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Subcollection: Countries and Regions

The documents in this subcollection detail JDC’s efforts to alleviate suffering and rebuild devastated communities; they are organized in record groups that are arranged alphabetically by country or region. When the amount of material for each country or region warrants further classification, the record group may be broken down into series. Note that borders shift in the war era, and that the names of localities reflect both recognized political and indigenous Jewish regions.

[Note: The geographical classification of these records presented numerous challenges. Between 1914 and 1918, national borders shifted because of the collapse of empires and military operations and occupations. Some communities or areas changed regimes repeatedly during the war era; many locations are known by multiple names. Vilna, for example, originally under Russian rule, was seized by Germany and included in the new district of Ober Ost, and was later claimed by Poland and Lithuania. Every effort has been made to cross-reference communities and to provide traditional and popular geographic names; these may not correspond to current names and designations.]

Record Group 4-1: North Africa (previously processed as “Africa, North”)

Series 1: North Africa: Administration

File 100: Africa, North, General, 1916-1917

Extent: 0.20 inch

Miscellaneous consular correspondence on needs, communal conditions, aid for Jews in North Africa.

Africa, North, General, 1916-1917

Record Group 4-2: Belgium

Series 1: Belgium: Localities

File 101: Belgium, Antwerp, 1918

Extent: 0.15 inch

Correspondence regarding providing relief, kosher food to impoverished Jewish community of Antwerp.

Belgium, Antwerp, 1918

Record Group 4-3: Bukovina

Series 1: Bukovina: Administration

File 102: Bukovina, General, 1917

Extent: 0.10 inch

Report (1917) on relief for Jews in Galicia and Bukovina by Michael Ringer of Lemberg Relief Committee, includes occupational, social, political history.

Bukovina, General, 1917

Record Group 4-4: Bulgaria

Series 1: Bulgaria: Administration

File 103: Bulgaria, General, 1916-1917

Extent: 0.25 inch

Correspondence, reports (English, German) on needs, communal conditions, including Abraham Davitschon Levy report (January 12, 1917).

Bulgaria, General, 1916-1917

Record Group 4-5: France

Series 1: France: Organizations

File 104: France, Orgs: Alliance Israelite Universelle, 1916-1917

Extent: 0.15 inch

Correspondence (English, French) regarding funds for families of Russian Jewish volunteers in French army.

France, Orgs: Alliance Israelite Universelle, 1916-1917

File 105: France, Orgs: Societe de Secours aux Russes, 1916

Extent: 0.15 inch

Correspondence, reports (English, French) regarding conditions, funds for families of Russian Jewish volunteers in French army, volunteers in French Foreign

France, Orgs: Societe de Secours aux Russes, 1916

Record Group 4-6: Galicia

Series 1: Galicia: Administration

File 106: Galicia, 1915-1919

Extent: 0.33 inch

Correspondence, reports (English, German), including report (1917) on relief for Jews in Galicia and Bukovina by Michael Ringer of Lemberg Relief Committee, includes occupational, social, political history; report (1919) from Society for the Rescue of Abandoned Jewish Children of Galicia and Bukovina. Cables (December 1918) on pogroms. Message (undated) to Galician and Bukovinian Jews in U.S. that residents are “between two fires” Poland and Ukraine. Miscellaneous from Judisches archive.

Galicia, 1915-1919

Record Group 4-7: Greece

Series 1: Greece: Administration

File 107: Greece, General, 1915-1918

Extent: 0.33 inch

Correspondence, cables (French, English) on needs, communal conditions in Greece and in occupied regions; appeals for aid. References to logistical problems in forwarding relief supplies.

Greece, General, 1915-1918

Series 2: Greece: Localities

File 108: Greece, Corfu, 1917-1918

Extent: 0.10 inch

Correspondence (French, English, including original handwritten communal appeals, cables) on needs, communal conditions on Corfu (Kerkyra), receipts for aid.

Greece, Corfu, 1917-1918

File 109: Greece, Rhodes, 1917-1918

Extent: 0.10 inch

Correspondence regarding appeals from the Jewish community on the island of Rhodes.

Greece, Rhodes, 1917-1918

File 110.1: Greece, Salonica, 1915-1917

Extent: 0.75 inch

Correspondence, cables (English, French) on needs, communal conditions in Salonica, primarily after August 1917 fire destroyed the business district and waterfront, leaving 70,000-100,000 people homeless (60,000-75,000 Jews; varying reports).

Greece, Salonica, 1915-1917

File 110.2: Greece, Salonica, January-July 1918

Extent: 0.50 inch

Correspondence, cables (English, French) on needs, legal conditions, reconstruction in Salonica after destruction of 1917 fire.

Greece, Salonica, January-July 1918

File 110.3: Greece, Salonica, August-December 1918

Extent: 0.75 inch

Cables, correspondence on needs, legal conditions in Salonica after destruction of 1917 fire. Correspondence (September-October 1918) regarding a JDC representative (Hetty Goldman) to accompany Red Cross mission to Greece; Hetty Goldman field letters.

Greece, Salonica, August-December 1918

Record Group 4-8: Hungary

Series 1: Hungary: Administration

File 111: Hungary, General, 1915-1918

Extent: 0.15 inch

Miscellaneous correspondence on aid, including to Galician Jewish refugees.

Hungary, General, 1915-1918

Record Group 4-9: Latvia

Series 1: Latvia: Administration

File 112: Latvia, General, 1915-1916, 1918

Extent: 0.10 inch

Correspondence (English, German) on communal conditions, conditions in military prison camps; appeals for aid.

Latvia, General, 1915-1916, 1918

Record Group 4-10: Lithuania

Series 1: Lithuania: Administration

File 113: Lithuania, General, 1915-1918

Extent: 1 inch

Correspondence, reports (English, German), Judisches Hilfscomite meeting minutes on needs, conditions in Lithuania.

Lithuania, General, 1915-1918

Series 2: Lithuania: Organizations

File 114: Lithuania, Orgs., Board of United Synagogues, 1918

Extent: 0.10 inch

Receipt for remittance, report (German) on Lithuanian Jewish community.

Lithuania, Orgs., Board of United Synagogues, 1918

File 115: Lithuania, Kovno, 1918

Extent: 0.25 inch

Reports (English, handwritten German) on institutions that serve Jewish community and provide welfare, education, vocational services in Kovno.

Lithuania, Kovno, 1918

Series 3: Lithuania: Localities

File 116: Lithuania, Localities, P-W

Extent: 0.10 inch

Minimal materials (German) on Pren, Skaudvile, Wladislawiwo.

Lithuania, Localities, P-W

Record Group 4-11: Mesopotamia

Series 1: Mesopotamia: Organizations

File 117: Mesopotamia, Orgs., Alliance Israelite Universelle, 1918

Extent: 0.10 inch

Letter seeking aid for Alliance Israelite Universelle (AIU) school that was relocated to Basra from Baghdad after the British occupation.

Mesopotamia, Orgs., Alliance Israelite Universelle, 1918

Series 2: Mesopotamia:Localities

File 118: Mesopotamia, Baghdad, 1917-1919

Extent: 0.50 inch

Cables, correspondence on efforts to send aid to Baghdad community; receipts, letters of acknowledgement.

Mesopotamia, Baghdad, 1917-1919

File 119: Ober Ost, General, 1917-1918

Extent: 0.50 inch

Reports on communal conditions and needs; data on aid to institutions. Miscellaneous on distribution, logistics.

Ober Ost, General, 1917-1918

Record Group 4-12: Palestine

Series 1: Palestine: Subject Matter

File 120.1: Palestine, Relief Supplies Reports, 1914-1916

Extent: 0.25 inch

Statistical reports (English, French, Hebrew) on distribution of relief supplies for Palestine.

Palestine, Relief Supplies Reports, 1914-1916

File 123: Palestine, Medical Supplies, USS Sterling, 1916-1918

Extent: 0.75 inch

Correspondence, cables on acquisition, shipping, warehousing of medical supplies; materials on logistics, blockade of Mediterranean.

Palestine, Medical Supplies, USS Sterling, 1916-1918

File 124: Palestine, American Zionist Medical Unit, 1917-1919

Extent: 0.75 inch

Correspondence, reports on medical conditions, disease, need for medical unit, personnel. Miscellaneous on fund-raising, financing.

Palestine, American Zionist Medical Unit, 1917-1919

File 125: Palestine, Relief Supplies, Vulcan Committee, 1915-1917

Extent: 0.33 inch

Report, financial statements (handwritten, probably by Loeb and Troper) on audit of operations in 1915 of Vulcan Committee in Jerusalem; history of committee, principles for distribution, problems with military authorities.

Palestine, Relief Supplies, Vulcan Committee, 1915-1917

File 126: Palestine, Select Committee for the Relief of Jews in Palestine, 1917-1918

Extent: 0.25 inch

Correspondence, cables (many from diplomats) regarding relief, prospects for aid to Palestine under British military. Report on history of committee, changes in mission, structure after arrival of British.

Palestine, Select Committee for the Relief of Jews in Palestine, 1917-1918

Series 2: Palestine: Administration

File 120.2: Palestine, General, 1914

Extent: 0.15 inch

Cables, correspondence on distribution of relief to Jews in Palestine and Alexandria

Palestine, General, 1914

File 120.3: Palestine, General, 1915

Extent: 1 inch

Cables, correspondence (English, German) on distribution of relief to Jews in Palestine and Alexandria, including supplies on USS Vulcan. A. Thomas Gelat report (May 10, 1915) on distribution of relief supplies to Christian communities in Jerusalem.

Palestine, General, 1915

File 120.4: Palestine, General, January-June 1916

Extent: 0.80 inch

Correspondence (English, German, Hebrew) on distribution of relief to Jews in Palestine; receipts. Miscellaneous grievances, appeals for aid.

Palestine, General, January-June 1916

File 120.5: Palestine, General, July-December 1916

Extent: 1 inch

Correspondence (English, German, Hebrew) on distribution of relief to Jews in Palestine; receipts, data on needy population.

Palestine, General, July-December 1916

File 120.6: Palestine, General, January-July 1917

Extent: 0.75 inch

Correspondence, reports (English, German, French) on needs, distribution of relief to Jews in Palestine. Materials on reports of expulsion of Jews from Jaffa.

Palestine, General, January-July 1917

File 120.7: Palestine, General, August-December 1917

Extent: 1 inch

Correspondence, reports on needs, distribution of relief to Jews in Palestine, problems with transmissions due to wartime conditions.

Palestine, General, August-December 1917

File 120.8: Palestine, General, January-March 1918

Extent: 0.80 inch

Correspondence, reports on needs, distribution of relief to Jews in Palestine. Demographic summary of Jews in Jerusalem (March 1918)

Palestine, General, January-March 1918

File 120.9: Palestine, General, April-May 1918

Extent: 1 inch

Correspondence, reports (English, German) on relief to Jews in Palestine, Zionist Commission.

Palestine, General, April-May 1918

File 120.10: Palestine, General, June-September 1918

Extent: 1.25 inches

Correspondence, reports on needs, distribution of relief to Jews in Palestine; appeals for aid.

Palestine, General, June-September 1918

File 120.11: Palestine, General, October-December 1918

Extent: 1 inch

Correspondence, reports on needs; appeals for aid. Reports, financial statements on distribution of relief to Jews in Palestine.

Palestine, General, October-December 1918

File 120.12: Palestine, General, 1919

Extent: 0.10 inch

Miscellaneous correspondence, reports on activities.

Palestine, General, 1919

File 122: Palestine, Jerusalem, 1918

Extent: 0.25 inch

Zionist Commission Relief Department’s narrative and statistical reports on population, institutions, relief supplies, children, employment.

Palestine, Jerusalem, 1918

Series 3: Palestine: Organizations

File 121: Palestine, Orgs.: Central Evacuation Committee, 1917-1918

Extent: 0.25 inch

Reports (English, German, French; circulars, summary of circulars) of needs of Jews uprooted by military decrees, including transport, maintenance, relief, employment. Summary (French) of relief accounts.

Palestine, Orgs.: Central Evacuation Committee, 1917-1918

Record Group 4-13: Persia

Series 1: Persia: Administration

File 127: Persia, General, 1918-1919

Extent: 0.20 inch

Cables, correspondence, report (English, French) on communal needs, transmission of relief.

Persia, General, 1918-1919

Series 2: Persia: Localities

File 128: Persia, Uramiah, 1917-1918

Extent: 0.15 inch

Correspondence regarding needs, remittance from Chicago Jews to community in Uramiah, after report of destruction by Russia.

Persia, Uramiah, 1917-1918

Record Group 4-14: Poland

Series 1: Poland: Administration

File 129.1: Poland, General, 1915

Extent: 0.20 inch

Correspondence, appeals for funds for Poland under German occupation. Report (German) on relief.

Poland, General, 1915

File 129.2: Poland, General, January-August 1916

Extent: 1 inch

Correspondence, reports (English, German) on needs, relief distribution, communal and political conditions in Poland under different occupations. Lewin-Epstein memo (June 1, 1916) assailing Hilfverein, Hilfscomite.

Poland, General, January-August 1916

File 129.3: Poland, General, September-December 1916

Extent: 0.50 inch

Correspondence, reports (English, German) on needs, remittances, relief distribution, communal conditions in Poland, Lithuania.

Poland, General, September-December 1916

File 129.4: Poland, General, 1917

Extent: 1 inch

Correspondence, reports on needs, relief distribution, communal and political conditions in Poland under different occupations.

Poland, General, 1917

File 129.5: Poland, General, 1918

Extent: 1 inch

Correspondence, reports on needs, relief distribution, legal and political conditions in Poland under different occupations.

Poland, General, 1918

File 138: Poland, Queries, 1917-1918

Extent: 0.10 inch

Correspondence (some handwritten) appealing for assistance.

Poland, Queries, 1917-1918

Series 2: Poland: Localities

File 130: Poland, Biala, 1951

Extent: 0.10 inch

One memo (German, unsigned) on Biala.

Poland, Biala, 1951

File 131: Poland, Bialystok, 1918

Extent: 0.10 inch

Reports (English, German) on workers’ and children’s kitchens, nursery, schools

Poland, Bialystok, 1918

File 133: Poland, Ciechanowiec

Extent: 0.10 inch

Memos (German, unsigned, undated) on Ciechanowiec.

Poland, Ciechanowiec

File 134: Poland, Cracow, 1918-1919

Extent: 0.15 inch

Memos (German, English) on conditions, needs in Cracow, end of aid after disintegration of Austrian empire.

Poland, Cracow, 1918-1919

File 135: Poland, G-O, 1915-1919

Extent: 0.50 inch

Correspondence, reports (English, German, Polish) on local conditions, appeals, aid in various locations. Printed matter: Booklet (Polish; appears to review relief activities, possibly in Lwow).

Poland, G-O, 1915-1919

File 137: Poland, P, 1915, 1918

Extent: 0.15 inch

Miscellaneous (English, German) on local conditions, appeals, aid in various locations.

Poland, P, 1915, 1918

File 139: Poland, R-S, 1915-1916

Extent: 0.15 inch

Miscellaneous (English, German) on local conditions, appeals in various locations.

Poland, R-S, 1915-1916

File 140: Poland, Vilna, 1916-1918

Extent: 0.33 inch

Reports (English, German) on local institutions, needs. List on institutions in Vilna for which food was purchased (January 1918).

Poland, Vilna, 1916-1918

File 141: Poland, Warsaw, 1916, 1918

Extent: 0.33 inch

Narrative and financial reports (English, German) on poverty, local needs, relief. Miscellaneous on construction of trade school.

Poland, Warsaw, 1916, 1918

Series 3: Poland: Subject Matter

File 132.1: Poland, Children and Education, 1916-1917

Extent: 0.50 inch

Correspondence on needs of, aid to children in all schools; miscellaneous on remittances.

Poland, Children and Education, 1916-1917

File 132.2: Poland, Children and Education, 1918

Extent: 1.33 inches

Reports (English, German) on general, vocational, religious and adult education, schools. Reports on orphanages.

Poland, Children and Education, 1918

File 136: Poland, Persecution and Pogroms, 1918-1919

Extent: 0.50 inch

Correspondence, cables (English, German, French) on persecution and pogroms.

Poland, Persecution and Pogroms, 1918-1919

Record Group 4-15: Romania

Series 1: Romania: Administration

File 142: Romania, General, 1916-1919

Extent: 1 inch

Correspondence, reports on needs, persecution, increased JDC activity, disruptions by war.

Romania, General, 1916-1919

Record Group 4-16: Russia

Series 1: Russia: Administration

File 143.1: Russia, General, 1914-1915

Extent: 0.50 inch

Correspondence, reports, financial statements on aid, appeals for aid. Excerpts of newspaper reports on communal and civic conditions.

Russia, General, 1914-1915

File 143.2: Russia, General, 1916

Extent: 1.25 inches

Correspondence, reports, financial statements (English, Russian) regarding aid. Excerpts of newspaper reports on communal and civic conditions.

Russia, General, 1916

File 143.3: Russia, General, 1917

Extent: 1 inch

Correspondence, reports, financial statements (English, Russian) regarding communal conditions, civil rights, relief.

Russia, General, 1917

File 143.4: Russia, General, 1918-1919

Russia, General, 1918-1919

Extent: 1.25 inches

Correspondence, reports, (English, Russian) regarding communal and civil conditions, legal rights, efforts to provide relief. Minutes of committee appointed (May 1918) regarding relief to Russia and occupied territories.

Series 2: Russia: Subject Matter

File 144: Russia, Relief Supplies, Clothing, 1918-1919

Extent: 0.40 inch

Correspondence, cables on logistics, licenses, shipments of clothing to Siberia.

Russia, Relief Supplies, Clothing, 1918-1919

File 146: Russia, Persecution and Pogroms, 1916, 1918

Extent: 0.15 inch

Correspondence and cables (English, German) on persecution and pogroms.

Russia, Persecution and Pogroms, 1916, 1918

File 147: Russia, Refugee Rabbis, 1916-1918

Extent: 0.20

Correspondence, appeals for aid for refugee rabbis.

Russia, Refugee Rabbis, 1916-1918

Series 3: Russia: Localities

File 145: Russia, K, M, 1917-1918

Extent: 0.10 inch

Miscellaneous (English, German) on local conditions, appeals.

Russia, K, M, 1917-1918

Record Group 4-17: Serbia

Series 1: Serbia: Administration

File 148: Serbia, General, 1917-1919

Extent: 0.33 inch

Correspondence on communal needs, aid.

Serbia, General, 1917-1919

Series 2: Serbia: Subject Matter

File 149: Serbia, Monastir, 1916-1919

Extent: 0.25 inch

Correspondence on communal needs, aid (distributed through Salonica).

Serbia, Monastir, 1916-1919

Record Group 4-18: Switzerland

Series 1: Switzerland: Administration

File 150: Switzerland, Orgs: Society of Roumanian Jews Established in Switzerland, 1916

Extent: 0.10 inch

Proposals from Romanian Jews in Switzerland for aid for prisoners of war.

Switzerland, Orgs: Society of Roumanian Jews Established in Switzerland, 1916

Record Group 4-19: Syria

Series 1: Syria: Administration

File 151: Syria, General, 1916-1919

Extent: 0.75 inch

Correspondence (English, French) on aid, relief supplies, logistics of providing aid.

Syria, General, 1916-1919

Series 2: Syria: Localities

File 152: Syria, Aleppo, 1915-1917

Extent: 0.20 inch

Correspondence (English, French) on remittances, relief and currency exchange.

Syria, Aleppo, 1915-1917

File 153: Syria, Damascus, 1916-1918

Extent: 0.20 inch

Correspondence (English, French) on remittances, logistical delays owing to war.

Syria, Damascus, 1916-1918

Record Group 4-20: Turkey

Series 1: Turkey: Administration

File 154.1: Turkey, General, 1915-1916

Extent: 1.25 inches

Correspondence, reports (English, French) on remittances, aid for Ottoman Jews outside of Palestine. Miscellaneous financial statements.

Turkey, General, 1915-1916

File 154.2: Turkey, General, 1917-1918

Extent: 1.25 inches

Correspondence, reports (English, French) on remittances, soup kitchens, deteriorating conditions for Ottoman Jews, including those in northern Palestine. Miscellaneous on remittances, needs in Baghdad.

Turkey, General, 1917-1918

Series 2: Turkey: Localities

File 155: Turkey, Smyrna, 1916

Extent: 0.15 inch

Miscellaneous (English, German, French) on communal needs, fire.

Turkey, Smyrna, 1916

Finding aid prepared by Rose Klepfisz and revised by Marilyn Henry with the assistance of a grant from Marshall Weinberg in Marilyn's honor.

Digitization of this collection was made possible with funding from the Polonsky Foundation.

Archives of The American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee, Inc.

Email: archives@jdc.org