Jewish Teachers Seminary, Basel File 948.d; Jeudische Heilstaette “Etania”, Davos File 958 – 960; Jugendalijah Heim, Bex See: Hechaluz; Kommission “Hilfe und Aufbau” SIG, Zurich (Coordination Committee for TB Questions) File 971; Mon Repos Sanatorium, Davos File 961 – 963; OSE, Geneva, Paris See: Union OSE; Pickett Fund File 981, 10/9/40 – 4/4/41; Pro-Leysin, Lausanne See: Association Israelite “Pro-Leysin”; La Revue Juive de Geneva, 1946 – 1947 File 948.e; Schweizer Hilfswerk fuer Emigrantenkinder (SHEK) Zurich File 943 – 946; Schweizerischer Israelitischer Gemeindebund, Zurich File 992 – 1,002; Union des Etudiants Juifs de Suisse (UJSS), Zurich See: Union of Jewish Students in Switz.; Union Internationale de Secours aux Enfants See: Internationale Vereinigung fuer Kinderhilfe; Union of Jewish Students in Switzerland (UJSS) Zurich File 1,035 – 1,039; Union OSE, Geneva; Paris File 964 – 970; Verband Israelitischen Religionslehrer und Kantoren in der Schweiz, Bern File 948.f; Verband Juedischer Studenten in der Schweiz (UJSS) Zurich See: Union of Jewish Students in Switz.; Verband Schweizerischer Israelitischer Armenflegen (VSIA), Zurich File 1,003; Verband Schweizerischer Juedischer Fluechtlingshilfen (VSJF), Zurich File 1,004 – 1,013; Weltstudentenhilfswerk, Geneva See: International Student Service.

File 1040a: Switzerland: Organizations, General
File 1040b: Switzerland: Organizations, Agudas Israel Switzerland, Lucerne
File 1040c: Switzerland: Organizations, Augustin Keller Loge, Zurich
File 1040d: Switzerland: Organizations, Brit Ivrith Olamith, Zurich
File 1041a: Switzerland: Organizations, (Le) Colis Swiss, Zurich
File 1041b: Switzerland: Organizations, Conseil Oecumenique des Eglises, Geneva
File 1041c: Switzerland: Organizations, Cours de Formation d' Auxiliares pour le Travail d' Assistance Sociale d'Apres - Guerre, Geneva
File 1041e: Switzerland: Organizations, Evangelisches Sozialheim Sonneblick, Walzenhausen
File 1041f: Switzerland: Organizations, Hechaluz, Zurich
File 1042a: Switzerland: Organizations, Hilfsverein fuer Juedische Auswanderung, Zurich
File 1042b: Switzerland: Organizations, Israelitisches Spital, Basel
File 1042c: Switzerland: Organizations, (La) Mensa, Geneva
File 1042d: Switzerland: Organizations, ORT Union, Zurich; Geneva
File 1043a: Switzerland: Organizations, Poale Agudath Israel, Zurich; Tel Aviv
File 1043b: Switzerland: Organizations, Schulungskurs fuer Fuersorgerische Hilfskraefte in der Nachkriegzeit, Zurich
File 1043c: Switzerland: Organizations, Schweizerisches Hilfskomittee fuer Oesterreicher, Geneva
File 1043d: Switzerland: Organizations, Schweizerisches Hilfswerk fuer polnische Kriegsgefangene, Bern
File 1043e: Switzerland: Organizations, South African War Appeal - South African Jewish Appeal, Johannesburg

Also see: Union OSE, Files 966-968

Record Group 4.54: Syria

File 1044: Syria: General

In 1939, the JDC allocated $2,120 in aid of the 658 refugees aboard the SS Frosfula, who were temporarily landed in Beirut, pending the finding of permanent place of settlement, 7/28/39 – 8/23/39. In 1943, the JDC transmitted funds to the Alliance Israelite Universelle in Syria from their Philadelphia branch.

Record Group 4.55: Tangiers

File 1045: Tangiers: General

Reports: General Situation of the Jews in North Africa, 11/13/42. North Africa November 1943, by D.B. Hurwitz, 11/29/43. The Jewish Community of Tangiers, 2/24/44 attachment to 3/10/44. Report on the Jewish Community, Mordecai Kessler, 4/19/44. List of 807 refugees in Tangiers on 3/15/44. Correspondence: D.B. Hurwitz, M. Kessler, H. Katzki, M.A. Leavitt, R. Pilpel, J.J. Schwartz. Correspondence, memos, reports, addenda.

File 1046: Tangiers: Financial

Monthly financial and statistical reports by the Jewish Community of Tangiers, 1941 – 1944, with many omissions. Fin. and Statistical consolidations of the reports were prepared by the JDC, and the following are included here: The year 1941, 1/1/43 – 6/30/43, 1/1/43 – 12/31/43, 1/1/44 – 6/30/44.

Record Group 4.56: Trinidad

File 1047: Trinidad: General, 1938 - 1940

Situation of the refugees in Trinidad: 12/12/38, 12/30/38, 1/2/39, 1/9/39, 1/12/39, 1/13/39 Pereira to Razovsky, 1/16/39(2), 1/19/39, 1/30/39, 2/11/39, 3/13/39, 3/22/39, 4/14/39(2), 5/29/39, 6/21/39(2), 10/2/39 – 10/19/39, 10/31/39 – 12/12/39, 5/30/40, 6/22/40, 7/16/40 Pilpel to Richter, 8/3/40, 9/2/40, 11/30/40. JDC allocations for refugee aid – 1938: $1,000, 1/4/39. 1939: $1,570, 4/22/39, 5/29/39, 6/21/39, 9/7/39, 11/8/39; Loan Fund of $2,000: 11/16/39, 11/24/39, 12/12/39. 1940: $1,680 in monthly installments. Non-JDC funds for refugee aid – In Jan. 1939, Jewish passengers on a luxury liner touching down at Trinidad, the SS Statendam, contributed $650 to aid newly arrived refugees, 1/26/39, 2/23/39, 3/1/39, 3/10/39. Passengers on other liners contributed some $600 in addition, 5/28/39. Reports: F.W. Borchardt and D. Glick, 3/22/39, 6/27/39. Fin. Reports – Jewish Refugee Society – 1939: April-Dec., attachments to 10/23/39 and12/13/39. – Jewish Association of Trinidad: 1/1/39 – 1/1/40, 1/15/40. – Jewish Loan Fund Committee: 4/13/40. Correspondence: F.W. Borchardt, D.J. Goldenberg, H. Katzki, E. Pereira, R. Pilpel, B. Pulver, P. Richter, U. Schaechter.

File 1048: Trinidad: General, 1941 - 1944

Numbered letters to the JDC – M.W. Beckelman: #4, #5, 10/19/41; #292, 6/11/42. Situation of the refugees in Trinidad: 2/1/41, 4/22/41, 8/4/41, 9/11/41, 10/6/41, 11/2/41, 11/27/41 attachment to 12/2/41, 11/24/41, 12/8/41, 1/16/42, 1/28/42, 2/18/42, 3/6/42, 1/11/44, 12/5/44. Fin. Reports – Jewish Welfare Society, Monthly, 1942: Mar.-Dec. (May missing); 1943: Jan.-Dec.; 1944: Jan.-Nov.- Jewish Loan Fund Committee: 10/15/44, 10/30/44. Correspondence: H.D. Biele, F. Bronner, E. Gruen, O. Malameth, R. Pilpel, L.H. Sobel, M. Wischnitzer.

Record Group 4.57: Tunis

File 1049: Tunis: General

Correspondence, memos, reports, addenda. Reports: Tunisia, J.J. Schwartz, 7/19/43. North Africa Nov. 1943, D.B. Hurwitz, 11/29/43. Visit to Tunisia by Mordecai Kessler, July 21 – 28, 1944, attachment to 8/19/44. Fin. Reports in 1944 by Central Relief Committee, June: 9/30/44, Aug: 8/31/44, 11/18/44, Sept: 12/12/44. Correspondence: H.D. Biele, E. Gozlan, H. Katzki, M.A. Leavitt, R. Pilpel, J.J. Schwartz.

Record Group 4.58: Turkey

File 1050: Turkey: General, 1934 - 1943

The JDC and the ICA each contributed $500 in aid of refugees in Istanbul who lost their means of livelihood under the terms of a new law, 12/20/34 – 3/30/35, 10/16/36 attach. 10/29/36, 11/23/36. The JDC allocated $10,000 in aid of the refugees stranded in Istanbul harbor on the SS Struma, 12/31/41, 2/10/42, 2/19/42; for additional materials, see above: File 389, SS Struma. The JDC allocated $5,000 in aid of 144 Rumanian refugees shipwrecked on the Turkish coast, 10/21/42 – 10/28/42. Reports and Memos: Credit Kassas and other Institutions in Constantinople by M. Ussoskin, Dec. 1937. Summary of Report on Immigration to Palestine via Turkey Aug. 1940 – April 1941 by Ch. Barlas, 6/15/41. Relief Activities for Refugees by the Grand Rabbinate of Istanbul: Jan-June 1941, 8/8/41 attach. 9/3/41. Nov. 1941 – May 1942, 5/1/42. Immigration Possibilities to Palestine via Turkey by Ch. Barlas, 2/19/43. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, Ch. Barlas, E. Goldenberg J.C. Hyman, H. Katzki, M.A. Leavitt, J.L. Magnus, J.J. Schwartz, H. Soriano, A.P. Stokes

File 1051: Turkey: General, 1944 (Jan-Aug)

Istanbul attracted representatives of many organizations interested in Palestine, 6/19/44 Resnik to Hyman, 6/28/44, 8/4/44, 8/22/44; also see: File 1,052, Report by Ira Hirschmann PP. 28 – 30, and Exhibits A – C. Reports and Memos – R.B. Resnik: Activities Feb. 1944 – 3/21/44 attach. 3/27/44; Selected correspondence May-June 1944. H. Viteles: Visit to Turkey 7/1/44 – 7/15/44 and covering status of emigration to Palestine from and via Turkey. Local Jewish Communities: Istanbul (Expend. of JDC funds in 1943) attach. 2/15/44; Izmir (JDC Aid to Jewish Community of Smyrna), attach. 4/10/44. Correspondence: H.K. Buchman, I.A. Hirschmann, M.A. Leavitt, R.B. Resnik, J.J. Schwartz, L.H. Sobel, H. Viteles.

File 1052: Turkey: General, 1944 (Sept-Dec)

Reports – R.B. Resnik: Turkish Repatriates from France, Greece and other Countries, attach. 9/11/44. I.A. Hirschmann: WRB Istanbul of Exhibits A-P, 6/18/44 – 8/19/44, 9/11/44; Summary, attach, Steinhardt to Secy of State 10/3/44. M. Kessler: Jews and Jewish Communities in Turkey, 3/14/45. Fin. Statement: Grand Rabbinate Istanbul, 10/31/44 attach. 12/15/44. Lists: Passenger lists of refugees arriving in Istanbul 3/3/44 – 7/8/44, 9/15/44; List of refugees, by countries, in transit to Palestine via Turkey in 1944, 4/3/45. Correspondence: I.A. Hirschmann, M. Kessler, J. Magnus, C.C. Passman, R. Pilpel, R.B. Resnik. J.J. Schwartz. Exhibits to Hirschmann Report, A – P 9/11/44 A. Minutes of Informal Meeting of Representatives of Relief Organizations in Istanbul, 7/10/44. B. Minutes of Informal Meeting of Operating Group of Relief Organiz. in Istanbul, 7/17/44. C. Organization Representatives Engaged in Relief and Rescue Activities in Istanbul, 7/10/44. D. Emigration statistics (Rumania to Turkey). E. Telegram to Washington on refugees in transit from Rumania to Istanbul. F. and G. Letter and telegram by Mikai Antonescu, V.P. of Rumanian Council of Ministers. H. Lettes by I.A. Hirschmann to Zissu. I. and J. Letters by I.A. Hirschmann to Dr. Black, 7/21/44 and 8/1/44. K. Composition of the Exchange group which arrived in Istanbul 6/7/44. L. Persons in transit to Istanbul from Bulgaria. M. Survey of Events. N. Measures taken by the Hungarian Gov’t in re Jews. O. Immigrants from Turkey to Palestine Jan.-June 1944. P. Telegram by British Embassy Angora to Foreign Office, London, 8/9/44.

Record Group 4.59: Union of South Africa (South Africa)

File 1053: Union of South Africa (South Africa), General

The JDC welcomed the JWA offer of collaboration in providing refugee aid in Russia and elsewhere, but stressed that to do so via separate funds was impracticable, 4/14/43, 4/21/43 – 4/22/43 (3). The JDC invited JWA participation in its program of refugee aid, 5/13/43, 7/8/43. The JWA agreed to forward $4,000 per month for six months to aid refugees in Spain, and $1,000 per month for six months for refugees in Portugal, 7/8/43, 7/9/43 (2). The JWA granted $8,000 per month for six months for refugee aid in Switzerland, for distribution via Saly Mayer in supplement to JDC funds, 7/23/43, 10/22/43. The JWA agreed to contribute funds for rescue aid in Hungary up to 10% of those granted by the JDC, and up to a combined ceiling of $5,000,000. The JWA forwarded $100,000 on account of that commitment, 9/28/44. Reports on visits to the U. of S.A.: Mark Wischnitzer, 12/9/36, Norman Bentwich, 11/24/38. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, L. Feit, H. Katzki, M.A. Leavitt, G. Osrin, R. Pilpel, J.M. Rich, J.J. Schwartz.

File 1054: Union of South Africa (South Africa), Financial

The JDC agreed to use the $10,000 advance to the JBD to provide support payments to refugees recommended by the JBD, because overseas migration had dried up, 6/25/42, 1/28/43. Payments to refugees were authorized by the JBD as of: 12/31/42 attachment to 1/12/43; 1/1/43 – 4/30/43 attachment to 6/4/43; 6/7/43 – 8/31/43; 9/2/43 – 9/30/43; 5/1/43 – 11/15/43; Nov. 1943; 11/16/43 – 12/31/43; Jan.-Feb. 1944 attachment to 3/13/44; as of 4/30/44 attachment to 5/8/44; March-April 1944 attachment to 6/22/44; June 1944 attachment to 9/11/44; as of 6/30/44, 7/6/44; 8/14/44; July-Aug. 1944 attachment to 9/11/44; Aug. 1944; as of 10/31/44 attachment to 11/1/44. Sept.-Nov. 1944 attachment to 12/21/44.

Record Group 4.60: USSR

Union of South Africa (South Africa)

File 1055: USSR: General, 1933 - 1941

The JDC granted cult. and religious aid to rabbis and rabbinical students who lacked a source of livelihood in the USSR, 3/12/35 – 7/22/35, 1/6/36, 2/1/37, 2/17/37, 8/17/37, and via Rabbi Schneersohn for the support of Yeshiva Tomchei Tmimim and of individual rabbis and students, 7/18/39 – 9/8/39, 2/27/40, 3/21/40 – 6/4/41; for additional materials see: File 358 On refugee physicians in the USSR, 8/2/35 – 12/12/36, 12/10/37 Correspondence: C. Adler, H.K. Buchman, S. Gourary, J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt, J.A. Rosen, J. Schneersohn, M.C. Troper.

File 1056: USSR: General, 1942 - 1945

The JDC allocated $500,000 for the non-sectarian distribution of relief supplies by the Russian Red Cross in regions where Jewish populations were concentrated, 9/13/43 – 11/1/43, 11/26/43 – 12/7/43, 12/21/43 – 2/8/44, 5/5/44, 5/17/44, 6/21/44 (2), 7/18/44 (2 Baerwald letters), 9/12/44, 9/16/44, 12/20/44 – 1/12/45, 3/6/45 (2), 3/20/45 (2), 3/26/45, 11/19/45. The JDC offered to renew settlement aid in the Crimea, 3/7/45 – 6/7/45, 7/20/45 – 12/24/45, Dispute on JDC policy towards Russia, 12/15/43, 4/3/44, 5/11/44, 5/12/44, 5/18/44, 5/23/44, 6/30/44, 9/13/44 memo, 3/29/45, 6/18/45, 7/12/45; for additional materials, see: Files 430 – 431. Fin. Memos: JDC Expend. for Russia 1942 – 1944, 12/6/44; same topic 1918 – 1944, 3/23/45. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, H.K. Buchman, I.E. Goldwasser, Andrey Gromyko, J.C. Hyman. M.A. Leavitt, V. Lebedenko, J.H. Levy, A.H. Lieberman, Maxim Litvinoff, J.L. Magnus, P.P. Mikhailov, E.M. Morrissey, J.N. Rosenberg, L.E. Sobel, Edw. R. Stettinius.

Record Group 4.61: Yugoslavia

File 1057: Yugoslavia: General

Reports and memos on the situation of the Jews in Yugoslavia: 12/31/37, Jan. 1938, 11/25/38 (by Boris Smolar) and summary 12/22/38, 7/5/39, 12/31/39, Jan. 1940, 1/12/40, 4/17/40, 5/7/40, 8/4/43, 10/11/43, 12/26/44 (by H. Gottlieb). Reports by Jewish Refugee Aid Committee, Zagreb: 4/8/40 attachment to 4/19/40, 2/20/41. On the Kladovo refugees, 1/12/40 – 3/15/40 also see: SM Archives, File 31. List of 650 Jews in Yugoslavia who were candidates for evacuation from the country, 9/15/44. For additional data 1938 – 1939, see: EUREXCO, Files 188 – 191 Correspondence: H.K. Buchman, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, H. Katzki, A. Klein, M.A. Leavitt, A. Licht, P. Neuberger, R. Pilpel, J. Rosen, J.J. Schwartz, B. Smolar S. Spitzer, M.C. Troper, M. Ussoskin, L.V. Valobra

File 1058: Yugoslavia: Subject Matter

Refugees (Yugoslav refugees in other countries): a. Egypt Report on Yugoslav Refugee Camp at E1 Shatt by Henry Scattergood, April 1944. b. Italy Refugees from Island of Rab (off Trieste), 9/9/43, 3/2/44, 9/22/44 – 12/28/44. Lists of Yugoslav Jews in Italian evacuation camps, 9/9/43, 11/26/43. c. Spain Lists of Yugoslav refugees in Spain and Portugal in 1942 and 1943, 6/26/43. Lists of Yugoslav refugees in Madrid and Barcelona, 9/10/43. d. Switzerland see: SM Archives, Files 66 – 67.

Record Group 4.62: South America

Series 1: South America : Administration

File 1059: South America: Administration, General, 1937 - 1939 (April)

Summaries of appeals to the JDC from S.A., 7/15/37. Proposals for credits to organizations in S.A. aiding Jewish immigrants from Germany, 11/28/37. Summaries of cables on Jewish immigration to S.A., Feb. 1939, 2/28/39, 3/3/39. Notes of HIAS-HICEM on SS. Koenigstein and SS. Caribia, 3/3/39. Brief statement on JDC aid to Latin America, 4/21/39. Reports and Memos on S.A.: S. Pereira Mendes (REC), 4/22/37; B. Mellibowsky, 10/12/37; National Council of Jewish Women, 12/28/38, see also: 1/31/39, 2/20/39. “Bound for Nowhere – Disorganized Panic Migration” by Cecilia Razovsky, 3/19/39 see also: 3/23/39. “Analysis of Conditions and Requirements in the West Indies, Central and S.A.,” 4/1/39. “Jewish Immigration to S.A. with special regard to Brazil,” a criticism of ICA-HICEM activities in S.A., 4/28/39. Summary Status Report on Central and S.A., April 1939. Correspondence: N. Bentwich, O.E. d’ Avigdor Goldsmid, J.C. Hyman, H. Katzki, B. Mellibowsky, E.M. Morrissey, C. Razovsky, M.C. Troper.

File 1060: South America: Administration, General, 1939 (May-Dec.)

Reports and Memos: Summary Status Reports on Central and S.A., 5/1/39, 6/13/39. Summaries of data on refugee conditions in Central and S.A., 4/13/39 – 5/22/39, 6/15/39 – 9/18/39, 10/10/39. Statements on HICEM operations in S.A., 5/27/39, 5/29/39, May 1939, 7/5/39. Report on Jewish Refugee Problems in Central and S.A. by F.W. Borchardt and D. Glick, 7/20/39; see also: 6/29/39, 7/11/39, 10/10/39. Expenditures in S.A. countries in 1939 and budgeting estimates for 1/1/40 – 6/30/40, 12/19/39. Correspondence: F.W. Borchardt, J.C. Hyman, L. Lorch, R. Pilpel, J.A. Rosen, J.J. Schwartz, M.C. Troper.

File 1061: South America: Administration, General, 1940

Review of monthly reports to the JDC by refugee committees in Latin America, 1/18/40. Report on HICEM activities (including S.A.) Jan. 1940, 1/29/40. Summary of data on Jewish loan and credit societies in S.A., undated (March 1940?). List of local committees in Latin America cooperating with the JDC, 5/1/40. JDC letters to F.W. Borchardt in his S.A. trip, 4/26/40, 5/10/40(2), 5/24/40, 6/3/40, 6/10/40. Numbered letters to the JDC by Milton Goldsmith May-Nov. 1940: #1, 5/9/40 attachment to 5/20/42; #2, 5/20/40 attachment to 6/3/40; #3, 5/29/40 attachment to 6/6/40; #4, 6/12/40 attachment to 6/24/40; #5, 6/19/40 attachment to 6/28/40; #6, 6/27/40 attachment to 7/19/40; #7, 7/11/40; #8, 7/12/40; #10, 8/3/40 attachment to 8/15/40; #16, 9/3/40; #20, 10/5/40; #21, 10/24/40; #24, 11/4/40. Report on his S.A. trip by F.W. Borchardt, 7/8/40, and Summary 8/6/40 attachment to 8/15/40. Review of the refugee situation in Central and S.A., 9/26/40, 9/27/40, 10/28/40, 11/15/40 and attachments to 11/16/40 Pilpel to Rosenberg. Qualifications desired in JDC representatives in S.A., 10/21/40; Explanation of M.D. Goldsmith’s mission to S.A., 10/25/40 Hyman to Pell attachment to 10/29/40. Correspondence: J. Bernstein, F.W. Borchardt, M.D. Goldsmith J.C. Hyman, A. Jaretski Jr., M.A. Leavitt R.T. Pell, R. Pilpel, I. Rosen.

File 1062: South America: Administration, General, 1941 - 1942

Summaries of the refugee situation in Central and S.A., 1/24/41, 3/20/41, 9/9/41, 9/19/41, 1/19/42. Summaries of JDC activities in Central and S.A.: 9/16/41, 11/25/41, 9/15/42, 6/1/43(2), 8/9/43, 9/22/43, 10/22/43, 10/3/44. Summary tables of JDC activities in S.A., 1936 – 1943, 3/7/44 and of JDC appropriations 1936 – 1944, 7/26/44. JDC Committees in S.A. by M.D. Goldsmith, 3/22/41. Report on S.A. by N. Chanin, 11/7/41. Numbered letters to the JDC by M.W. Beckelman: #9, 10/25/41; #70, 1/6/42; #77, 1/19/42; #84, 2/2/42; #86, 2/3/42; #93, 2/12/42 attachment to 2/27/42; #107, 3/10/42; #217, 5/10/42 attachment to 5/19/42; #234, 5/22/42 attachment to 6/3/42; #262, #268, 6/3/42; #276, 6/4/42; #300, 6/22/42. JDC letters to Beckelman in S.A., 1/7/42, 3/3/42, Beckelman recommended that a permanent JDC office be opened in S.A., 7/21/42. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, M.W. Beckelman, N. Chanin, I.E. Goldwasser, J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt, C.J. Liebman, R. Pilpel, L.H. Sobel, M.D. Waldman.

File 1063: South America: Administration, General, 1943 - 1944

Summary of the Refugee Situation in Central and S.A., June 1944. Summary of JDC activities in Central and S.A., 6/1/43(2), 8/9/43, 9/22/43, 10/22/43, 10/3/44. Summary tables of JDC activities in S.A. 1936 – 1943, 3/7/44, and of JDC appropriations 1936 – 1944, 7/26/44. M.W. Beckelman entered the U.S. Army in Nov. 1942 and was succeeded by Louis H. Sobel, 3/17/43, 3/19/43, 9/22/43. Numbered letters to the JDC by L.H. Sobel: #16, 5/8/43; #19, 5/15/43; #20, 5/17/43; #21, 5/18/43; #22, 5/19/43; #29, 6/4/43; #33, 6/6/43; #34, 6/7/43 attachment to 6/23/43; #36, 6/15/43; #43, 7/15/43; #63, 8/16/43 attachment to 9/21/43; #68, 8/31/43 attachment to 10/27/43; #82, 9/28/43; #85, 10/13/43; #88, 10/15/43; #89, 10/16/43; #92, 10/22/43; #103/104, 11/26/43. J.B. Lightman joined the JDC staff for service in S.A. (Buenos Aires), 9/15/43, 9/21/43. Numbered letters to the JDC by J.B. Lightman: #L-2, 12/4/43; #116, 1/6/44 attachment to 1/18/44; #117, 1/14/44 attachment to 3/6/44; #135, 3/16/44; #142, 3/24/44; #161, 5/3/44; #217, 6/29/44; #298, 9/16/44. Other numbered letters by Beckelman, Sobel and Lightman will be found below in File 1,064 and also under individual countries. Gertrude Pinsky was engaged to conduct the JDC offices in Montevideo, 1/26/44. Report and recommendations on S.A. by L.H. Sobel, 4/28/44 attachment to 6/6/44. Committees in S.A. cooperating with the JDC, 5/16/44. Report on S.A. by Morris D. Waldman, Nov. 1944. Report on S.A. by Jacob Landau, 2/13/45. Correspondence: H.D. Biele, M.A. Leavitt, J.B. Lightman R. Pilpel, G.D. Pinsky, L.H. Sobel, M.D. Waldman.

File 1064: South America: Administration, Financial

Fin. Statements 1/1/41 – 6/30/41; 1/1/42 – 12/31/42; 1/1/43 – 6/30/43.

File 1065: South America: Administration, Publicity

The numbered letters in this file by M.W. Beckelman, L.H. Sobel and J.B. Lightman point up problems that confronted the JDC in its dealings with Jewish organizations and personalities in S.A., and notably with the World Jewish Congress. Numbered letters by Beckelman: #29, 1/27/41; #91, 2/10/42; #133, 3/24/42; #168, 4/15/42; #175, 4/19/42. Numbered letters by Sobel: #63, 8/16/43; #64, 8/20/43; #101, 11/25/43. Numbered letters by Lightman: #115, 12/30/43; #125, 2/11/44; #128, 2/14/44; #141, 3/24/44; #152, 4/21/44; #158, 4/29/44; #180, 5/24/44 attachment to 6/19/44; #189, 5/29/44; #198, 6/7/44; #205, 6/15/44; #218, 6/29/44; #236, 7/18/44; #238, 7/22/44; #248, 8/2/44; #258, 8/9/44; #260, 8/11/44; #277, 8/29/44; #279, 8/30/44; #345, 11/23/44; #379, 12/23/44; #388, 12/27/44. Correspondence: M.W. Beckelman, J.B. Lightman, Z. Popkin, L.H. Sobel.

Series 2: South America : Subject Matter

File 1066: South America: Subject Matter

1. Cult. and Religious, 1940 – 1944: Between 1939 – 1944, the JDC Cultural Committee made small grants to organizations in a number of Latin-American countries in aid of cult. and religious activities conducted for the benefit of newcomer refugees, see: 12/18/41, 5/18/43, 1/7/44, 6/23/44, 9/8/44. The crying shortage of rabbis and Jewish teachers in Latin America was also a topic of running concern at the JDC, but no decisions for action were reached, see: 6/17/40 – 10/30/40, 4/13/43, 7/9/43, and Numbered Letters to the JDC by L.H. Sobel: #20, 5/17/43; #103, 11/26/43. 2. Reconstruction – Loan Funds, 1940 – 1943: In Jan. 1940, the JDC Reconstruction Foundation agreed to allocate up to $80,000 – $100,000 for the opening of Loan Funds in S.A. Thereupon, it sent its Vice Managing Director, Noel Aronovici, to study needs on the spot and to make recommendations. He spent 10 months in S.A., (May 1940 – March 1941), and on the strength of his recommendations the JDC allocated $22,500 to create Loan Funds in Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Honduras and Uruguay. In Oct. 1941, he made a second trip to study needs in other countries, but was recalled to the U.S. by the JDC in the wake of Pearl Harbor (he was traveling on a Rumanian passport). For data on Loan Funds in individual countries, see below: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Uruguay. Reports and Memos: On the establishment of Loan Funds in S.A., Feb. 1940; Report submitted to the JDC Foundation by the Managing Directors, 3/3/40; Resume of proposals for Loan Funds in S.A. by N. Aronvici, 8/20/40 and Summary, 11/14/40; Short Summary of the Work of the Recon. Committee, 7/15/42. Numbered Letters to the JDC – M.W. Beckelman: #292, 6/11/42 and JDC discussions with Beckelman, 7/9/42. Correspondence: N. Aronovici, P. Baerwald, M.W. Beckelman, B. Kahn, M.A. Leavitt, L. Oungre, R. Pilpel, I. Rosen.

Record Group 4.63: Argentina

Series 1: Argentina : Administration

General Correspondence, memos, reports, addenda. Fundraising.

File 1067: Argentina: Administration, General, 1935 - 1936

Reports and Memos – B. Schachner: 5/23/36, 6/24/36, 7/22/36; S.P. Mendes – (ro REC): 8/13/36, 8/20/36, 8/27/36, 9/3/36, 9/9/36, 9/25/36, 10/2/36, 10/7/36, 10/16/36, 10/18/36, 10/22/36, 10/27/36, 10/29/36, 11/3/36 – 11/6/36, 11/20/36, 12/5/36, 12/12/36, 12/19/36, 12/26/36 – (to C.J. Liebman): 9/1/36(2), 9/21/36, 10/1/36, 10/8/36, 10/19/36, 11/23/36, 12/27/36. Several B.A. leaders expressed dissatisfaction with S.P. Mendes, 10/26/36, 10/30/36, 11/13/36, 11/26/36, 12/8/36. Some JDC opinions of the controversy, 12/8/36(2), 12/9/36, 12/18/36 Liebman to Hochschild. The JDC allocated $5,000 to the Hilfsverein, 7/22/36, 12/14,36, 12/18/36. Correspondence: F. Borchardt, J.B. Eddis, A. Hirsch, M. Hochschild, C.J. Liebman, S.P. Mendes, L. Oungre, B. Schachner, F.M. Warburg, B. Weil.

File 1068: Argentina: Administration, General, 1937

Reports and Memos – S.P. Mendes – (to REC): 1/2/37, 1/9/37, 1/15/37, 1/19/37, 1/22/37, 1/23/37, 1/26/37, 2/6/37, 2/12/37, 2/20/37, 3/1/37, 3/5/37, 3/12/37, 3/16/37, 4/22/37(2) ; (to C.J. Liebman): 1/10/37, 1/14/37, 2/2/37, 2/26/37, 6/24/37; J. Bendahan: 6/11/37; A. Hirsch: 10/8/37; C. Razovsky: 10/11/37; B. Mellibowsky: 10/12/37; Summaries of Reports on Conditions in Argentina: 12/28/37. JDC Allocation of $10,000 to the Hilfsverein, 7/1/37 – 7/29/37. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, J. Bendahan, J. Bernstein, D.M. Bressler, A. Hirsch, B. Kahn, C.J. Liebman, B. Mellibowsky, S.P. Mendes, B. Schachner.

File 1069: Argentina: Administration, General, 1938 - 1940

The JDC granted $10,000 to the Hilfsverein for refugee aid and $125 per month to the Children’s Home (July-Dec.) to provide for an expansion of facilities, 1/31/39, 6/23/39. K.J. Riegner Plan for the training and group settlement in Argentina of young Jewish refugees 1/25/39 and attachments. Proposals to bring refugee children to Argentina from France, 8/3/40 – 8/12/40, 8/23/40 – 9/18/40; also see: File 1,070, 12/2/42, 3/3/43, 3/5/43, 4/1/43, 4/9/43, 8/26/43, 9/15/43. Reports: On study trip to Argentina by F. Borchardt and D. Glick, 5/29/39, 8/8/39 attachment to 9/30/39, 2/9/40; on the Children’s Home in B.A. by A. Hirsch, undated (May 1940). Numbered Letters to the JDC by M.D. Goldsmith: #12, 8/10/40; #14, 8/23/40; #15, 8/31/40, #17, 9/9/40; 10/24/40. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, F.W. Borchardt, M.D. Goldsmith, D. Glick, A. Hirsch, J.C. Hyman, B. Mellibovsky, R. Pilpel.

File 1070: Argentina: Administration, General, 1941 - 1945

Numbered letters – L.H. Sobel: #63, 8/16/43, #64, 8/20/43; #72, 9/6/43; #74, 9/10/43; #77, 9/24/43; #83, 10/8/43; #85, 10/13/43; #88, 10/15/43; #95, 10/29/43; #102, #103, 11/26/43; – J.B. Lightman: #117, 1/14/44; #118, 1/26/44; #123, 2/11/44; #132, 3/10/44; #204, 6/14/44; #209, 6/19/44; #216, 6/28/44; #234, 7/17/44; #288, 9/11/44; #297, 9/15/44; #306, 10/4/44; #314, 10/20/44; #331, 11/8/44; #352, #354, 12/5/44; #356, 12/11/44; #400, 1/16/45. Visit by J.B. Lightman to ICA refugee colony at Avigdor, 10/4/44 – 11/8/44. For earlier data on Avigdor, see above, File 1,067, 7/20/36. Reports and Memos: “The Position of the Jews and Jewish Institutions in Argentina,” by A. Mibashan. Table of Nationality Distribution of Jewish Immigrants 1922 – 1940, 6/3/42. Correspondence: M.W. Beckelman, F.W. Borchardt, A. Hirsch, J.C. Hyman J. Landau, M.A. Leavitt, I.H. Levy, J.B. Lightman, B. Mellibovsky, A. Mibashan, R. Pilpel, L.H. Sobel.

File 1071: Argentina: Administration, Fund Raising, 1939 - 1942

Jewish leaders urged the JDC not to collaborate with the “separatist” fund-raising drive of the Organismo de Ayuda Directa a las Victimes Judias de la Guerra in Europe, upon the alleged ground that they were “leftists” and “communists,” 2/16/40 – 6/20/41. List of local contributors to the drive of the Comite Pro Ayuda a las Victimas Judias de la Guerra y Reconstruccion de Eretz Israel, 1940 – 1941. Numbered letters – M.W. Beckelman: #67, 1/4/42; #70, 1/6/42; #131, 3/22/42; #278, 6/4/42; #290, 6/7/42; unnumbered, 10/4/42. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, M.W. Beckelman, N. Bentwich, J.X. Cohen, J. Hellman, A. Hirsch, J.C. Hyman, L. Lapaco, M.A. Leavitt, S. Mirelman, R. Pilpel, J.J. Schwartz. During W.W. II, fund-raising in Argentina for refugee aid overseas never became a community-wide effort, and it continued to reflect the fragmentation of Jewish communal life in the country.

File 1072: Argentina: Administration, Fund Raising, 1943 - 1944

Numbered letters – L.H. Sobel: #70, 9/3/43; #74, 9/10/43; #77, 9/24/43; #81, 10/3/43; #83, 10/8/43; #95, 10/29/43; #100, 11/25/43. J.B. Lightman: #114, 12/24/43; #118, 1/26/44; #123, 2/11/44; #163, 5/10/44; #179, 5/24/44; #193, 6/6/44; #209, 6/19/44; #251, 8/7/44; #270, 8/23/44; #276, 8/29/44; #289, 9/12/44; #296, 9/14/44; #298, 9/16/44; #301, 9/20/44; #304, 9/21/44; #307, 10/4/44; #313, 10/19/44; #321, 10/28/44; #325, 11/2/44; #333, 11/10/44; #357, 12/12/44; #368, 12/15/44; #374, 12/20/44; #377, 12/21/44; #506, 5/9/45. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, H.D. Biele, J.B. Lightman S. Mirelman, R. Pilpel, L.H. Sobel. During W.W. II, fund-raising in Argentina for refugee aid overseas never became a community-wide effort, and it continued to reflect the fragmentation of Jewish communal life in the country.

Series 2: Argentina : Organizations

(All were in B.A.)

File 1073: Argentina: Organizations, General

Associacion Filantropica Israelita (AFI) (Until 9/19/39, the name was Hilfsverein deutschsprechender Juden), see above: Files, 1,067-1,072. Central Relief Committee for Jewish War-Victims and Refugees (WJC affiliated) see above: File 1,070, 12/30/42, 9/4/43. Chevrah Kadishah, see above: File 1,070, 12/5/44, 12/11/44. Comite de Emergencia de los Judios de Habla Hungara “Pro Soccoro,” see above: File 1,072, 8/23/44, 9/14/44, 11/2/44, 12/9/44. Comite de Soccoro Para Gurs (Bruno Weill), see above: File 1,070, 6/19/41. Congregacion Israelita de la Republica Argentina, see above: File 1,070. DAIA = Delegacion de los Asociaciones Israelitas Argentinas, see above: Files 1,070 – 1,072. Hilfsyerein deutschsprechender Juden, see: Asociacion Filantropica Israelita. Junta de Ayuda Judia a las Victimes de la Guerra, see above: File 1,070, 2/11/44; File 1,072, 4/9/44 – 5/5/44, 6/19/44, 11/30/44 – 12/26/44. Organismo de Ayuda Directa a las Victimes de la Guerra en Polonia (Leon Lopaco), see above: File 1,070, 4/14/41, 6/20/41 and File 1,071, 5/19/41(2). Sociedad de Proteccion a los Inmigrantes Israelitas, “SOPROTIMIS,” (B. Mellibovsky), also see above: Files 1,067 – 1,070. Union Central Israelita Polaca en la Argentina.

Series 3: Argentina : Subject Matter

File 1074: Argentina: Subject Matter, Reconstruction, Loan Funds

In 1936, the REC opened a loan fund in Buenos Aires to aid German refugees with small business loans. A local Committee, aided by Jacobo Bendahan administered the fund. The Committee issued loans coming to some $7,000 in all, but it fell short of the loan ceiling of $10,000 at its disposal, see: 10/23/36, 9/17/37, 9/30/37, 10/1/37, 5/15/39, 6/20/39, 9/1/39, 1/5/40, 11/14/40, 2/10/42.

Record Group 4.64: Bolivia

Series 1: Bolivia : Administration

Correspondence, memos, reports, addenda

File 1075: Bolivia: Administration, General, 1939 - 1940

In the wake of the Kristalnacht, Bolivian consuls in Europe sold Bolivian visas to refugees at inflation prices. Most of the visas were illegal. When the visa holders reached S.A. ports, great difficulties confronted them when seeking admission to Bolivia, 2/9/39, 2/23/39, 2/28/39, 3/7/39, 3/8/39. The Gov’t abruptly suspended Jewish emigration, 6/18/40 attachment to 6/25/40, but then it agreed to accept 250 refugees per month 6/29/39, 7/3/39, 8/18/39. Colonization Project Eugen Riegler for Makkabi World Union: 9/26/39 – 12/4/39, 1/5/40, 1/25/40, 2/3/40 – 2/23/40, 2/29/40 – 3/21/40, 4/12/40, 5/1/40. Reports: F.W. Borchardt and D. Glick. Draft Report on Bolivia 5/13/39; F.W. Borchardt, Bolivia 6/12/40 attachment to 6/25/40; M.D. Goldsmith, Cochabamba 12/4/40. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, N. Bentwich, J. Bernstein, H.K. Buchman, F.W. Borchardt, E. Ellinger, M.D. Goldsmith, M. Hochschild, B. Kahn, R. Pilpel, E. Riegler, M.C. Troper, W.A, Weiss, M. Wihl.

File 1076: Bolivia: Administration, General, 1941 - 1944

Numbered letters to the JDC – M.D. Goldsmith: #33SA, 1/3/41; #34SA, 1/18/41; #36SA, 1/26/41. M.W. Beckelman: #190, 4/28/42; #192, 4/28/42; #267, 6/3/42. L.H. Sobel: #19, 5/15/43; #23, 5/21/43; #30, 6/3/43; #29, 6/4/43; #31, 6/5/43; #35, 6/6/43; #36, 6/15/43; #38, 6/25/43; – 8/12/43; #67, 8/31/43; J.A. Lowenstein: #20 – 22, 5/22/43, 5/28/43; J.B. Lightman: #199, 6/8/44. JDC grants to Makkabi La Paz, 9/2/41. Reports: M.D. Goldsmith, Bolivia, 1/28/41. Jewish Community of Bolivia, Activities Report 1943/1944, 9/21/44. Correspondence P. Baerwald, H.D. Biele, M.D. Goldsmith, B. Kahn, J.B. Lightman, R. Pilpel, Wm. Rosenwald, L.H. Sobel, W.A. Weiss, M. Wihl.

Series 2: Bolivia : Organizations

Comunidad Israelita de Bolivia, La Paz, see: File 1,089. Makkabi, La Paz, see: Files 1,075, 1,076 SOCOBO, Files 1077 – 1083: The SOCOBO was organized in 1940 to establish agricultural projects for the settlement of refugees. The first settlement, “Buena Tierra” was founded in April 1940 and by the close of 1944 nearly $500,000 had gone into the undertaking. The overwhelming share stemmed from the Agro-Joint, the REC and the Emigre Charitable Fund. In those years, the settlement experienced a variety of ups and downs, but by 1944, the downs predominated. The number of settlers reached a peak of 42 families (130 individuals) in mid – 1943, but by the close of 1944 only nine families remained. For a comprehensive roundup of economic happenings, see: File 1,081, Report by David Stern 12/4/44. SOPRO: The SOPRO was formed in Jan. 1939 to provide fin. aid to newcomer refugees who had nowhere else to turn. The initiative had stemmed from Mauricio Hochschild. In Feb. 1939, Hochschild appealed to the JDC for aid. It granted $100,000, and Hochschild added $25,000 of his own. Between 1939 – 1944, JDC allocations to the SOPRO came to $737,050, and met the overwhelming share of the outlays. The only other substantial sources of aid in those years were: M. Hochschild, $1,000 per month between 1940 – 1944 and the HICEM, $5,000 in 1939. Local fund-raising on a very limited scale got under way in 1944. JDC allocations ran at a fairly steady level throughout the years and took the following pattern: 1939: $137,500; 1940: 120,000; 1941: 97,800; 1942: 115,000; 1943: $138,350; 1944: 128,400; Total: $737,050. The SOPRO began its activities in La Paz, where most of the refugees were living. Later, it opened branches in other cities as well. It also established a Children’s Home in La Paz, see: File 1,088.

File 1077: Bolivia: Organizations, Sociedad Colonizadora de Bolivia, La Paz (SOCOBO), General, 1939 - 1940

Mauricio Hochschild (MH) pressed the JDC and the REC to aid in settling 200 refugee families in an agricultural project in Bolivia, 1/17/39, 1/20/39(2), 2/7/39, 5/18/39, 6/7/39, 7/28/39, 12/27/40. The Agro-Joint and the REC granted $50,000 each for the project, 1/5/40, 1/10/40(2) 3/21/40, 4/3/40 Memo, 4/30/40, 5/2/40 Rosenberg to Baerwald and attachments. The SOCOBO called for a second grant of $100,000, 6/20/40. The REC sent a representative (Walter A. Weiss) to inspect the settlement project, and his reports were favorable, 7/19/40(2), 7/24/40, 7/29/40, 7/31/40, 8/1/40, 9/1/40. JDC Reports: F.M. Borchardt, 6/12/40; W.A. Weiss, 9/1/40. Reports on Bolivia and Colonization Prospects: B.A. Mavrich, 5/22/39; F. Saphir, 5/25/39; S. Arons, 6/13/39; S. Blach, undated (second half 1939?); F. Bonoli, 8/8/39; E. Ellinger, 5/6/40 attachment to 5/17/40 with photos and updated resume. Monthly Activities Reports by F. Bonoli 1940: May-June, attachment to 7/23/40; July, attachment to 8/19/40; Aug-Sept, attachment to 10/17/40; Nov., 12/19/40. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, F. Bonoli, F.A. Borchardt, E. Ellinger, M. Hochschild, C.J. Liebman, R. Pilpel, J. Rosenberg, F. Saphir, W.A. Weiss, M. Wihl.

File 1078: Bolivia: Organizations, Sociedad Colonizadora de Bolivia, La Paz (SOCOBO), General, 1941

The Agro-Joint earmarked $100,000 in aid of the SOCOBO project, 1/16/41, 1/20/41, 1/23/41. The soundness of the project was called into question when settlement costs ran far ahead of the original estimates, 2/6/41, 2/7/41, 3/15/41, 3/27/41, 4/9/41, 4/23/41, 4/26/41, 5/5/41, 5/12/41. The REC sent an agronomist, A.J. Bruman, to Bolivia to investigate, 4/21/41, 4/24/41, 5/13/41, 5/21/41, 5/23/41(2), 5/29/41. The Agro-Joint forwarded $25,000 to the SOCOBO, 5/29/41, 6/16/41 and $25,000 more, 10/20/41 Borchardt to Baerwald, 10/21/41, 11/4/41, 11/10/41, 11/15/41. Administrative changes were made in the operation of the project, 6/5/41, 6/10/41, 7/8/41. Reports: L.J. Grundner, 9/19/41 a medical rep. M. Wihl, Brief Status Reports, 6/29/41, 7/25/41, 8/20/41; Summary Construction Reports, 9/9/41, 9/24/41, 9/30/41, 10/7/41, 10/11/41, 11/2/41, 11/30/41, 12/16/41, 1/14/42. Fin, Statements: Balance Sheet, 11/7/41; Summary Statement 4/1/40 – 11/30/41, 1/13/42. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, F. Bonoli, F.W. Borchardt, A.J. Bruman, E. Ellinger, M. Hochschild, C.J. Liebman, R. Pilpel, J.N. Rosenberg, M.A. Weiss, M. Wihl.

File 1079: Bolivia: Organizations, Sociedad Colonizadora de Bolivia, La Paz (SOCOBO), General, 1942

On the status of the settlement project: 1/15/42 memo by B. Kahn, 4/9/42 – 4/16/42 (2), 6/9/42, 7/7/42, 7/9/42, 8/24/42 attachment to 9/15/42, 9/18/42, 9/30/42, 10/9/42, 10/27/42, 10/30/42, 11/4/42, 11/16/42 (2), 11/20/42 (memo by R. Pilpel), 11/24/42. The REC proposed to limit its obligation to support the SOCOBO settlement project, 11/30/42, and comments thereon, 12/1/42 – 12/5/42. Reports: Auditor’s Rep. 4/1/40 – 3/31/42, attachment to 6/25/42 and comments 6/26/42, 7/22/42 (2). Correspondence: P. Baerwald, F.W. Borchardt, A.J. Bruman, M. Hochschild, B. Kahn, C.J. Liebman, R. Pilpel, D. Watson, W.A. Weiss, M. Wihl.

File 1080: Bolivia: Organizations, Sociedad Colonizadora de Bolivia, La Paz (SOCOBO), General, 1943

The Agro-Joint expressed willingness to continue the grant of funds to the settlement project for a limited period, provided M. Hochschild agreed, 2/27/43 attachment to 3/1/43. The Agro-Joint allocated to the SOCOBO $8,400 per month throughout 1943, and $27,500 to reimburse Hochschild for fin. advances extended by him in 1942, 5/21/43 attachment to 5/28/43, 5/25/43, 5/26/43, 8/13/43, 11/19/43, 1/11/44. A summary of the differences in viewpoint on the settlement project between the Agro-Joint and the REC, 2/16/43, 2/18/43, 5/6/43. Minutes of Agro-Joint meetings on the SOCOBO, 2/20/43, 10/8/43. Statements on the Settlement and its Prospects: R. Pilpel, 2/5/43; L.H. Sobel, 6/14/43. Fin. Statements: Field Letters on the SOCOBO by the JDC auditor, 5/25/43, 5/28/43; Schedule of Investments in the SOCOBO by the Agro-Joint and others, 5/6/43, 6/8/43; Summary of SOCOBO cash receipts and expenditures 1/1/43 – 6/30/43, 6/30/43. Narrative Activities Reports, 1943: June, 7/1/43; 7/1/43 – 8/15/43 attachment to 8/30/43; 8/16/43 – 11/15/43, 11/29/43 Correspondence: P. Baerwald, M.H. Hexter, M. Hochschild, E. Komlos, C.J. Liebman, R. Pilpel, M. Wihl.

File 1081: Bolivia: Organizations, Sociedad Colonizadora de Bolivia, La Paz (SOCOBO), General, 1944

Schedule of Investments in the SOCOBO by the Agro-Joint and Others, 6/8/44. Report: “Buena Tierra” by David Stern 12/4/44 and Enclosure 13, 11/18/44 Correspondence: H.D. Biele, A. Lidenstaedt, D. Stern, M. Wihl.

File 1082: Bolivia: Organizations, Sociedad Colonizadora de Bolivia, La Paz (SOCOBO), Financial, 1940 May - 1942

Fin. Statements, Monthly

File 1083: Bolivia: Organizations, Sociedad Colonizadora de Bolivia, La Paz (SOCOBO), Financial, 1943 - 1944

Fin. Statements, Monthly

File 1084: Bolivia: Organizations, Sociedad de Proteccion a los Inmigrantes Israelitas, La Paz (SOPRO), General, 1939 - 1940 (March)

On the Status of Refugees: 2/7/39 – 2/17/39, 3/2/39, 3/23/39, 4/6/39, 8/18/39, 12/14,39, 1/16/40. Report on Bolivia by F. Borchardt and D. Glick. Fin. Statements – Expenditures by SOPRO: 1/1/39 – 4/30/39, 5/8/39; 1/1/39 – 6/30/39, 1/1/39 – 8/13/39, 8/19/39; 9/13/39. Fin. and Statistical Reports: Oct – Nov 1939, Jan and Feb 1940 attachment to 2/19/40. Complaints vs. the SOPRO: Colonia Cooperative Europea, 7/12/39, 8/30/39, 10/13/39; B. Feder, 8/9/39, 8/14/39, 8/28/39 (2), 9/13/39; F. Weininger, 10/13/39; J. Djialowsky (M. Ezekiel), 10/19/39, 10/25/39, 10/31/39, 11/7/39, 1/25/40, 2/3/40, 2/15/40, 3/1/40, also see: File 1,085, 8/8/40; E and F Jaffe, 12/30/39, 1/23/40 (2), 2/9/40, 8/3/40, File 1,086, 11/1/41; J. Landau, 3/29/40; M. Sittenfeld, 3/30/40, also see: File 1,085, 4/19/40. Correspondence: N. Bentwich, E. Ellinger, M. Ezekiel, I.E. Goldwasser, M. Hochschild, J.C. Hyman, R. Pilpel, M.C. Troper, M. Wihl.

File 1085: Bolivia: Organizations, Sociedad de Proteccion a los Inmigrantes Israelitas, La Paz (SOPRO), General, 1940 (Apr. - Dec.)

On the Status of Refugees: 5/9/40 Pilpel to Wihl, 6/18/40, 6/25/40. Numbered letters by M.D. Goldsmith: #29SA, 12/5/40; #30SA, 12/7/40; #31SA, 12/16/40; #32SA, 12/17/40. Reports: F.W. Borchardt, “Bolivia”, 6/12/40; Auditor’s Report, SOPRO, 9/20/40 attachment to 10/16/40. SOPRO 1940, Fin. and Statistical Reports: March attachment to 4/17/40; April, attachment to 5/15/40; May, attachment to 6/22/40; June, attachment to 8/16/40. Aug., attachment to 8/17/40; Sept., attachment to 10/26/40; Oct., attachment to 11/23/40; Nov. attachment to 12/20/40; Dec., attachment to 1/24/41; Notes on SOPRO Reports, 5/24/40. Complaints vs. the SOPRO: Circulo Israelita, La Paz, 4/1/40, 4/19/40 M. Wihl to the JDC, 4/22/40, 4/26/40 Pilpel to the Circulo Israelita. Correspondence: N. Aronovici, F.W. Borchardt, E. Ellinger, M.D. Goldsmith, R. Pilpel, M. Wihl.

File 1086: Bolivia: Organizations, Sociedad de Proteccion a los Inmigrantes Israelitas, La Paz (SOPRO), General, 1941 - 1942

Numbered letters to the JDC – M.D. Goldsmith: #35SA, 1/19/42. M.W. Beckelman: #204, #205, #206, #210, 5/7/42; #232, 5/18/42. Reports: JDC Auditor’s Report, SOPRO 1939 – 1941, 7/1/42, and Field Notes #14 – 17, 4/29/41 – 5/6/41. Fin. and Statistical Reports SOCOBO, 1941: Jan., 2/20/41; Feb., 3/20/41; March, 4/17/41; April, 5/29/41; May, 6/25/41; June, 7/19/41; July, 9/17/41; Aug., 9/24/41; Sept., 10/17/41; Oct., 11/21/41; Nov., 12/30/41; Dec., 1/22/42; 1942: Jan., 2/20/42; Feb., 3/18/42; March, 4/20/42; April, 5/25/42; May, 6/22/42; June, 7/21/42; July, 8/15/42; Aug., 10/1/42; Sept., 10/22/42; Oct., 11/19/42; Nov., 12/18/42; Dec., 1/27/43. Correspondence: M.W. Beckelman, M.D. Goldsmith, J.A. Lowenstein, R. Pilpel, M. Wihl.

File 1087: Bolivia: Organizations, Sociedad de Proteccion a los Inmigrantes Israelitas, La Paz (SOPRO), General, 1943 - 1944

Numbered letters to the JDC – L.H. Sobel; #23, 4/21/43; #29, 6/4/43; #31, 6/5/43; #36, 6/15/43; #69, 3/6/44. J.A. Lowenstein: #20-22, 5/22/43 – 5/28/43. Fund Raising: 8/10/43, 9/13/43, 11/3/43, 3/28/44, 10/25/44. Reports, SOPRO – Activities Report, June 1943, 8/14/43. Fin. and Statistical Reports – 1943: Jan. 1/15/43; Feb. 3/17/43; March 4/19/43; May 6/21/43; June 7/14/43; July 8/19/43; Aug. 9/19/43; Sept. 10/22/43; Oct. 11/26/43; Nov. 12/22/43; Dec. 1/17/44. 1944: Jan – Nov (Dec. missing). Correspondence: H.D. Biele, J.B. Lightman, J.A. Lowenstein, R. Pilpel, L.H. Sobel, M. Wihl.

Series 3: Bolivia : Subject Matter

File 1088: Bolivia: Subject Matter, Children's Home

In Jan. 1941, the SOPRO opened in La Paz a children’s home for refugee children. The JDC contributed $7,500 to aid in the establishment and in the initial maintenance. The home opened in June and 101 children were aided by the end of the year. Beneficiaries ranged between 85 – 100 in number, between 1942 – 1944, In 1943, the JDC contributed $17,000 for the purchase of the bldg. sheltering the Home, when the threat of dispossession loomed up. See: 5/20/43, 6/1/43, 6/25/43, 7/13/43, 7/15/44. Correspondence: J.B. Lightman, R. Pilpel, L.H. Sobel, M. Wihl.

File 1089: Bolivia: Subject Matter, Cultural and Religious

Between July 1940 – Dec. 1944, the JDC granted $50 per month on the average, to the Comunidad Israelita de Bolivia, La Paz, the largest Jewish congregation in the country, in aid of its cult. and religious activities and notably its Jewish school. The JDC also provided them with a Sefer Torah, prayer books and other religious articles. For accounts of cult. and religious activities see: Numbered letters to the JDC – M.W. Beckelman: #204, 205, 5/7/42; L.H. Sobel #112, 12/7/43, #2523, 3/10/44; J.B. Lightman #138, 3/23/44. Report: Narrative Rep. 1943 – 1944 by Comunidad Israelita de Bolivia, La Paz, 9/21/44. Correspondence: M.W. Beckelman, H.D. Buchman, W. Goldschmidt, J. Klopstock, J.B. Lightman, L.H. Sobel, M. Wihl.

File 1090: Bolivia: Subject Matter, Reconstruction, Loan Funds

In 1940, a JDC representative, Noel Aronovici, the Vice Manag-Director of the JDC Recon. Foundation, visited Bolivia and recommended the formation of a credit cooperative for refugees. The project failed to materialize in the war years owing to difficulties within the country. Aronovici’s “Interim Report,” 8/20/40, provides a lively picture of the state of affairs in Bolivia. The JDC did aid three small loan projects: a SOPRO. small loan fund, an “Industry Fund” ($5,000), and a “Resettlement Fund” ($4,000). Numbered letters to the JDC – M.W. Beckelman: #201, 5/3/42. L.H. Sobel: #94, 10/29/43. Correspondence: N. Aronovici, F.W. Borchardt, A.A. Landesco, R. Pilpel, L.H. Sobel, M. Wihl.

Record Group 4.65: Brazil

Series 1: Brazil : Administration

Correspondence, memos, reports, addenda.

File 1091: Brazil: Administration, Sao Paulo, 1936 - 1937

Allocations: The JDC allocated $55,000 for refugee aid in S.P., 3/18/37, 3/20/37. The REC allocated $55,000 to aid in the legalization of entry visas presented by refugee newcomers, 7/15/37. The REC allocated $54,000 to aid in the purchase of a tract of land (Rezende), deemed suitable for colonization by refugees, 3/20/36 – 7/7/36, 4/1/37, 4/2/37. A nephew of Albert Einstein was involved in an attempted colonization swindle in Brazil, 8/18/36 – 12/31/36, 7/29/37, 9/1/37 Katzki to Emanuel – 9/9/37, 9/10/37 Hyman to Asofsky, 9/16/37 – 10/4/37; for copies of letters by A. Einstein, see: attachment to 9/24/37 Reports and Memos – Cecilia Razovsky Davidson: 8/3/37, “Present Status of Jewish Settlement and Jewish Migration to Brazil…” 10/11/37 – Ludwig Lorch: 1/26/37, 3/1/37, 6/4/37, 6/18/37, 7/12/37, 8/26/37, 9/28/37, Nov. 1937 and Summary (the latter dated 12/18/37), 10/20/37, 12/2/37. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, F. Borchardt, C.R. Davidson, A. Einstein, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, H. Katzki, C.J. Liebman, L. Lorch, L. Oungre, C. Schachter.

File 1092: Brazil: Administration, Sao Paulo, 1938 - 1939 (June)

Reports and Memos – L. Lorch: 1/12/38, 1/20/38, 5/12/38, 6/7/38, 6/18/38, 8/31/38, 11/15/38, April 1939 attachment to 4/12/39, 6/15/39 – F. Borchard and D. Glick: 6/28/39 – Fin. and Statistical Reports, Monthly, 1939, Jan. – June – Memos: Jewish Immigration to S.A. with Special Regard to Brazil, 4/28/39. The JDC granted allocations for the general relief of refugees via the Congregacao Israelita Paulista, 5/3/39, attachment to 5/4/39. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, F.W. Borchardt, D. Glick, J.C. Hyman A. Jaretzki Jr., L. Lorch, R. Pilpel, S. Wissman.

File 1093: Brazil: Administration, Sao Paulo, 1939 July - 1941 (June)

Reports and Memos – L. Lorch: 9/4/39(2), 9/10/39, 10/7/39, 11/19/39, 4/10/40, 4/19/40, 6/8/40 and 6/18/40, Jan. 1941, 3/31/41, 4/28/41, 5/12/41. – F.W. Borchardt: 4/12/40 attachment to 4/14/40. – Memo on refugee status: 3/1/40, 10/14/40, 10/21/40, 11/5/40. JDC allocations for refugee aid: 9/27/39, 1/30/40 Morrissey to Lew, 6/18/40, 7/11/40, 8/28/40, 8/29/40. – Fin. and Statistical Reports, Monthly – 1939: July – Oct. 1940: April – Oct. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, F.W. Borchardt, M.D. Goldsmith, H. Hamburger, J.C. Hyman, A. Jaretzki Jr., B. Kahn, L. Lorch, R. Pilpel, G.L. Warren, S. Wissman.

File 1094: Brazil: Administration, Sao Paulo, 1941 (July) - 1944

Memos on the refugee situation – L. Lorch: 8/14/41, 8/21/41 Lorch to the JDC; H. Hamburger: 8/21/41 Hamburger to Borchardt, 10/16/41. Numbered letters to the JDC – M.W. Beckelman: #3, 10/18/41; #6, 10/19/41; #7, 10/19/41 attachment to 11/3/41; #1, 11/1/41; #13, 11/2/41; #15, 11/2/41; #22, 11/22/41; #26, 11/24/41; #27, 11/25/41; #29, 11/27/41; Unnumb., 12/3/41; #50, 12/15/41; #51, 12/19/41; #52, 12/20/41; #53, 12/22/41; #54, 12/22/41; #56, 12/24/41; #57, 12/26/41; #64, 1/2/42; #66, 1/3/42; #69, 1/5/42; #77, 1/19/42; #79, 1/28/42; #80, 1/28/42; #88, 2/4/42; #89, 2/5/42; #105, 3/9/42; #141, 3/28/42; #231, 5/18/42; #265, 6/3/42; #276, 6/4/42. – L.H. Sobel: #108, 12/2/43; #109, 12/3/43. Report: Survey of Jewish Immigration to Sao Paulo 1933, Oct. 1941, M.W. Beckelman. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, M.W. Beckelman, F.W. Borchardt, H. Hamburger, C.J. Liebman, L. Lorch, R. Pilpel, L.H. Sobel, S. Wissman.

File 1095: Brazil: Administration, Rio de Janeiro, 1937 - 1940

The JDC allocated $6,300 to the Uniao to aid in legalizing the status of new immigrants, payable in six equal monthly installments, 7/20/39; the ICA and the British Council for German Jewry made similar allocations, 12/5/38, 1/17/39, 1/26/39. The JDC continued with its monthly allocations and in Sept. 1940 increased them to $1,750 per month, 9/21/40. Reports and Memos – Immigration to Rio: 11/11/37, 8/31/38, 3/1/40. F.W. Borchardt: 6/27/39 (together with D. Glick), 4/20/40 and 5/9/40. M.D. Goldsmith: July 1940. Uniao Activities Reports, Annual: 8/1/36-7/31/37, 6/19/39; 8/1/37-7/31/38, 7/13/39; 8/1/38-8/1/39, 9/8/39; 8/1/39-7/31/40, 8/8/40. Uniao Fin. Reports, Monthly, 1939: July, 8/12/39; Oct., 10/5/39 (includes a narrative report for Sept.), 11/17/39; Nov., 12/6/39; Dec., 1/8/40. 1940: Jan., 1/31/40; March, 4/9/40; April, 5/9/40, 5/24/40; May, 6/14/40, 6/25/40; Sept., 10/15/40; Oct., 11/14/40; Nov., 12/13/40. JDC Notes on Monthly Fin. Reports July 1939 – Feb. 1940, 3/25/40. Correspondence: F.W. Borchardt, D. Glick, M.D. Goldsmith, J.C. Hyman, H. Katzki, M.A. Leavitt, M. Leitchic, L. Lorch, R. Pilpel, P. Zander

File 1096: Brazil: Administration, Rio de Janeiro, 1941

The JDC increased its allocations to the Uniao to $2,500 per month, 1/28/41, and to $3,000 per month, 12/30/41. The status of refugees in Rio: 8/14/41, Zander to the JDC, 9/5/41, 9/25/41, 10/28/41 Hamburger to Borchardt. M.W. Beckelman Numbered Letters to the JDC: #8, 10/21/41; Unnumb,; 11/19/41; #23, 11/23/41. Reports: Annual Reports HICEM Rio 1939, 2/17/40, and 1940, 2/10/41, both reports are attached to #266, 6/3/42, Uniao Activities Reports, Annual: 8/1/40-7/31/41, 8/14/41. Uniao Fin. Reports, Monthly – 1940; Dec., 1/17/41. 1941: Jan., 2/17/41; Feb., 3/10/41; March, attachment to 4/30/41; April, 5/15/41; May, 6/18/41; June, 7/13/41; July, 8/14,41; Aug., 9/12/41; Sept., 10/23/41; Oct., 11/14/41; Nov., 12/24/41. Loeb and Troper Summary Fin. Reports on the Uniao 1939/1940, 7/1/41. Correspondence: M.W. Beckelman, F.W. Borchardt, J.A. Lowenstein R. Pilpel, P. Zander

File 1097: Brazil: Administration, Rio de Janeiro, 1942 (Jan - Sept)

The status of refugees in Rio: 5/13/42, 5/14/42, 6/9/42, 9/14/42, 9/19/42, 9/28/42. M.W. Beckelman Numbered Letters to the JDC: #44, 12/13/41 attachment to 1/8/42; #66, 1/3/42; #71, 1/8/42; #255, 6/2/42. Uniao Fin. Reports, Monthly. 1941: Dec., 1/22/42. 1942: Jan., 2/21/42; Feb., 3/18/42; March, 4/15/42; May, 6/22/42; July, 8/6/42; Sept., 10/20/42. Correspondence: M.W. Beckelman, R. Pilpel, P. Zander

File 1098: Brazil: Administration, Rio de Janeiro, 1942 Oct. - 1952

Status of refugees in Rio: 10/9/42(2), 12/23/42, 8/15/44, 8/17/44. Numbered letters to the JDC – L.H. Sobel: #107, 12/2/42. Reports – Uniao Activities Reports, Annual: 1/1/44-12/31/44, Uniao Fin. Reports Monthly, 1942: Oct., 11/20/42; Nov., 12/15/42; Dec., 1/9/43. 1943: Jan., 2/15/43; Feb. 3/17/43; March, 3/14/43; April, 5/15/43; May, 6/9/43; June, 6/12/43; July, 8/21/43; Aug., 9/17/43; Sept., 10/15/43; Oct., 11/16/43; Nov., 12/11/43; Dec., 1/6/44. 1944: Jan., 2/12/44; Feb., 3/11/44; March, 4/24/44; April, 5/12/44; May, 6/12/44; June, 7/10/44; July, 8/9/44; Aug., 9/12/44; Sept., 10/11/44; Oct., 11/14/44; Nov., 12/14/44; Dec., 1/6/45. 1945: Jan., 2/9/45; March, 4/21/45; April, 5/16/45; May, 6/25/45; June, 7/24/45; July, 8/17/45; Aug., 9/24/45; Dec., 1/22/46. 1947: Feb., 3/15/47; March, 4/17/47; June, 7/16/47. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, H.D. Biele, E.M. Morrissey, R. Pilpel, W. Selig, L.H. Sobel, P. Zander

File 1099: Brazil: Administration, Fund Raising

Fund raising in Brazil for refugee aid was conducted along communal and not national lines, and focused in overwhelming degree on Sao Paulo and Rio. In both cities, frictions arose with the WJC in local efforts to raise funds for refugee needs. By Jan. 1944, S.P. made itself self-sufficient in meeting local needs for refugee upkeep, while Rio reached that goal in Aug. 1945. Numbered letters to the JDC – M.W. Beckelman: #49, 12/15/41; #64, 1/2/42; #70, 1/6/42; #142, 3/28/42-L.H. Sobel: #107., 12/2/43; #109, 12/3/43. Fund Raising in S.P.: 4/14/4-5/9/40, 6/9/41, 12/15/41, 1/2/42, 1/6/42, 1/22/42, 2/10/42, 3/28/42, 9/19/42, 12/29/42, 6/1/43, 6/3/43, 12/3/43, 6/19/44, 8/17/44, Fund Raising in Rio: 9/25/41, 12/15/41, 8/27/42, 5/6/43, 5/13/43, 5/21/43, 11/24/43, 12/2/43, 3/13/44, 5/13/44, 6/14,44, 6/19/44, 7/4/44, 8/17/44, 4/23/45, 8/28/45, 9/18/45. Correspondence: F.R. Adlerstein, P. Baerwald, M.W. Beckelman, R. Pilpel, W. Selig, L.H. Sobel, P, Zander.

Series 2: Brazil : Organizations

For materials on the organizations listed below, see the following files listed under Brazil: Associacao Religiosa Israelita de Rio de Janeiro, File 1,099, 1,100.2. Centro Hebreu Brasileiro de Socorro dos Vitimas de Guerra, Rio de Janeiro, File 1,098. Congregacao Israelita Paulista, Sao Paulo, File 1,092-1,094, 1,100.b. HICEM, Rio de Janeiro, File 1,095-1,096. Lar de Crianca Israelita, Rio de Janeiro (Children’s Home), File 1,100.1. Sociedade de Beneficente Israelita e Amparo aos Immigrantes, Rio de Janeiro, File 1,100.3. Sociedade de Protecao a Infancio Israelita Desamparada, see: Lar de Crianca Israelita. “Uniao” Associacao Beneficente. Israelita, Rio de Janeiro, File 1,095-1,099.

Series 3: Brazil : Subject Matter

File 1100: Brazil: Subject Matter, Miscellaneous

1. Child Care, 1941 – 1944: The Lar da Crianca Israelita Rio, a children’s home for refugee children mainly, was opened in 1939. By 1941, it sheltered 73 children between the ages of 2-14 and it sought to expand its premises. In 1942, the JDC granted an allocation of $1,500 to aid in the expansion (see: 3/3/42-6/15/42), and in 1944 it granted a loan of $5,000 to aid in the completion of a new home, (see: 2/25/44-6/21/44). Correspondence: M.W. Beckelman, R. Pilpel, L.H. Sobel, R. Waisman, P. Zander. 2. Cultural and Religious, 1933 – 1944: a. Associacao Religiosa Israelita, Rio (ARI), was a religious congregation formed in Jan. 1942 by refugees from central Europe (Rabbi: H. Lemle). The JDC granted $300 in 1943 and again in 1944 to aid the ARI in conducting cult-religious activities. Correspondence: H.K. Buchman, G. Hass, H. Lemle, E. Levy, R. Pilpel, P. Zander. b. Congreagacao Israelita Paulista, Sao Paulo. Correspondence: H.K. Buchman, H. Hamburger. 3. Medical Aid, 1933 – 1944: The Sociedade Beneficente Israelita, Rio, among other activities conducted a Polyclinic that provided free medical assistance to the poor. The Polyclinic was established in 1929. By 1939, refugee newcomers to Rio were putting the facilities to heavy use and the Sociedade turned to the JDC for aid. Between 1939 – 1944, the JDC granted $17,500 for the maintenance of the medical services and $6,500 towards the purchase of x-ray and diathermy machines. Correspondence: M.W. Beckelman, E. Horowitz, M. Leitchic, R. Pilpel, H. Rinder.

File 1101: Brazil: Subject Matter, Reconstruction, Loan Funds, Rio de Janeiro

In 1939, the REC set aside $5,000 as a loan fund for the aid of refugees in Rio but nothing came of it. In May 1941, the JDC allocated $10,000 to open a credit cooperative for the grant of small business loans to refugees. By Brazilian law a gov’t authorization was needed, but gov’t red tape tied up the issuance of an authorization until April 1943. The JDC forwarded a credit of $5,000 to a local management Committee headed by Eduardo Horowitz. But basic differences on the scope of activities arose between the Committee and the JDC NY, and additional credits were not forwarded up to the end of 1944. In Feb. 1942, the REC transferred $5,087 to the Uniao for the opening of a loan fund for small industries, but little use of the funds was made. On the status of the JDC credit cooperative: 5/1/41 attachment to 5/24/41, 11/24/41, 6/1/42, 6/23/42(2), 8/3/42-10/9/42, 10/14/42-12/1/42, 3/18/43, 3/22/43, 4/9/43, 5/14/43, 5/18/43, 6/7/43, 6/13/43(2), 6/30/43 attachment to 8/31/43, 8/26/43, 9/14/43, 9/27/43(2), 10/22/43(3), 11/23/43(2), 12/2/43, 12/21/43, 12/24/43-8/18/44. On the status of the REC loan fund: 2/20/42(2), 3/26/42, 6/17/43. Correspondence: N. Aronovici, M.W. Beckelman, E. Horowitz, E.H. Komlos, A.A. Landesco, C.J. Liebman, M. Leitchic, L. Lorch. R. Pilpel, L.H. Sobel, P. Zander.

File 1102: Brazil: Subject Matter, Reconstruction, Loan Funds, Sao Paulo and Porto Alegre

1. Sao Paulo, 1937 – 1943: In 1937, the REC granted funds to open two loan funds in S.P.; $10,000 to aid German refugees to establish small businesses and $13,000 to aid in the purchase of land for the settlement of refugees. The loan funds were administered by a local Committee headed by L. Lorch. Fin. Reports by the Lorch Committee: 6/3/37-12/10/37; 3/15/40(3)-9/6/40; 1/27/41-4/30/41. REC Summary Statements on the status of the loan funds, 10/25/40, 7/21/41, 2/10/42, 6/17/43. Correspondence: N. Aronovici, M.W. Beckelman, A.A. Landesco, C.J. Liebman, M. Leitchic, L. Lorch, W.A. Weiss, S. Wissmann. 2. Porto Alegre, 1940 – 1944: In 1940, the REC granted $5,000 for opening a loan fund in Porto Alegre where some 800 refugee newcomers were making their homes. The fund was but lightly used. In 1943 – 1944, the JDC proposed that a credit cooperative for refugees be opened in P.A. REC Summary Statements on the status of the loan fund: 7/21/41, 2/10/42, 6/17/43. Correspondence: L.I. Bach, M.W. Beckelman, A.A. Landesco.

Record Group 4.66: Chile

Series 1: Chile : Administration

Correspondence, reports, memos, addenda.

File 1103: Chile: Administration, General, 1936 - 1939

JDC allocations for refugee aid: $13,000 between July-Dec., 1939, 6/28/39 – 7/6/39, 9/20/39, 9/25/39, 10/4/39(2), 10/11/39. On refugee immigration to Chile: 11/4/37, 4/20/39, 6/21/39, CISROCO activities report undated (8/1/39?), 10/11/39. Colonization proposals and prospects: 9/21/36 – 11/5/36, 2/7/39, 7/25/39, Aug. 1939. Reports: S. Arons, “Chile its Climate and Agriculture,” 11/16/39; F.W. Borchardt and D. Glick, “Chile,” 5/15/39. Correspondence: S. Arons, P. Baerwald, J. Bernstein, F.W. Borchardt, D. Glick, R. Goldschmidt, S. Hochschild, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, C.J. Liebman, L. Oungre, R. Pilpel, S. Weill.

File 1104: Chile: Administration, General, 1940 (Jan. - Sept.)

Some 650 refugees arrived on the SS Augustus and created severe fiscal, political and human problems, 1/3/40 – 1/22/40, 1/15/40 attachment to 1/31/40. HICEM Santiago was often at odds with the CISROCO on immigration matters, 3/6/40, 3/18/40, 4/4/40. The CISROCO was reorganized to include representatives from the Sephardi and the East European groups, 5/31/40, 6/13/40, 6/20/40. Numbered letters to the JDC – M.D. Goldsmith: #6, 6/27/40; #9SA, 7/24/40; #11SA, 8/7/40. Reports F.W. Borchardt: “Chile” 6/13/40, and preliminary notes for a report of a trip 6/23/40 – 7/9/40, 7/17/40. Fin. and Statistical Reports, Jan. – Sept. 1940. Correspondence: L. Arensburg, N. Aronovici, F.W. Borchardt, M.D. Goldsmith, G. Hirschberg, S. Hochschild, R. Pilpel.

File 1105: Chile: Administration, General, 1940 Oct. - 1941 (April)

On the refugee situation: 10/17/40, 11/28/40 CISROCO memo, 12/5/40, 1/1/41, 3/16/41, 4/15/41. Proposals for agricultural settlements: 2/20/41, 2/26/41, 3/10/41, 3/12/41 Bruman to Liebman, 3/14/41, 4/17/41, 4/24/41, 4/30/41. Fin. Reports and Statements: Fin. and Statistical Reports, Monthly, Oct. 1940 – April 1941; JDC Auditor’s Field Notes #10 – 13, 4/21/41 -4/26/41. Correspondence: N. Aronovici, A.J. Bruman, M.D. Goldsmith, G. Hirschberg, M.A. Leavitt, C.J. Liebman, J.A. Lowenstein, R. Pilpel, M. Reinberg.

File 1106: Chile: Administration, General, 1941 (May - Dec.)

On the refugee situation: 6/24/41, 7/23/41, 8/27/41, 9/8/41, 9/10/41, 10/30/41, 12/8/41. Proposals for agricultural settlements: 7/13/41, 7/15/41, 7/31/41, 9/9/41, 9/23/41, 9/24/41, 10/3/41 Bruman to Hirschberg, 10/14/41, 10/29/41, 12/18/41 and attachments. Fin. Reports – Fin. and Statistical Reports, Monthly, 1941, May Dec., (Aug. missing); JDC Auditor’s. Field Rep. 8/1/39 – 12/31/40, 7/1/41. Correspondence: L. Arensburg, G. Hirschberg, S. Hochschild, R. Pilpel, L, Reinberg.

File 1107: Chile: Administration, General, 1942

Numbered letters to the JDC – M.W. Beckelman; #63, 1/2/42; Unnumbered, 3/24/42; #137, 3/25/42; #146, 3/29/42; #164, 4/14/42; #165, #166, #167, #169, 4/15/42; #173, #174, 4/19/42; #179, 4/24/42; #185, 4/25/42; #213, 5/8/42; #220, #222, 5/13/42; #235, 5/22/42; #242, 5/27/42; #257, #258, #259, 6/3/42. On the refugee situation: Letter #137, 3/25/42; 4/17/42 attachment to #185, 4/25/42; #179, 4/24/42; 5/7/42 attachment to 5/13/42. Proposals for agricultural settlement: 1/26/42, Letter #164, 4/14/42; #167, 4/15/42; 4/20/42, attachment to 4/22/42; 5/27/42, attachment to 6/3/42. Discussions and agreement between the CISROCO and the HICEM Santiago: 1/28/42, 4/1/42; Letter #174, 4/19/42; 7/24/42; 9/11/42; 9/15/42, 10/21/42. Reports: C. Watland – Conditions in Chile, 3/15/42 attachment to 5/5/42; Fin. and Statistical Reports, Monthly 1942, Jan. – Dec.; JDC Auditor’s Field Notes, 8/21/42. Correspondence: M.W, Beckelman, J. Bernstein, G. Hirschberg, S. Hochschild, B. Kahn, M.A. Leavitt, C.J. Liebman, R. Pilpel, M. Reinberg, C. Watland.

File 1108: Chile: Administration, General, 1943 - 1944; 1945

Numbered letters to the JDC L.H. Sobel: #40, 7/6/43; #44, 7/19/43; #47, 7/27/43; #52, 7/27/43; #56, 8/10/43; #60, #61, 8/14/43; #78, 9/28/43; #84, 10/13/43; J.B. Lightman: #317, 10/26/44; #331, 11/10/44; #398, 1/5/45; G. Pinsky: #35, 12/5/44; #26, 12/5/44; #27, #28, 12/14/44; #29, 12/23/44. On the refugee situation: 1/4/43, 1/5/43, 1/18/43, 2/10/44. Proposals for agricultural settlement: 7/21/43, 10/13/43. Proposals for a children’s home: #40, 7/6/43, 7/14/43 cable and letter Hyman to Sobel, #52, 7/27/43, 8/3/43 – 8/6/43, #78, 9/28/43, 10/13/43, 11/29/43, 12/24/43, 6/22/44, 12/11/44, 12/15/44. JDC Allocations: the JDC informed the CISROCO that its allocations would close at the end of the year, 2/7/44, 3/10/44, 3/23/44, 5/10/44, 5/17/44, August 1944, 11/6/44, 12/1/44, 12/23/44. Fin. Reports – Fin. and Statistical Reports, Monthly: Jan., 1943 – March 1944 (Missing, June 1943); JDC Auditor’s Field Notes #13, 5/16/43, #17, 5/18/43. Correspondence: H.D. Biele, G. Hirschberg, J.C. Hyman, J.B. Lightman, R. Pilpel, G. Pinsky, L.H. Sobel

Series 2: Chile : Organizations

Asociacion de Soccoros de Israelitas, Santiago, see: CISROCO. Circulo Israelita, Santiago, see: File 1,110. CISROCO, Comite Israelita de Soccoros, Santiago, see: Files 1,103 – 1,108. Comite Representativo de la Colectividad Israelita, Santiago, see: File 1,107, 11/18/42, File 1,108, 7/19/43, 10/20/43. Comunidad Israelita Habonim, Valparaiso, see: File 1,109.b. HICEM Jewish Colonization Association, Santiago, see: Files 1,103 – 1,106. Hilfsvereinigung fuer Juedische Einwanderer, Santiago, see: CISROCO. Liga de Damas “Caridad,” Santiago, see: File 1,106, 11/19/41, File 1,107, 9/8/42, 11/24/42. Sociedad Cultural Israelita, “B’ne Jisroel,” Santiago, see: File 1,109.a.

Series 3: Chile : Subject Matter

File 1109: Chile: Subject Matter, Cultural and Religious

a. Sociedad Cultural Israelita, “B’ne Jisroel,” Santiago, 1939 – 1944: In 1940, the JDC Cult. Committee aided the B’ne Jisroel in opening a place of worship and in establishing Jewish classes. JDC allocations continued on a steadily diminishing scale until the end of 1944, and reached some $2,200 all told. In the war years, the B’ne Jisroel also collected modest sums for refugee relief in Europe, and the funds were forwarded overseas via the JDC. The B’ne Jisroel issued a monthly Information Bulletin in German and Spanish, and the files contain representative copies issued between 1942 – 1944. Correspondence: M.W. Beckelman, H.D. Biele, H.K. Buchman, F. Friedman, J.B. Lightman, L.H. Sobel. b. Comunidad Israelita Habonim, Valparaiso, 1940 – 1943: In 1939, German refugees established the Jewish Community Habonim in Valparaiso, Chile’s second city, and opened classes for religious instruction. The JDC aided the Habonim with a number of small grants and with the dispatch of religious articles.

File 1110: Chile: Subject Matter, Reconstruction, Loan Funds

Between 1939 – 1942, the JDC granted $20,000 for use as a small loan fund to refugee newcomers, see: 11/3/39, 3/27/40, 5/8/42. In 1941, the JDC Found, earmarked $10,000 as a matching grant to aid in creating a credit coop. to provide agricultural loans to refugee farmers in Chile. In the end, the project came to nothing, and the funds were diverted to other refugee undertakings, see: 5/15/39, 12/4/39, 8/29/40, Sept. 1940, 11/14/40, 4/30/41, 1/29/42, 7/15/42.

Record Group 4.67: Colombia

Series 1: Colombia : Administration

Correspondence, memos, reports, addenda.

File 1111: Colombia: Administration, General, 1937 - 1941

The REC allocated $5,000 to open a loan fund for refugees, 12/17/38 while the JDC granted $3,000 to open a constructive loan fund in 1941, 1/15/41, 1/31/41. The JDC granted $300 per month for refugee aid, 10/25/40 attachment to 10/31/40, 11/22/40, and raised it to $400 per month, 9/24/41, 10/28/41. Reports: F.W. Borchardt and D. Glick, 4/7/39; M.D. Goldsmith, 3/9/41; L. Zelwer, 8/1/40, 11/27/40, 9/5/41, 11/14/41, 12/20/41. Correspondence: F.W. Borchardt, M.D. Goldsmith, H. Halberstaedter, R. Pilpel, L. Zelwer.

File 1112: Colombia: Administration, General, 1942 - 1943 (June)

The JDC granted $500 per month for refugee aid between Jan.-Nov. 1942, 4/7/42, and raised it to $500 per month from Dec. 1942, 11/20/42. Numbered letters to the JDC – M.W. Beckelman: #245, 5/29/42; #270, 6/3/42 attachment to 6/19/42; #271, 6/3/42; #272, 6/4/42; #307, 6/25/42 L.H. Sobel: #3, 4/4/43; #8, 4/18/43; #10, 4/26/43; #11, #12, 5/6/43; #14, 5/7/43. Correspondence: N. Aronovici, M.W. Beckelman, F.W. Borchardt, A. Cohen, B. Kahn, M.A. Leavitt, R. Pilpel, L.H. Sobel, L. Zelwer.

File 1113: Colombia: Administration, General, 1943(July) - 1944

The JDC granted $500 for refugee aid through Nov. 1944, $400 per month for Dec. 1944 and suspended it thereafter owing to the enormous and overriding needs of refugees in Europe, 11/28/44-12/21/44. Numbered letters to the JDC – J.B. Lightman: #233, 7/17/44; #262, 8/12/44; #334, 11/10/44; 355A, 12/11/44. Report: “Ten Years of Jewish Immigration to Colombia,” Aug. 1943 (German). Correspondence: H.D. Biele, A. Cohen, J.B. Lightman, R. Pilpel, L.H. Sobel, L. Zelwer.

File 1114: Colombia: Administration, General, Barranquilla

In July 1937, the JDC granted $1,000 to aid newly arrived refugees in Barranquilla in escaping the threat of deportation. The threat never materialized. Correspondence: V. Gegenherz, H. Halberstaedter, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, C. Rosenthal, D.J. Schweitzer.

File 1115: Colombia: Administration, Fund Raising

In Colombia, the JDC sought to encourage local fund-raising in support of local refugee aid. Only near the end of 1944 did it call for a drive on behalf of its own overseas aid activities. But earlier, a number of local organizations collected modest sums for overseas relief on their own initiative, e.g. the Comite de Damas, Bogota, $1,000, 10/5/42 and the Centro Israelite de Bogota, $1,170, 7/3/42. Correspondence: M.W. Beckelman, A. Cohen, I.H. Levy, J.B. Lightman, R. Pilpel, S. Rozenthal, L.H. Sobel, L. Zelwer.

Series 2: Colombia : Organizations

Centro Israelita de Beneficencia Ezrath Israel, Cali, see: File 1,116. Centro Israelita de Bogota, see: File 1,112, 4/12/42 attachment to 6/4/42, 5/29/42, 7/3/42. Centro Israelita Filantropico de Barranquilla, see: File 1,112, 6/29/42, 7/29/42; File 1,113, 4/13/44, 5/16/44 and attachments. Comite Central Hebreo de Colombia, Bogota, see: File 1,112, 3/9/43, 3/12/43. Comite de Damas Pro Aguda a las Victimas Judias de la Guerra, see: File 1,115, 10/5/42(2). Comite de Proteccion a los Inmigrantes Israelitas, Bogota, see: File 1,112, 6/27/42, 10/22/42. HIAS-ICA Emigration Association, Bogota, (HICEM), see: Files 1,111-1,113. For additional data on Colombia organizations, see: File 1,113, August 1943 pages 13-17.

Series 3: Colombia : Subject Matter

File 1116: Colombia: Subject Matter, Cult. and Religious

Cult. and religious activities were subjected to the same communal fragmentation which governed all other Jewish activities in the cities of Colombia. In Cali, (Jewish population about 850) an attempt was made to establish a form of communal council but it had little to show for its efforts. In 1943, the JDC offered a loan of $2,100 to the Centro Israelita de Beneficencia Ezrath Israel, Cali, to cover the costs of bringing in a rabbi from Ecuador. Whether the project was ever carried out, is not confirmed in the file. Correspondence: M.W. Beckelman, H.K. Buchman, R. Pilpel, L.H. Sobel, L. Zelwer.

File 1117: Colombia: Subject Matter, Reconstruction Loan Funds

In Dec. 1938, the REC appropriated $5,000 to open a loan fund in Bogota to aid refugees in small business enterprises. A Committee of refugees to administer the fund was set up. By Sept. 1940, the funds had all been loaned out to 48 persons. In Jan. 1941, the JDC allocated $3,000 for the grant of constructive loans to refugees. Some 30 loans were extended in the first year, and 26 in the second, 2/8/44. Correspondence: F.W. Borchardt, H. Halberstaedter, E.H. Komlos, R. Pilpel, L.H. Sobel, L. Zelwer.

Record Group 4.68: Ecuador

Series 1: Ecuador: Administration

Correspondence, reports, memos, addenda.

File 1118: Ecuador: Administration, General, 1936 - 1941 (Apr.)

Negotiations with the Ecuadorean Gov’t for the admission of 50 refugee boys (Floersheimische Stiftung), 6/3/40, 11/1/40, 1/10/41, 3/7/41, 3/11/41-3/21/41. Reports: L. Ettlinger, 6/3/36. C.Q. Henriques and A. Golodetz, 8/17/36-1/13/37, 6/13/37. Anon., 6/19/37. F.W. Borchardt and D. Glick, 4/20/39. S. Arons, “Ecuador, Its Climate and Agricultural Regions,” 6/26/39. L. Zelwer, 6/24/39 attachment to 8/25/39. F.W. Borchardt, 7/8/40. M.D. Goldsmith, 3/4/41. Emergency aid for refugee landings: SS Koenigstein, 2/28/39-3/7/39. SS Rakuyo Maru, 10/8/40, 10/17/40(2) cable and telephone conversation, 10/19/40, 10/22/40, 11/12/40. SS Ginyo Maru and SS Hie Maru, 12/28/40, 1/2/41, 1/8/41, 1/10/41, 1/21/41, 1/28/41, 2/14/41, 2/26/41(2), 3/11/41. Correspondence: F.W. Borchardt, M.D. Goldsmith, C.J. Liebman, R. Pilpel, O. Rocca, L. Zelwer.

File 1119: Ecuador: Administration, General, 1941 (May-Dec.)

Further negotiations for the admission of the 50 refugee boys (Floersheimische Stiftung), 7/9/41, 8/14/41, 8/19/41, 10/3/41, 10/7/41 HICEM to the JDC, 10/9/41, 10/13/41, 12/6/41. Memos by A.J. Bruman on agricultural settlement for refugees, 6/6/41, 7/12/41 attachment to 7/30/41. Correspondence: N. Aronovici, F.W. Borchardt, A.J. Bruman, C. Jordan, B. Kahn, B. Mellibovsky, R. Pilpel, O. Rocca, L. Zelwer.

File 1120: Ecuador: Administration, General, 1942 - 1943 (Sept.)

The JDC allocated $2,840 in one-time grants to organizations in Quito and Guayaquil, 5/21/43, 6/3/43. Numbered Letters to the JDC – M.W. Beckelman: #289, 6/7/43 – L.H. Sobel: #17, 5/8/43, #18, 5/9/43, #47, 7/27/43, #73, 9/7/43. HICEM Annual Reports: 1941, 12/31/41; 1942, 12/31/42. Correspondence: M.W. Beckelman, C. Jordan, R. Pilpel, L. Sobel, O. Rocca.

File 1121: Ecuador: Administration, General, 1943 Oct. - 1945

The JDC allocated $875 in one-time grants to organizations in Quito and Guayaquil, 3/24/44, 4/27/44, 5/22/44. Numbered letters to the JDC – L.H. Sobel: #93, 10/28/43; J.B. Lightman: #165, 5/15/44. Reports and Memos – D. Stern, “Ecuador,” Jan. 1945 attachment to 1/24/45; S. Guttman, “The Jewish Community of Guayaquil” attach. 1/24/45. HICEM Annual Report: 1943, and Summary, Dec. 1943 and 12/27/43. HICEM Monthly Reports – 1944: April-Dec.; 1945, Jan., March, April. Correspondence: H.D. Biele, I.H. Levy, J.B. Lightman, R. Pilpel, G. Pinsky, O. Rocca, J. Rosenstock, L.H. Sobel, D. Stern, M. Weiser.

File 1122: Ecuador: Administration, Fund Raising

In 1944, the Jewish community of Quito forwarded to the JDC $1,500 raised by it for European relief, see below: 8/31/44-10/11/44. In 1945, the Jewish community of Guayaquil followed with $1,200 for the same purpose, 5/11/45-6/5/45. From 1947 onward, united fund-raising campaigns got under way. The JDC repeatedly protested that the distribution formula of the funds was grossly inequitable to the needs of its programs vis-a-vis those granted to the HIAS and the WJC. In 1947, the JDC agreed to permit its campaign share, some $2,000, to be used for the aid of refugee newcomers to Ecuador, 5/28/47-6/27/47, 11/19/47. In 1951, $500 in campaign funds were forwarded to the JDC, 5/30/51. Correspondence: I.H. Levy, J.B. Lightman, J. Lomnitz, R. Pilpel, G. Pinsky, O. Rocca, J. Rosenstock, P. Skorneck, L.H. Sobel, E.M.M. Warburg, M. Weiser.

Series 2: Ecuador: Organizations

Asociacion de Beneficencia Israelita, Quito, see: Files 1,120-1,122, 1,123.3. Comite de Proteccion a los Inmigrantes Israelitas, Quito and Guayaquil, see: Files 1,118-1,121. Comite de Socorro para los Israelitas sobrevivientes en Europa, Quito, see: File 1,122, 1944. Comite pro Ayuda a las Victimas del Nazismo en Europa, Guayaquil, see: File 1,122, 1945. Comunidad de Culto Israelita, Guayaquil, see: File 1,123.2. Cooperativa de Credito para Agricultura, Industria y Comercio, Quito, see: Files 1,120, 1,121, 1,124-1,126. HIAS-ICA Emigration Association, HICEM, Quito, Files 1,118-1,121. Maccabi, Quito, see: File 1,120. Sociedad de Beneficencia Israelita, Guayaquil, see: Files 1,120, 1,121, 1,122. Sociedad de Senoras Israelitas, Guayaquil, see: File 1,121.

Series 3: Ecuador: Subject Matter

Reconstruction — The Cooperative de Credito para Agricultura, Industria y Comercio, Quito (Cooperativa), was the first credit cooperative in S.A. opened with the aid of the JDC. Operations began in Feb. 1942, and the JDC allocated $3,000 in matching funds for the extension of reconstruction loans to refugees. The first president was Giorgio Levy and he was succeeded soon after by Hans D. Rothschild. Max Weiser served as Manager.

File 1123: Ecuador: Subject Matter, Cult. and Religious

1. Cuenca, 1940: The JDC forwarded a Sefer Torah and a Shofar to a newly organized Jewish Congregation in Cuenca, established there by 25 refugee families. 2. Guayaquil, 1941 – 1944: The JDC forwarded a Sefer Torah and other religious articles to the Comunidad de Culto Israelita, Guayaquil. The Comunidad appealed to the JDC for aid in meeting the immigration expenses of a qualified cantor/teacher and his family along with a monthly subsidy of $35, both on a matching basis. The Comunidad ultimately expressed its unwillingness to incur a debt of the size needed for its matching share, and the project fell through. 3. Quito, 1940 – 1944: The JDC forwarded a Sefer Torah and a variety of other religious articles as well as a collection of volumes of Jewish interest to the Asociacion Beneficencia Israelita, Quito. The JDC also granted a monthly subsidy of $50 for cultural activities and a loan of $1,650 to establish a Jewish cemetery, 5/8/43-8/5/43.

File 1124: Ecuador: Subject Matter, Reconstruction, Loan Funds, 1939 - 1942

The JDC granted $700 to the Cooperativa and a credit of $1,500 to aid in opening a branch in Guayaquil, 9/17/42, 9/23/42. The REC earmarked $25,000 for providing agricultural settlers in Ecuador with long-term credits, 8/26/42, 9/9/42, 10/13/42, 10/29/42, 11/12/42. Reports and Memos: On the organization of the Cooperativa by Noel Aronovici, 11/30/41; Short Summary of the Work of the Recon. Committee, 7/15/42; Activities report by Max Weiser, 8/20/42 attachment to 8/24/42; Summary of the Activities of the Cooperativa in Quito in 1942, 3/11/43. Monthly Statistical Reports and Fin. Statements by the Cooperativa, 1942: March, attachment to 4/16/42; April, attach. 5/15/42; May, attach. 6/18/42; June, attach. 8/11/42; July, attach. 8/14/42; Aug., attach. 9/10/42; Sept., attach. 10/12/42; Oct., attach. 11/12/42; Nov., attach. 12/15/42; Dec., attach. 1/13/42. Correspondence: N. Aronovici, A.J. Bruman, A.A. Landesco, G. Levi, R. Pilpel, O. Rocca, H.D. Rothschild, M. Weiser.

File 1125: Ecuador: Subject Matter, Reconstruction, Loan Funds, 1943

The JDC allocated $1,000 plus a one-time grant of $300 to the Cooperativa, 9/22/43. Leadership personality quarrels threatened to disrupt the Cooperativa, but a settlement was finally reached in Feb. 1943, 1/4/43-3/8/43(2). For earlier materials, see: File 1,124, 11/22/42-12/27/42; (Note: The materials from Quito are all in German or Spanish). The JDC earmarked $3,000 for the grant of agricultural loans to refugees, 2/24/43, 3/9/43 Aronovici to the Cooperativa, 3/16/43, 4/8/43(2), 4/23/43 Landesco to the Cooperativa and attachment, 5/8/43 cable, 5/14/43, 6/2/43, 6/8/43, 10/22/43, 11/24/43, 12/6/43, 12/21/43. Reports and Memos: JDC Auditor’s Field Letters: #1, 6/4/43, #2, 6/5/43. Summary of Activities of the Cooperativa 1/1/43-7/31/43, 9/22/43. Statement by the Cooperativa Manager on 8/26/43, 9/23/43. Summary of Activities of the Recon. Committee in S.A., 10/22/43. Statistical Reports and Fin. Statements by the Cooperativa, 1943: Jan., 1/31/43, attach. 2/11/43; Feb., 2/28/43; 3/5/43; May, attach. 6/11/43; June, attach, 7/12/43, 7/15/43; July, 7/31/43, 8/27/43; Aug., attach. 12/2/43 Aronovici to Cooperativa; Sept., attach. 10/16/43; Oct., attach. 11/5/43 and 12/2/43 Landesco to Cooperativa; Nov., attach. 12/9/43 and 12/27/43; Dec. 12/31/43, also see: File 1,126, attach. 1/25/44. Correspondence: N. Aronovici, E. Kreismann, A.A. Landesco, J. Lowenstein, O. Rocca, H.D. Rothschild, L.H. Sobel, M. Weiser.

File 1126: Ecuador: Subject Matter, Reconstruction, Loan Funds, 1944

The JDC allocated two grants of $300 each, 1/26/44 Landesco to Weiser, 3/16/43 and 9/13/44. Agricultural loans and settlement prospects: 1/14/44, 8/25/44 attachment to 9/14/44, 9/25/44, 10/31/44, 11/9/44, 1/5/45; for materials on agric. settlement prospects, see below: File 1,121, Report by David Stern attach. 1/24/45. Reports: Cooperativa, Feb. 1944 attach. 3/21/44, presenting biographical accounts of 20 borrowers. Statistical Reports and Fin. Statements by the Cooperativa, 1944: Jan., attach. 2/2/44; Feb., 2/29/44, attach. 3/24/44; March, attach. 4/5/44 and 4/15/44; April, attach. 5/12/44; May, attach. 6/9/44 and 7/14/44; June, attach. 7/21/44; July, attach. 8/11/44, 8/17/44; Sept., 9/30/44, 10/4/44; Oct. attach, 11/29/44. Correspondence: N. Aronovici, A.A. Landesco, J.B. Lightman, C. Rosenberg, H.D. Rothschild, M. Weiser.

Record Group 4.69: Paraguay

File 1127: Paraguay: General

Correspondence, memos, reports, addenda. Status of refugees in Paraguay: 6/18/36, 2/2/39, 4/21/39 attach. 6/1/39, 11/2/39, 12/21/39 attach. 1/8/40, 2/1/40, 6/13/40, 3/22/41, 8/23/41(2), 10/4/41, 10/11/41(2), 5/8/42-6/19/42, 10/19/43, 3/2/45 and attachment. Numbered letters to the JDC – M.D. Goldsmith: #5, 6/19/40-M.W. Beckelman; #153, 3/31/42; #215, 5/8/42-L.H. Sobel; #91, 10/9/43.-J.B. Lightman; #435, 3/2/45; #446, 3/21/45. Reports on Paraguay: F.W. Borchardt and D. Glick, 6/19/39; S. Arons, 7/19/39; M.D. Goldsmith, 7/6/40. Correspondence: O. Bandler, M.W. Beckelman, F.W. Borchardt, M.D. Goldsmith, G.J. Herzberg, A. Jaretzki Jr., I.H. Levy, J.B. Lightman, R. Pilpel, L.H. Sobel.

Record Group 4.70: Peru

Series 1: Peru: Administration

Correspondence, memos, reports, addenda

File 1128: Peru: Administration, General, 1937 - 1940

In 1939 – 1940 the JDC allocated about $12,000 for refugee aid and including grants for legalizing the status of recently arrived immigrants, 2/24/39, 6/7/39, 8/18/39, 9/22/39, 10/2/39, 11/16/39, 12/19/39, 9/30/40. Reports: “A Plea for Refugee Immigration and Colonization in Peru” by B. Mishkin, 3/17/40, 6/1/40 attachment to 6/10/40, 6/20/40. “Peru” by F. Borchardt and D. Glick, 5/6/39. Monthly Fin. and Statistical Reports 1940: April-Dec. (July missing). Annual Fin. Statements, 1939: 4/11/40; 1940, 1/23/41. Correspondence: F. Borchardt, D. Glick, M. Hochschild, S. Lubrainschik, B. Mishkin, R. Pilpel, L. Weil.

File 1129: Peru: Administration, General, 1941 - 1942

Reports: Numbered letter to the JDC-M.W. Beckelman: #227, 5/17/42. “Peru” by M.D. Goldsmith, 3/1/42; “Peruvian-Jewish Life” by Isaac Wecselman (Yiddish), 12/19/41. Monthly Fin. and Statistical Reports, 1941, 1942: Jan.-Dec. Correspondence: M.W. Beckelman, F.W. Borchardt, M.D. Goldsmith, S. Lubrainschik, R. Pilpel, I. Wecselman, L. Weil.

File 1130: Peru: Administration, General, 1943 - 1944

Fundraising in Peru, 5/11/43, 5/12/43, 7/12/43(3), 7/27/43, 4/14/44, 8/8/44. Numbered letters to the JDC – L.H. Sobel: #27, 5/26/43; #28, 5/27/43; #42, 7/12/43; #50, 7/27/43; #51, 7/27/43; #66, 8/24/43. – J.B. Lightman: #200, 6/9/44; #339, 11/17/44. Monthly Fin. and Statistical Reports, 1943: Jan.-Dec., Oct. missing; 1944: Complete. Correspondence: H.D. Biele, J.B. Lightman, S. Lubrainschik, G.D. Pinsky, R. Pilpel, L.H. Sobel.

Series 2: Peru: Organizations

Asociacion Cooperativa de Credito Israelita del Peru, Lima. Asociacion Mutualista Israelita del Peru, Lima, see: File 1,131 Asociacion de Sociedades Israelitas del Peru, Lima, see: File 1,130 Comite de Proteccion a los Inmigrantes Israelitas, Lima, see: Files 1,128-1,130 Directorio de la Colectividad Israelita del Peru, Lima, see: File 1,130 Sociedad de Beneficencia Israelita, Lima, see: File 1,131, Feb. 1941. Sociedad de Beneficencia Israelita Sefardi, Lima, see: File 1,131, Feb. 1941. Union Israelita del Peru, Lima, see: Files 1,130; 1,131, 12/28/37.

Series 3: Peru: Subject Matter

File 1131: Peru: Subject Matter, Reconstruction, Loan Funds

On the status of loan funds in Peru: 12/21/37-1/31/38, 6/19/38, 5/6/39, 10/30/39, 11/1/39, 11/2/39, Feb. 1941, 3/1/41, 12/5/41, 5/26/43, 5/27/43, 7/1/43. Correspondence: N. Aronovici, F. Borchardt, M.D. Goldsmith, M. Heller, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, H. Katzki, A.A. Landesco, S. Lubrainschik, L.H. Sobel, L. Weil.

Record Group 4.71: Uruguay

Series 1: Uruguay: Administration

Correspondence, memos, reports, addenda.

File 1132: Uruguay: Administration, General, 1938 - 1939

In 1939, the JDC allocated $6,500 to the AFI for refugee aid in Uruguay, 3/22/39, 4/1/39, 5/5/39, 5/22/39-5/25/39, 7/20/39; in addition, the JDC allocated $5,000 for a loan fund, 9/25/39, $500 for an Austrian refugee colony, 5/22/39 and attachment, 7/6/39, 10/17/39 and $300 towards the operation of a Children’s Home in Montevideo, 9/25/39. Reports and Memos on Uruguay: H. Baruch, 2/16/38. F.W. Borchardt and D. Glick, 5/22/39. A. Hirsch, 7/15/39(2). M. Speyer, 11/9/39, 12/8/39, Fin. and Statistical Reports, Monthly, 1939: Jan./May, June/July, Aug.-Dec. Correspondence: H. Baruch, F.W. Borchardt, S. David, D. Glick, A. Hirsch, H. Katzki, G. Mayer, R. Pilpel, M. Speyer.

File 1133: Uruguay: Administration, General, 1940 - 1941

Numbered letters to the JDC – M.D. Goldsmith: 6/19/40; #18 SA, 9/15/40; #19 SA, 9/28/40. Reports and Memos F.W. Borchardt: 5/16/40; M.D. Goldsmith: 10/14/40 attachment to 11/1/40; M. Speyer: 9/10/41; AFI 12/31/40, 9/10/41. Fin. and Statistical Reports Monthly – 1940: Jan.-Dec. 1941: Jan.-Dec. (July missing). Fin. and Statistical Reports 1/1/39-3/31/40, 3/31/40; 4/1/39-3/31/40, 3/31/40. Loeb and Troper Fin. Audit, 7/1/41. Correspondence: F.W. Borchardt, L. Friedheim, M.D. Goldsmith, J.C. Hyman, R. Pilpel, G. Rosenbaum, M. Speyer.

File 1134: Uruguay: Administration, General, 1942

Numbered letters to the JDC – M.W. Beckelman: #91, 2/10/42; #101, 2/17/42; #106, 3/10/42; #110, 3/10/42; #114, 3/12/42; #120, 3/17/42; #122, 3/18/42; #125, 3/20/42; #126, 3/21/42; #135, 3/25/42; #144, 3/28/42; #145, 3/28/42; #160, 4/4/42; #170, 4/17/42; #197, 5/1/42; #229, 5/17/42; #256, 6/2/42; #263, 6/3/42; #274, 6/4/42; #283, 6/5/42; #303, 6/25/42. Rosemann-Speyer imbroglio: 2/5/42 and attachment, 2/11/42, 2/17/42, 2/26/42, 3/12/42, 3/23/42, 3/28/42, 3/31/42, 4/1/42(3), 4/10/42, 4/13/42, 4/23/42, 4/28/42, 4/30/42, 5/1/42, 5/4/42, 5/20/42, 5/21/42, 5/27/42(2), 6/2/42, 6/4/42, 6/18/42, 8/31/42, 9/28/42 and attachments, 11/25/42, 12/2/42; also see below: File 1,135, 3/9/43 attachment to 3/22/43. Ethnic data on immigration to Uruguay, 3/21/42, 5/17/42, 6/13/42. Fin. and Statistical Reports, Monthly, 1942: Jan.-Dec. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, M.W. Beckelman, L. Friedheim, W. Jacoby, B. Kahn, M.A. Leavitt, R. Pilpel, G. Rosemann, E. Seroussi, M. Speyer.

File 1135: Uruguay: Administration, General, 1943 - 1944

Numbered letters to the JDC – L.H. Sobel: #49, 7/27/43; 9/28/43; #85, 10/13/43; #86, 10/14/43; #89, 10/16/43, #90, 10/18/43; #92, 10/22/43; #97, 11/3/43. J.B. Lightman: #116, 1/6/44, #120, 2/2/44; #122, 2/11/44; #129, 2/24/44; #130, 2/24/44; #135, 3/16/44, #144, 3/27/44; #147, 4/4/44; #148, 4/5/44; #149, 4/6/44; #164, 5/15/44; #173, 5/18/44; #210, 6/21/44; #212, 6/26/44; #217, 6/29/44; #252, 8/8/44; #269, 8/23/44; #302, 9/22/44; #308, 10/5/44; #326, 11/2/44; #330, 11/8/44; #336, 11/15/44; #350, 12/5/44; #359, 12/12/44. G.D. Pinsky: #3, 5/10/44; #4, 5/17/44, #5, 5/17/44; #11, 6/16/44; #14, 6/22/44; #17, 7/12/44; #19 7/20/44; #20, 7/24/44; #24, 8/28/44; #25, 9/12/44; #26, 9/26/44; #27, 9/26/44; #29, 10/25/44; #30, 10/30/44; 11/1/44; #34, 12/1/44. G.D. Pinsky to J.B. Lightman, Unnumbered: 5/11/44, 5/15/44, 5/22/44, 5/23/44, 5/26/44, 5/30/44, 6/19/44, 6/30/44, 7/1/44, 7/7/44, 7/9/44; To J.B. Lightman, Numbered: #2, 7/20/44; #5, 7/24/55; #6, 7/24/44; #11, 8/19/44; #12, 8/28/44; #13, 9/5/44; #14, 9/11/44; #15, 9/15/44; #16, 9/21/44; #17, 9/25/44; #18, 9/26/44; #19, 9/28/44; #19a, 10/1/44; #20, 10/21/44; #21, 10/23/44; #22, 10/23/44; #23, 10/30/44; #24, 12/13/44. Fin. and Statistical Reports, Monthly – 1943: Jan.-Nov. 1944: Jan.-Nov. (Feb. missing). Loeb and Troper Audit Field Letters: #11-12, 5/9/43; 5/11/43; #18-21, 5/22/43. Correspondence: M.W. Beckelman, H.D. Biele, F.W. Borchardt, J.B. Lightman, G. Mayer, R. Pilpel, G.D. Pinsky, S. Resnick, E. Seroussi, L.H. Sobel, M. Speyer.

File 1136: Uruguay: Administration, Fund-Raising

Numbered letters to the JDC – G.D. Pinsky: #14, 6/22/44; #18, 7/19/44; #19, 7/20/44; 11/1/44. -J.B. Lightman: #303, 9/21/44; #349, 12/5/44. Correspondence: H.D. Biele, J.B. Lightman, R. Pilpel, G.D. Pinsky, S. Resnick, M. Speyer.

Series 2: Uruguay: Organizations

All the organizations listed below had their seats in Montevideo. Asociacion Filantropica Israelita (AFI), see: Files 1,132-1,135, 1,138. Centro Comerciale Industrial Israelita del Uruguay, see: Files 1,132, 1,133, 1,138. Comite Central Israelita del Uruguay, see: Files 1,134-1,135. Escuela Beth Jacob, see: File 1,137. Nueva Congregacion Israelita de Montevideo, see: Files 1,132-1,135, 1,137.

Series 3: Uruguay: Subject Matter

File 1137: Uruguay: Subject Matter, Cult. and Religious

In 1941 – 1942 the JDC allocated $250 as a salary supplement to Rabbi Rosemann, of the Nueva Congregacion Israelita Montevideo, and in Sept. 1944, $500 in aid of the Escuela Beth Jacob, Montevideo. Numbered letters to the JDC-L.H. Sobel: #90, 10/18/43; J.B. Lightman: #136, 3/16/44; G.D. Pinsky: #8, 6/16/44; #12, 6/17/44; #13, 6/21/44; #31, 10/31/44. Correspondence: H.K. Buchman, B. Kahn, J.B. Lightman, G.D. Pinsky, E. Schnurman, L.H. Sobel, M. Speyer.

File 1138: Uruguay: Subject Matter, Reconstruction, Loan Funds

In 1939, the JDC allocated $5,000 to the AFI to aid refugees in making themselves self-sustaining. In 1941, the JDC added $2,500, and in 1942 – 1943 $6,665 for the same purpose. Numbered letters to the JDC-M.D. Goldsmith: #13 SA, 8/12/40. M.W. Beckelman: #122, 3/18/42; #208, 5/8/42. G.D. Pinsky: #2, 5/10/44. Reports and Memos -F.W. Borchardt: 5/12/40, 5/16/40. N. Aronovici: 1/16/41. Analysis of data on the loan fund April 1939-July 1942, submitted by the AFI, 9/16/42. Correspondence: N. Aronovici, M.W. Beckelman, F.W. Borchardt, M.D. Goldsmith, A.A. Landesco, G. Mayer, R. Pilpel, G.D. Pinsky, E. Seroussi, M. Speyer.

Record Group 4.72: Venezuela

File 1139: Venezuela: General, 1936 - 1939

86 refugees on the SS Cariba were permitted to land in Venezuela and granted permanent residence, 2/20/39, 3/2/39, followed by 165 refugees on the SS Koenigstein, 4/3/39, 4/19/39, 6/30/39. Reports: S. Pereira Mendes and including Exhibits A-P, 8/16/37. F.W. Borchardt and D. Glick, 4/3/39. The Comite Israelita Pro Refugiados was organized, 4/3/39, 4/6/39. Correspondence: F.W. Borchardt, A.I. Foinquihos, D. Glick. A. Houston, J.C. Hyman, C.J. Liebman, C.E. McGuire, S. Pereira Mendes, W. Salomon, B. Schachner.

File 1140: Venezuela: General, 1940 - 1944

In 1942, the JDC allocated $8,000 to cover the needs of refugees arriving in Venezuela who were in transit to other countries, 12/26/42-1/18/43, 1/28/43, 1/29/43, 3/1/43 Pilpel to Dijour. In 1943, allocations for the same purpose came to $2,300, 8/12/43, and $1,125, 12/7/43. The Comite Israelita forwarded $4,000 to the JDC for European-Jewish relief, 8/23/44-9/1/44, 9/16/44. Numbered letters to the JDC-M.W. Beckelman, #277, 6/4/42. -L.H. Sobel, #4, 4/9/43; #5, 4/10/43; #6, 4/12/43; #7, 4/14/43; #9, 4/19/43; #15, 5/6/43; #16, 5/8/43; #19, 5/15/43; #25, 5/21/43; 12/28/43-12/31/43, 12/31/43. – J.B. Lightman: #218, 6/29/44; #241, 7/24/44. Reports: Comite Israelita, Brief Annual Report for 1943, 12/29/43; JDC Auditor’s Field Letters #25 and #26, 6/14/43 and 6/18/43. Correspondence: H.D. Biele, F.W. Borchardt, I. Kohn, J.B. Lightman, R. Pilpel, W. Salomon, L.H. Sobel.

File 1141: Venezuela: Refugees Scholars

In mid – 1937, the Venezuelan Gov’t notified the REC that it was willing to accept applications from German refugee scholars for college teaching posts in the natural sciences and mathematics. A speaking knowledge of Spanish was a prerequisite for consideration, but the salaries offered were on the marginal side. An REC representative spent several months in Venezuela in an effort to speed up negotiations, but the results were on the meager side. Correspondence: F. Demuth, C.J. Liebman, R.E. Lopez, S. Pereira-Mendez.

Digitization of this collection was made possible with funding from the Polonsky Foundation.

Archives of The American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee, Inc.

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