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JDC New York Office Records, 1933 – 1944 | Organizations

Subcollection 2: Organizations
Record Group 2.1: Relations with U.S. Government
File 192: Organizations: U.S. Government, General, 1941 - 1946
Memos of discussions on a range of problems with U.S. Government officials in Washington and with Red Cross officials, by M.A. Leavitt, J.C. Hyman, J.J. Schwartz, and E.M.M. Warburg, 5/16/41, 12/4/41, 2/9/42, 3/4/42, 8/26/42, 2/18/43, 6/7/43, 10/25/44, 8/30/45, 8/27/46, 10/23/46.
Index Terms:
Hyman, Joseph C.
Leavitt, M. A.
Schwartz, J. J.
U.S. Government
Warburg, Edward M. M.
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File 193: Organizations: U.S Government, State Department, General, 1930 - 1944
The U.S. Embassy in Berlin stated it will render all proper assistance should the need arise (following Hitler's rise to power) to aid the JDC European Office in Berlin, 3/23/33, 3/27/33, 4/4/33. The JDC officially registered with the State Department under the Neutrality Act to permit the remittance of relief funds for use in countries at war, 9/13/39 -12/20/39. Correspondence: C. Adler, P. Baerwald, I. Coons, P.E. Hoffman, J.C. Hyman, M.J. Kohler, E.D. Kuppinger, M.A. Leavitt, Breckinridge Long, H.L. Lurie, E.M. Morrissey, Robert D. Murphy, J.P. Nathan, Wm. Phillips, J.N. Rosenberg, F.M. Warburg, Sumner Welles, C.W. Yost.
Index Terms:
Adler, Cyrus
Baerwald, Paul
Berlin
Coons, I.
Hoffman, P. E.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Kohler, M. J.
Kuppinger, E. D.
Leavitt, M. A.
Long, Breckinridge
Lurie, H. L.
Morrissey, Evelyn M.
Murphy, Robert D.
Nathan, J. P.
Phillips, William
Rosenberg, James N.
U.S. Government
Warburg, Felix M.
Welles, Sumner
Yost, C. W.
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File 194: Organizations: U.S. Government, State Department, Reports, 1939 September - 1940 February
The JDC submitted monthly reports to the State Department under the provisions of the Neutrality Act between September 1939 - August 1942. Thereafter, the War Relief Control Board administered this activity. The State Department in turn issued periodic lists of organizations registered under the Act and the files contain those issued on the following dates: 9/14/39, 1/30/40, 4/27/40.
Index Terms:
U.S. Government
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File 195: Organizations: U.S. Government, State Department, Reports, 1940 March - 1942 August
The JDC submitted monthly reports to the State Department under the provisions of the Neutrality Act between September 1939 - August 1942. Thereafter, the War Relief Control Board administered this activity. The State Department in turn issued periodic lists of organizations registered under the Act and the files contain those issued on the following dates: 9/14/39, 1/30/40, 4/27/40.
Index Terms:
U.S. Government
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File 196: Organizations: U.S. Government, Treasury Department, 1943
In June 1943, the U.S. Treasury Department issued Public Circular #22 ordering all persons subject to U.S. jurisdiction to file an inventory of assets owned by them in foreign countries as of 5/31/43. The JDC thereupon submitted a Census of Property in Foreign Countries including detailed property reports for individual JDC offices abroad.
Index Terms:
U.S. Government
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File 197: Organizations: U.S. Government, Office of Censorship, 1944
Correspondence and addenda.
Index Terms:
U.S. Government
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File 198: Organizations: U.S. Government, War Refugee Board (WRB), 1944
On 1/22/44, the U.S. Government created a special agency, the WRB, to aid in the tasks of rescue from Nazi occupied countries. It remained in operation until 9/15/45. In 1944, Ira A. Hirschmann was appointed the WRB representative in Turkey. For additional materials on the WRB and its operation, see: SM Archives, File 22. Preliminary report by I.A. Hirschmann on WRB activities in Turkey from 6/8/44 - 8/19/44 attachment to 9/11/44. See also: AR4564.4660, 4661 for most 1944 WRB material.
Index Terms:
Hirschmann, Ira A.
Turkey
U.S. Government
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Record Group 2.2: NGOs, Non-Governmental Organizations
File 199: Organizations: NGOs, General
Important International Jewish Organizations, November 1933 attachment to Aide Memoire 11/3/33.World Refugee Organizations, JDC Paris, July 1937.The Jewish Organizations, The Hague 1939, pamphlet. American Philanthropies 1914 - 1938 (non-Jewish), JDC NY, 1/26/42.Possibilities for the Selection of Persons for Overseas Settlements From Among the Population in Central and Eastern Europe and Among the Refugees in the European Countries of Refuge, by Dr. Bernhard Kahn, 1/8/40. The report is a roundup of key personnel and organizations participating in Jewish refugee activities in European countries.
Index Terms:
Kahn, Dr. Bernhard
Paris
Refugees
World Refugee Organizations
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Series 1: Organizations: NGOs, Alliance Israelite Universelle, Paris
File 200: Organizations: NGOs, Alliance Israelite Universelle, Paris, 1939 - 1944
The Alliance was established at Paris in 1860 to aid in defending civil rights of Jews everywhere against discrimination. By the 1890's, Jewish education became its principal activity; most notably in the Turkish Empire and North Africa, where it supported a network of Jewish schools. The Nazi occupation of France in W.W.II. cut communications between the Alliance and its schools in North Africa and the Near East. In the U.S., the Friends of the Alliance had formed small branches in earlier years, to aid in supporting Alliance schools, but their efforts came to little until the fall of France. In 1941, and running throughout the war years, the Friends collected small sums which the JDC forwarded on their behalf to Alliance schools in Iran, Palestine, Syria and Tangiers. From September 1943 until the close of 1944, the JDC forwarded allocations of its own to the schools in Teheran in the sum of $1,000 per month. It also sent $1,000 per month for school feeding at the Tangiers school. In 1944, the JDC forwarded $40,250 in support of the Alliance schools in Morocco and Tunis. On the Alliance and the JDC, see: 3/18/41, 4/17/42, 12/24/42, 1/21/44, 2/4/44, 3/24/44.Reports on Alliance Schools: Tangiers 7/14/43, 9/26/44; Iran 7/3/43, 7/21/43, 11/30/43; Rabat 2/15/43. Correspondence: R. Blank, H.K. Buchman, J. Cohen, H. Gamse, M. Gottschalk, F.E. Hahn Jr., J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, N. Katz, H. Katzki, M.A. Leavitt, E.M. Morrissey, M.C. Troper, H. Viteles.
Index Terms:
Alliance Israelite Universelle
Blank, R.
Buchman, H. K.
Cohen, J.
Education, Jewish
France
Gamse, H.
Gottschalk, Max
Hahn, F. E. Jr.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Iran
Kahn, Dr. Bernhard
Katz, Nathan
Katzki, Herbert
Leavitt, M. A.
Morocco
Morrissey, Evelyn M.
North Africa
Palestine
Paris
Syria
Tangiers
Troper, Morris C.
Tunis
Viteles, Harry
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Series 2: Organizations: NGOs, Alvin Corporation
In 1939, the Alvin Corporation (President: Dr. Alvin Johnson, President of the New School for Social Research) established a small non-sectarian refugee settlement near Wilmington, N.C. (Van Eden), to engage in truck and dairy farming. The initial capital was $65,000. Dr. Johnson raised one-half of it from private investors and the REC/ECF contributed the other half; management was conducted jointly. The undertaking had its ups and downs, but it was not a success, notwithstanding the long and devoted efforts expended by Dr. Johnson and the REC/ECF. Within a few years, most of the settlers abandoned the undertaking when they found themselves unable to make ends meet without periodic money transfusions from the REC/ECF.
Index Terms:
Alvin Corporation
Johnson, Dr. Alvin
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File 200a: Organizations: NGOs, Alvin Corporation, 1938 - 1940
Index Terms:
Alvin Corporation
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File 200b: Organizations: NGOs, Alvin Corporation, 1941
Index Terms:
Alvin Corporation
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File 200c: Organizations: NGOs, Alvin Corporation, 1942 - 1950
Index Terms:
Alvin Corporation
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Series 3: Organizations: NGOs, AMBIJAN (American Committee for Settlement of Jews in Birobidjan)
File 201: Organizations: NGOs, AMBIJAN, 1933 - 1950
In 1928 the Soviet Government set aside the territory of Birobidjan in eastern Siberia as an autonomous region for Jewish settlement, and in 1934 labeled it a "Jewish autonomous territory." In the latter year, the American Committee for the Settlement of Jews in Birobidjan (AMBIJAN) was organized to promote the settlement of Jews in that territory and notably of non-Russian Jews. Earlier, the JDC had taken a negative position to the new region, yet the need to find new homes for Jewish refugees prompted it to restudy resettlement prospects there. But the projects proposed by AMBIJAN came to nothing over the years, and the JDC held aloof, then and later. For additional materials also see: Archives 1921 - 1933, Files 513-514a. Correspondence, memos, reports, addenda. Relations between the AMBIJAN and the JDC: 2/18/35, 4/5/35, 4/30/35, 5/6/35, 10/4/35, 8/11/35, 9/21/36, 3/10/37, 6/7/37, 12/21/39, 5/10/44, 5/11/44, 5/17/44, 10/12/45, 3/28/47 - 8/8/47, 9/2/47.Reports: AMBIJAN, by CJFWF, 7/30/36, January 1945.Correspondence: C. Adler, S. Arons, P. Baerwald, J. Billikopf, H.K. Buchman, J.M. Budish, W.W. Cohen, J.C. Hyman, A. Kahn, M.A. Leavitt, H.L. Lurie, E.M. Morrissey, R. Pilpel, J.A. Rosen, J.N. Rosenberg, L.H. Sobel.
Index Terms:
AMBIJAN (American Committee for Settlement of Jews in Birobidjan
Adler, Cyrus
Arons, S.
Baerwald, Paul
Billikopf, Jacob
Birobidjan
Buchman, H. K.
Budish, J. M.
Cohen, W. W.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Kahn, Alexander
Leavitt, M. A.
Lurie, H. L.
Morrissey, Evelyn M.
Pilpel, Robert
Refugees
Rosen, Joseph A.
Rosenberg, James N.
Siberia
Sobel, L. H.
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Series 4: Organizations: NGOs, American Committee for Christian Refugees
American Christian Committee for German Refugees (1934). American Committee for Christian German Refugees (1937). American Committee for Christian Refugees (1944). The Committee was established in 1934, by the National Conference on Jews and Christians to aid Christian refugees in need who fled Germany. Beneficiaries were Protestants, in the main, since a comparable organization for Catholic refugees was formed soon after. The Committee underwent a number of name changes in the years that followed, as outlined above. The Committee received funds from churches and individuals at first, and then from labor groups as well. Between 1934 - 1941, the Committee found itself pinched for funds at times, and the JDC came to its rescue every year with loans. The loans were all repaid. Between 1942 - 1944, the pinch relaxed when the National War Fund became the predominant source of funds. In those years, the Committee aided Christian refugees in Shanghai, as well as in Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti and Venezuela, via JDC representatives and committees on the spot. The relationship between the JDC and the Committee was a cordial and a continuing one over the years.
Index Terms:
American Christian Committee for German Refugees
American Committee for Christian German Refugees
American Committee for Christian Refugees
Cuba
Dominican Republic
Germany
Haiti
Refugees
Shanghai
Venezuela
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File 202: Organizations: NGOs, American Committee for Christian Refugees, 1934 - 1938
Minutes: 3/16/34, 6/1/34, 11/5/34, 5/16/35. Treasurer's Report for 1934, 1/29/35, 2/21/35. Narrative report on status of non-Jewish German refugees, F. Ritchie, 10/5/35.Publications: "Plight of the Refugees Coming Out of Germany", April 1934; "Twelve Questions Answered", November 1935; "National Appeal of the Committee", 10/6/36.. Correspondence: R.A. Ashworth, S.P. Cadman, I. Coons, J.C. Hyman, H.S. Leiper, James G. McDonald, F. Ritchie.
Index Terms:
American Christian Committee for German Refugees
American Committee for Christian German Refugees
American Committee for Christian Refugees
Ashworth, R. A.
Cadman, S. P.
Coons, I.
Germany
Hyman, Joseph C.
Leiper, H. S.
McDonald, James G.
Refugees
Ritchie, F.
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File 203: Organizations: NGOs, American Committee for Christian Refugees, 1939 - 1947
Activities of the Committee by F.R. Adlerstein, 11/1/40. The Committee agreed to reimburse JDC Committees in Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti and Venezuela for expenditures in aid of Christian refugees, 2/11/43, 5/19/43 (2), 6/7/43 and attachments. Publications: "Modern Christian - German Martyrs", July 1937; "Something Worse than Murder is Happening Now While You Read", January 1940; "American Committee for Christian Refugees", February 1940; "Our Story for 1940", February 1941; "Toward a New Life", 1945. Correspondence: F.R. Adlerstein, A. Benneyan, O. Gurfinkel, J.C. Hyman, C. Jordan, H. Katzki, J.B. Lightman, R. Pilpel, F. Ritchie, L.R. Robinson, J. Siebold, J.M. Speers, K.B. Woodruff.
Index Terms:
Adlerstein, F. R.
American Christian Committee for German Refugees
American Committee for Christian German Refugees
American Committee for Christian Refugees
Benneyan, A.
Cuba
Dominican Republic
Gurfinkel, O.
Haiti
Hyman, Joseph C.
Jordan, Charles H.
Katzki, Herbert
Lightman, J. B.
Pilpel, Robert
Refugees
Ritchie, F.
Robinson, L. R.
Siebold, J.
Speers, James M.
Venezuela
Woodruff, K. B.
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Series 5: Organizations: NGOs, American Committee for Emigre Scholars, Writers and Artists
File 203a: Organizations: NGOs, American Committee for Emigre Scholars, Writers and Artists
The Committee was created in March, 1945 to aid refugee scholars, writers and artists in finding places in American life. Aid granted by the Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced German Scholars ended in 1945, and by the NRS and the American Christian Committee for Refugees in 1946. In 1948/9, the Refugee Assistance Fund granted $3,500 in aid of a budget of some $30,000, and the Committee placed 44 scholars in teaching or research posts, and granted 9 scholarships for graduate studies. Reports: 1/15/49, 1949-1950 (March);Placement Reports: 1946/47-1949.
Index Terms:
American Committee for Emigre Scholars, Writers and Artists
Refugees
Scholars and Teachers
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Series 6: Organizations: NGOs, American Federation of Jews from Central Europe
File 204: Organizations: NGOs, American Federation of Jews from Central Europe
The Federation was established in 1941 with the aim of safeguarding in the United States the rights and interests of Jewish refugees from central Europe, and notably those seeking American citizenship. During the war years, the Federation often called upon the JDC for information bearing on refugees. In 1945, the JDC contributed $1,500 to the Federation to aid it in collecting evidence of assets belonging to former Jewish congregations and organizations in Germany. In 1948, the JDC contributed $6,000 to help in establishing the Individual Claims Organization, known thereafter as the United Restitution Office (URO). The URO aided Nazi victims in pressing their identification claims in Germany under Military Government Law, and the JDC allocation was transmitted via the Federation. JDC allocations also followed in 1949 and 1950. The Jewish Agency and the British Board of Deputies were co-contributors to the URO. Circular letters #13, 21-55 (some missing) on refugee problems, 1942-1944. Narrative reports: May-July 1943, June-October 1944. Correspondence: N. Aronovici, P. Baerwald, R. Callman, E. Fraenkel, M.B. Hexter, J.C. Hyman, H. Muller, E. Rock, H.E. Simon, L.H. Sobel, N. Stein.
Index Terms:
American Federation of Jews from Central Europe
Aronovici, Noel
Baerwald, Paul
Callman, R.
Fraenkel, E.
Germany
Hexter, M. B.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Muller, H.
Refugees
Rock, E.
Simon, H. E.
Sobel, L. H.
Stein, N.
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Series 7: Organizations: NGOs, American Friends Service Committee (AFSC)
The Friends are a Christian organization which has extended refugee relief over the years on non-sectarian principles. Collaboration between the Friends and the JDC has been close and cordial and dated back to W.W.I. Between 1920-1922, the JDC allocated $450,000 to the Friends for feeding programs in Germany and Russia, and most notably for children. For additional data, see: Archives 1921-1932, File 91b.Following the rise of the Nazis, collaborations began afresh between the Friends and the JDC in dealing first with the plight of German Jews and later with Jews from Austria, Czechoslovakia and France. The collaboration was closest wherever relief activities could be conducted to the best effect under non-Jewish auspices, e.g. in Nazi occupied countries and in concentration camps. JDC allocations of $5,000 for 1933/34 were followed by $100,000 for 1939-40, and $9,500 for 1944, and went for the aid of persecutees, most notably those labeled by the Nazis as non-Aryan Christians. After the outbreak of war, close collaboration continued in unoccupied France and subsequently in Spain. Also see: 3/21/41 below, and Cuba, File 518.Clarence E. Pickett served as Executive Secretary between 1930-1950, and was succeeded by Lewis Hoskins.
Index Terms:
American Friends Service Committee (AFSC)
Austria
Children
Czechoslovakia
France
Germany
Hoskins, Lewis
Pickett, Clarence E.
Refugees
Spain
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File 205: Organizations: NGOs, American Friends Service Committee (AFSC), 1933 - 1939 June
The JDC allocated $2,500 each for 1933 and 1934 to aid AFSC relief activities, 11/29/33, 4/12/34. The AFSC requested $500,000 to aid its activities in Germany, 1/20/39. The JDC allocated to the AFSC $100,000 for 1939 and 1940, 1/20/39-2/14/39, 4/19/39, also see: File 206 below, 8/31/39, 11/9/39 Hyman to Pickett, 11/24/39, 9/24/40. Statements of activities by the AFSC: attachment to 10/31/33, 11/13/33 memo, 4/25/34, 6/12/34, 3/24/39, 6/28/39.Publications: "Creative Experience in International Relations", 1935;"Annual Report 1938". Correspondence: C. Adler, P. Baerwald, W.R. Hughes, J.C. Hyman, A. Jaretzki, Jr., B. Kahn, H. Katzki, G.L. MacMaster, J.G. McDonald, E.M. Morrissey, C.E. Pickett, M.C. Troper, J.G. Vail, F.M. Warburg.
Index Terms:
Adler, Cyrus
American Friends Service Committee (AFSC)
Baerwald, Paul
Germany
Hughes, W. R.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Jaretzki, A.
Kahn, Dr. Bernhard
Katzki, Herbert
MacMaster, G. L.
McDonald, James G.
Morrissey, Evelyn M.
Pickett, Clarence E.
Troper, Morris C.
Vail, J. G.
Warburg, Felix M.
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File 206: Organizations: NGOs, American Friends Service Committee (AFSC), 1939 July - 1940
The Nazi Government invited the AFSC to distribute relief in Poland to Poles only, but the Friends refused unless it were non-sectarian, 10/26/39 memo by I. Rosen. Statements of activities by the AFSC: 7/1/39 attachment to 7/29/39, 9/1/39, 8/21/40.Publications: "Refugee Facts", 1940; "AFSC Bulletins on Relief in France" #1-18, 8/1/40-12/12/40 (some omissions). Also see: Italy, File 719, 7/22/40, 7/23/40. Correspondence: Wm. Eves, M. Frawley, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, H.E. Kershner, M.A. Leavitt, J.J. Schwartz, M.C. Troper.
Index Terms:
American Friends Service Committee (AFSC)
Eves, William
France
Frawley, M.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Kahn, Dr. Bernhard
Kershner, H. E.
Leavitt, M. A.
Poland
Refugees
Rosen, I.
Schwartz, J. J.
Troper, Morris C.
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File 207: Organizations: NGOs, American Friends Service Committee (AFSC), 1941 - 1942
American Friends Service Committee (AFSC) Report on the Friends' activities in Italy, 1/4/41.Publications: "Latin American Refugee Fund", 1942; "Annual Report 1942": "Bulletins on Relief in France" #20-46, 1/21/41-10/16/42 (some omissions). Correspondence: F.R. Adlerstein, P. Baerwald, J.C. Hyman, C.H. Jordan, M.A. Leavitt, R. Pilpel, M.P. Schauffler, M.C. Troper, J.G. Vail, H. Wriggins.
Index Terms:
Adlerstein, F. R.
Baerwald, Paul
France
Hyman, Joseph C.
Jordan, Charles H.
Latin America
Leavitt, M. A.
Pilpel, Robert
Schauffler, M. P.
Troper, Morris C.
Vail, J. G.
Wriggins, H.
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File 208: Organizations: NGOs, American Friends Service Committee (AFSC), 1943 - 1944
The JDC agreed to shoulder two-thirds of the administrative costs of the Friends' office in Madrid, 3/29/44, 4/4/44.Publications: "Under the Red and Black Star", 2/25/43; "Recent Relief Programs of the American Friends in Spain and France", August 1943; "Bulletins on Relief in France", #48-53, 1/8/43-2/17/44; "General Relief Bulletin", #1-14, 2/1/43-3/27/44 (some omissions). Correspondence: P. Baerwald, D. Blickenstaff, H.K. Buchman, L.O. Heath, J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt, R. McClelland, C.E. Pickett, M.P. Schauffler, J.G. Vail, H. Wriggins.
Index Terms:
American Friends Service Committee (AFSC)
Baerwald, Paul
Blickenstaff, D.
Buchman, H. K.
France
Heath, L. O.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Leavitt, M. A.
Madrid
McClelland, R.
Pickett, Clarence E.
Schauffler, M. P.
Spain
Vail, J. G.
Wriggins, H.
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File 209: Organizations: NGOs, American Friends Service Committee (AFSC), 1945 - 1953
"Brotherhood in Action-a Record of the Cooperation of the JDC and the AFSC", by F.F. Sandmel, attachment to 10/17/45.Reports: Spain-Activities of the Madrid Office During 1944, 2/28/45; Periodic Summary No. 5, December 1946; Annual Report 1946. Correspondence: D. Blickenstaff, L.K. Cleveland, M.A. Leavitt, C.E. Pickett, J.F. Rich.
Index Terms:
American Friends Service Committee (AFSC)
Blickenstaff, D.
Cleveland, L. K.
Leavitt, M. A.
Madrid
Pickett, Clarence E.
Rich, J. F.
Sandmel, F. F.
Spain
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Series 8: Organizations: NGOs, American Jewish Committee (AJC)
File 210: Organizations: NGOs, American Jewish Committee (AJC)
The AJC was founded in 1906 with the aim of safeguarding the civil, religious and legal rights of Jews wherever they were in jeopardy and to aid in combating the effects upon them of discrimination and persecution. In October 1914, the impact of World War I upon the Jews of Eastern Europe impelled the AJC to organize the American Jewish Relief Committee (AJRC), which became, in the war years, the major Jewish fund-raising agency in the U.S. The AJRC, together with the Central Relief Committee (CRC) and the People's Relief Committee (PRC) came to form the three constituent organizations of the JDC. Over the years the AJC and the JDC maintained a consultative and coordinating relationship but not a financial one. Leading AJC personalities and leading JDC personalities were often one and the same, in earlier years most notably. Louis Marshal, the AJC president from 1912 until his death in 1929, and Cyrus Adler, who followed him and served until his own death in 1940, were major JDC activists. In the course of W.W. II, the Executive Vice-Presidents of the two agencies often attended each other's Executive Committee meetings as guests, and consultations were frequent on topics of mutual interest, e.g., refugees. Correspondence, memos, reports and addenda. Correspondence: F.R. Adlerstein, H.D. Biele, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, M.A. Leavitt, J.B. Lightman, Wm. Rosenwald, H. Schneiderman, M.D. Waldman.
Index Terms:
Adler, Cyrus
Adlerstein, F. R.
American Jewish Committee (AJC)
Biele, H. D.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Kahn, Dr. Bernhard
Leavitt, M. A.
Lightman, J. B.
Refugees
Rosenwald, William
Schneiderman, H.
Waldman, M. D.
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Series 9: Organizations: NGOs, American Jewish Conference
File 211: Organizations: NGOs, American Jewish Conference
The Conference was founded in 1943 to make recommendations on the rescue of European Jewry, on the post-war needs of Jews in overseas countries and on implementing the rights of Jews pertaining to Palestine. The Conference held sessions in August/September 1943 and December 1944. The JDC did not affiliate itself on the ground that the Conference was a political organization, while the AJC withdrew its affiliation. The Conference discontinued its activities following the establishment of Israel. On the JDC and the Conference: 5/4/43-5/11/43 Baerwald to Levy, 5/12/43-5/17/43, 5/19/43, 8/2/43, 8/5/43, 8/12/43, 8/29/43 memo, 9/17/43, 10/27/43-11/14/43, 11/16/43-12/14/43, 1/24/44, 3/16/44, 8/31/44, 11/24/44, 12/22/44, 8/13/45. Call for the organization of the Conference and the Rules of Election, 4/23/43. Statement by the AJC upon its withdrawal from the Conference, 10/29/43. Publication: "The Conference Record" -1944: June, July, August, November, December -1945: March. Report on the Conference by the CJFWF, 8/18/43. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, J.H. Becker, B.A. Grebiner, I. Goldstein, S. Hollander, J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt, A.P. Lefton, A.H. Lieberman, J.M. Proskauer, J.N. Rosenberg, L.H. Sobel.
Index Terms:
American Jewish Conference
Baerwald, Paul
Becker, J. H.
Goldstein, I.
Grebiner, B. A.
Hollander, S.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Leavitt, M. A.
Lefton, A. P.
Lieberman, A. H.
Palestine
Proskauer, J. M.
Rosenberg, James N.
Sobel, L. H.
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Series 10: Organizations: NGOs, American Jewish Congress (Congress)
The Congress was established in 1917 with the aim of protecting Jewish rights the world over. In August 1936, the Congress became a prime mover in the organization of the World Jewish Congress (WJC). Up to that point, relations between the Congress and the JDC were cool but correct, but thereafter the same sources of friction developed as between the WJC and the JDC; see below: WJC, Files 346-348. For materials on earlier years, see: Archives 1921-1932, File 91b.Bernard Deutsch was President of the Congress from 1929-1935, and Stephen S. Wise from 1925-1929, and 1935-1945.
Index Terms:
American Jewish Congress (Congress)
Deutsch, Bernard
Wise, Rabbi Stephen S.
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File 212: Organizations: NGOs, American Jewish Congress (Congress), 1930 - 1939 October
On the Congress and the JDC: 6/14/35, 5/18/36-6/29/36, 12/22/36-12/24/36, 5/12/38, 10/31/38, 11/2/38, 12/8/38. The JDC response to the call by the Congress for an Emergency Conference, 9/21/39-10/25/39. Minutes of meetings between the JDC and the Congress representatives, 10/26/39, 10/31/39.Correspondence: F.R. Adlerstein, P. Baerwald, J.H. Becker, N.C. Belth, I. Coons, J.C. Hyman, L. Lipsky, J.N. Rosenberg, J.J. Schwartz, S.S. Wise.
Index Terms:
Adlerstein, F. R.
American Jewish Congress (Congress)
Baerwald, Paul
Becker, J. H.
Belth, N. C.
Coons, I.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Lipsky, Louis
Rosenberg, James N.
Schwartz, J. J.
Wise, Rabbi Stephen S.
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File 213: Organizations: NGOs, American Jewish Congress (Congress), 1939 November - 1945
On the Congress and the JDC: 12/1/39, 12/20/39, 2/2/40, 11/27/42, 3/16/43, 8/31/45-11/30/45. Congress memo calling for the broadening of the JDC's base of representation, and the JDC response thereto, 11/10/39-12/23/39.Publication: "Institute of Jewish Affairs", 1941. Correspondence: F.R. Adlerstein, P. Baerwald, H.K. Buchman, J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt, J.J. Schwartz, L.H. Sobel, S.S. Wise.
Index Terms:
Adlerstein, F. R.
American Jewish Congress (Congress)
Baerwald, Paul
Buchman, H. K.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Leavitt, M. A.
Schwartz, J. J.
Sobel, L. H.
Wise, Rabbi Stephen S.
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Series 11: Organizations: NGOs, American Palestine Campaign (APC)
File 214: Organizations: NGOs, American Palestine Campaign (APC)
The APC was established in 1931 as the fund-raising arm in the United States of the Jewish Agency for Palestine. Subsequently, it performed the same function for the Central Bureau for the Settlement of German Jews in Palestine. In 1934 and 1935, the JDC and the APC joined their fund-raising forces to form the UJA and negotiated annual agreements to embody the terms. Thereafter, the APC merged with the UPA. For UPA materials, see below: Files 340-341.Joint Campaign for 1934 discussed, 7/7/33-April 1934; also see: File 75, For the 1935 Campaign, see: File 76. Correspondence: C. Adler, P. Baerwald, I. Coons, J.C. Hyman, H. Katzki, L. Lipsky, H. Montor, S.S. Wise.
Index Terms:
Adler, Cyrus
American Palestine Campaign (APC)
Baerwald, Paul
Coons, I.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Katzki, Herbert
Lipsky, Louis
Montor, H.
Palestine
Wise, Rabbi Stephen S.
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Series 12: Organizations: NGOs, American Red Cross (ARC)
The ARC, a semi-governmental organization operating under a charter issued by the U.S. Congress, has extended emergency relief over the years on non-sectarian grounds. Collaboration between the ARC and the JDC dated back to the aftermath of W.W. I and was close and cordial. See: Archives 1921-1932, File 92. Collaboration began afresh following the Nazi invasion of Poland. In 1940, a special JDC allocation of $50,000 went to the ARC for the distribution of medical supplies among Polish Jews, but the Mediterranean shipping lane to Poland was cut in mid-year after Italy entered the war. In 1942, the ARC provided large quantities of food to the JDC-supported kitchen in Shanghai which fed many of the 21,000 refugees stranded in that city. In the course of the war, the JDC made large grants to the International Red Cross (IRC) at Geneva for aid to Nazi refugees in Europe and the Far East; see below: File 216, 2/23/44, and SM Archives, File 23. For other materials, also see above: File 192
Index Terms:
American Red Cross (ARC)
Geneva
Medical
Poland
Refugees
Shanghai
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File 215: Organizations: NGOs, American Red Cross (ARC), 1938 - 1940 May
On the ARC and the JDC: 9/25/39, 10/17/39, 10/23/39, 10/24/39, 11/25/39, 1/2/40, 2/23/40, 2/26/40, 3/4/40, 4/24/40, 4/26/40 Hyman to Davis, Minutes of Meeting of JDC administration Committee, 5/1/40, JDC Executive Committee, 5/22/40, JDC administration Committee, 5/22/40. Memo Levy to Regional Officers, 5/29/40. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, H.K. Buchman, Norman H. Davis, R. Gutstadt, J.C. Hyman, H. Katzki, H.L. Lurie, H. Maizlish, J.N. Rosenberg, J.J. Schwartz, M.C. Troper.
Index Terms:
American Red Cross (ARC)
Baerwald, Paul
Buchman, H. K.
Davis, Norman H.
Gutstadt, R.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Katzki, Herbert
Lurie, H. L.
Maizlish, H.
Rosenberg, James N.
Schwartz, J. J.
Troper, Morris C.
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File 216: Organizations: NGOs, American Red Cross (ARC), 1940 June - 1945
On the ARC and the JDC: 6/6/40, 6/10/40, 6/21/40, 12/17/41, 7/22/42, 8/28/42, 1/4/44, 1/24/44, 2/2/44, 2/23/44, 7/25/44.Publication: War Relief Abroad, 9/1/39-6/30/41. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, H.K. Buchman, Norman H. Davis, J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt, E.M. Morrissey, E.J. Swift, E.M.M. Warburg, J.B. Wise.
Index Terms:
American Red Cross (ARC)
Baerwald, Paul
Buchman, H. K.
Davis, Norman H.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Leavitt, M. A.
Morrissey, Evelyn M.
Swift, E. J.
Warburg, Edward M. M.
Wise, J. B.
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Series 13: Organizations: NGOs, B'nai Brith
File 217: Organizations: NGOs, B'nai Brith
The B'nai Brith, the oldest and largest Jewish fraternal and service organization in the U.S. (1843), has raised funds for Jewish victims of suffering abroad throughout its history. After 1933, it identified itself with efforts to alleviate the plight of Jewish refugees from central and eastern Europe but without restricting its efforts to any single large-scale program. The JDC aided the B'nai Brith in transmitting relief funds to Germany via its clearance arrangement. Over the years, the B'nai B'rith and the JDC maintained a consultative and coordinating relationship, most notably on problems bearing on refugees and fund-raising. The B'nai B'rith conducted its own fund-raising campaigns, and from the 1930's onwards, participated in joint fund-raising efforts with the AJC on behalf of their respective anti-defamation programs. Correspondence, memos, reports, addenda. Correspondence: F.A. Adlerstein, Alfred M. Cohen, I. Coons, E. Grusd, C. Horowitz, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, M.A. Leavitt, I.M. Rubinow, E.M.M. Warburg, J.B. Wise.
Index Terms:
Adlerstein, F. R.
B'nai Brith
Cohen, Alfred M.
Coons, I.
Germany
Grusd, E.
Horowitz, C.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Kahn, Dr. Bernhard
Leavitt, M. A.
Refugees
Rubinow, I. M.
Warburg, Edward M. M.
Wise, J. B.
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Series 14: Organizations: NGOs, Comite d'Entente
The formation of a Comite d'Entente was proposed in 1937, upon the initiative of Felix Warburg, to promote close cooperation and exchanges of information between Jewish philanthropic agencies dealing with world Jewish problems, and most notably in emigration and resettlement matters. Political organizations were not invited. The Comite held two meetings - in July and November /December 1937, and the participants included the JDC, the ICA, the HICEM, the Reichsvertretung der Juden in Deutschland, the Hilfsverein der Juden in Deutschland, the REC and the Refugees Committee London. Nothing more came of the plan.
Index Terms:
Comite d'Entente
Immigration and Emigration
London
Warburg, Felix M.
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File 218: Organizations: NGOs, Comite d'Entente, 1937
Minutes of the first meeting, 7/21/37-7/22/37.
Index Terms:
Comite d'Entente
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File 219: Organizations: NGOs, Comite d'Entente, 1937 - 1938
Minutes of the second meeting, 11/30/37-12/1/37. Reports on German-Jewish immigrants in Argentina, Brazil, Columbia, Peru and Uruguay and on activities in Poland, 12/11/37. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, M. Gottschalk, J.C. Hyman, N. Katz.
Index Terms:
Argentina
Baerwald, Paul
Brazil
Columbia
Comite d'Entente
Gottschalk, Max
Hyman, Joseph C.
Katz, Nathan
Peru
Poland
Uruguay
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Series 15: Organizations: NGOs, Coordinating Foundation
File 220: Organizations: NGOs, Coordinating Foundation
The Foundation was established in England on 8/1/39, as a secretariat agency, to aid private organizations in finding overseas territories suitable for refugee settlement. Discussions in earlier years (e.g. 1936) for setting up a Central Coordinating Committee in London came to nothing. Discussions leading to the organization of the Foundation began in April 1939. The JDC agreed to provide $1,000,000 in the hope that British and continental groups would participate as well. The hope was never realized. Differences of opinion between the U.S. and the British representatives impeded progress and agreement was reached only at the end of July. For data on the progress of those discussions, see: File 18, 6/5/39, 6/16/39, 7/17/39. The materials in this file deal with the discussions leading up to the establishment of the Foundation, April-July 1939. For the activities of the Foundation thereafter, see: DORSA Archives, Files 58-59.Note: Activities got under way in London in mid-August 1939, but the direction of them was switched to New York following the outbreak of war two weeks later. Also see below: IGCR, Files 255-256.JDC Executive Committee Minutes: 6/5/39, 6/16/39, 7/17/39. Minutes of the Inter-Organizational Steering Committee on the organization of the Foundation, 6/17/39. Establishment of the Foundation announced in London, 7/19/39. The JDC authorized payments to the Foundation of up to $1,000,000, 7/20/39 Minutes, Board of Directors. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, J.P. Chamberlain, A. Held, J.C. Hyman, A. Jaretzki Jr., H.L. Linder, J.M. Proskauer, J.N. Rosenberg, L.L. Strauss, M.M. Warburg.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, Paul
Chamberlain, J. P.
Coordinating Foundation
Held, Adolph
Hyman, Joseph C.
Jaretzki, A.
Linder, H. L.
London
Proskauer, J. M.
Refugees
Rosenberg, James N.
Strauss, L. L.
Warburg, Max M.
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Series 16: Organizations: NGOs, Council on Refugee Aid
File 221: Organizations: NGOs, Council on Refugee Aid
The Council, a non-sectarian group, was organized in 1941 at the call of a committee of notables headed by Eleanor Roosevelt, to launch a national program of education and publicity on refugee problems and needs. Refugee service agencies aided in the organization. Allen Wardwell was named Chairman of the Organizing Committee, and Paul Baerwald served as one of its active members. At the end of 1941, the Council transferred the direction of the national program to the American Committee for Christian Refugees and the American Friends Service Committee, acting jointly. Correspondence, minutes, reports, addenda. Correspondence: F. Aydelotte, P. Baerwald, Wm. Haber, J.C. Hyman, C.E. Pickett, Eleanor Roosevelt, R. Veatch.
Index Terms:
Aydelotte, F.
Baerwald, Paul
Baerwald, Paul
Haber, William
Hyman, Joseph C.
Pickett, Clarence E.
Refugees
Roosevelt, Eleanor
Roosevelt, Eleanor
Veatch, R.
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Series 17: Organizations: NGOs, Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars, N.Y.
Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced German Scholars, N.Y. (1933).Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars, N.Y. (1938). The Committee was formed in May 1933, upon the initiative of Felix Warburg, to aid displaced German scholars in obtaining university or other academic posts. Between 1933-1945 the Committee aided 288 scholars in obtaining such posts, and the majority gained permanent appointments in the U.S. They stemmed from Germany to begin with, and in later years also from Austria, Czechoslovakia, France, Belgium and Holland. Many were scholars of distinction and a number enjoyed international standing. In 1944, 15 beneficiaries were listed in the current Who's Who in America and 38 in American Men of Science. In 1943-1944, the Committee also aided 44 younger artists, writers and scholars of exceptional promise in gaining a foothold needed for professional advancement. In the 1940s, in addition, the Committee provided research fellowships to a select number of distinguished scholars, 58 years old or over, whose proximity to the age of retirement added to the difficulties of gaining appointments to university staffs. In earlier years, the beneficiaries were of Jewish descent in overwhelming degree (80-85%), and they predominated even after the Nazi annexations of Austria and Czechoslovakia and the fall of France. The funds expended by the Committee stemmed from Jewish sources, the JDC included, almost exclusively. But by unanimous agreement, the Committee decisions were non-sectarian and no distinctions were drawn between Jewish and non-Jewish scholars. Between 1933-1938, Committee expenditures reached $375,000 all told. Of that sum, $60,000 came from the JDC, $230,000 from the New York Foundation (established by Felix Warburg), $30,000 from the Hofheimer Foundation, and the rest from private contributors mostly. The JDC also advanced funds to the Committee to tide it over financially slack periods. The loans were all repaid. Between 1939-1941, needs soared and the bulk of the funds required stemmed from the National Coordinating Committee (NCC) or its successor organization, the National Refugee Service (NRS) and the Rosenwald Family Association. It should be noted that the JDC was the major contributor to the activities of the NCC (1934-1938, $450,000). The Committee officers were - Chairman: Dr. Livingston Farrand (President of Cornell University) from 1933 until his death in 1939; Secretary: Dr. Stephen Duggan (he succeeded Dr. Ferrand as Chairman); Treasurer: Fred M. Stein. For additional materials, see: NCC, Files 275-293; NRS, Files 300-314; Germany, Files 647-650; Venezuela, File 1,141.Also see: "The Rescue of Science and Learning - the Story of the Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars," by Stephen Duggan and Betty Drury, 214 pp, Macmillan, 1948.
Index Terms:
Austria
Belgium
Czechoslovakia
Drury, Betty
Duggan, Dr. Stephen
Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars, N.Y.
Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced German Scholars, N.Y.
Farrand, Dr. Livingston
France
Germany
Holland
Scholars and Teachers
Stein, Fred M.
Warburg, Felix M.
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File 222: Organizations: NGOs, Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars, N.Y., 1933 - 1937
Lists of displaced German scholars compiled by: Emergency Committee 1933, undated; B. Kahn, 8/15/33. Minutes of Meetings of Executive. Committee: 11/16/37. Annual Reports: 1/1/34, 2/1/35, 3/1/36, 5/1/37. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, E.M. Berliner, Wm. E. Dodd, James Franck, J.C. Hyman, A. Johnson, B. Kahn, J.B. Lightman, E.R. Murrow, E. Seligman, F.M. Stein, J. Whyte.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, Paul
Berliner, E. M.
Dodd, William E.
Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars, N.Y.
Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced German Scholars, N.Y.
Franck, James
Hyman, Joseph C.
Johnson, Dr. Alvin
Kahn, Dr. Bernhard
Lightman, J. B.
Murrow, E. R.
Scholars and Teachers
Seligman, Eustace
Stein, Fred M.
Whyte, J.
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File 222a: Organizations: NGOs, Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars, N.Y., 1938 - 1939 March
Minutes of Meetings or Agendas of Executive Committee: 1/5/38, 5/11/38, 6/6/38, 1/12/39, 2/3/39, 2/21/39, 3/23/39. Annual Reports: 12/1/38. Table of Committee Grantees, 2/14/38, 4/28/38. Correspondence: J. Billikopf, B. Drury, S. Duggan, B. Flexner, J.C. Hyman, H. Shapley, F.M. Stein.
Index Terms:
Billikopf, Jacob
Drury, Betty
Duggan, Dr. Stephen
Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars, N.Y.
Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced German Scholars, N.Y.
Flexner, B.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Scholars and Teachers
Shapley, H.
Stein, Fred M.
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File 222b: Organizations: NGOs, Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars, N.Y., 1939 April - June
Minutes of Executive Committee: 4/3/39, 5/9/39, 5/31/39. Minutes of Meeting of Emergency Committee and Foundations interested in refugee scholars, 4/28/39. Table of Committee Grantees, 5/3/39. Correspondence: A. Compton, B. Drury, S. Duggan, M. Fainberg, F.M. Stein.
Index Terms:
Compton, A.
Drury, Betty
Duggan, Dr. Stephen
Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars, N.Y.
Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced German Scholars, N.Y.
Fainberg, M.
Refugees
Scholars and Teachers
Stein, Fred M.
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File 222c: Organizations: NGOs, Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars, N.Y., 1939 July - October
Minutes of Meetings of Executive Committee: 7/12/39, 9/21/39, 10/6/39, 10/9/39. Table of Committee Grantees, 7/12/39.
Index Terms:
Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars, N.Y.
Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced German Scholars, N.Y.
Scholars and Teachers
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File 222d: Organizations: NGOs, Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars, N.Y., 1939 November - 1940 March
Minutes of Meetings of Executive Committee: 11/21/39*, 11/30/39, 1/16/40*. Table of Committee Grantees 1933-1939, undated. Report of Visit to Colleges and Universities October 1939-January 1940 by Felix W. Knauth, 2/5/40. Correspondence: S. Duggan, B. Drury, F.W. Knauth, A.V. Pope.
Index Terms:
Drury, Betty
Duggan, Dr. Stephen
Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars, N.Y.
Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced German Scholars, N.Y.
Knauth, F. W.
Pope, A. V.
Scholars and Teachers
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File 222e: Organizations: NGOs, Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars, N.Y., 1940 April - May
Minutes of Meetings of Executive Committee: 4/10/40, 5/23/40. Meetings of Sub-Committee, 4/18/40. Map listing institutions in receipt of Committee grants, 4/3/40.
Index Terms:
Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars, N.Y.
Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced German Scholars, N.Y.
Scholars and Teachers
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File 222f: Organizations: NGOs, Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars, N.Y., 1940 June - September
Minutes of Meetings of Executive Committee: 6/27/40, 8/1/40, 9/4/40, 9/12/40*, 9/26/40.Meetings of Sub-Committee: 6/17/40, 9/26/40.Annual Report: 1940 (Galley Proof only), 6/1/40. Correspondence: A.E. Cohn, S. Duggan, C.J. Liebman, H. Shapley, F.M. Stein.
Index Terms:
Cohn, A. E.
Duggan, Dr. Stephen
Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars, N.Y.
Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced German Scholars, N.Y.
Liebman, Charles J.
Scholars and Teachers
Shapley, H.
Stein, Fred M.
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File 222g: Organizations: NGOs, Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars, N.Y., 1940 October - 1941 March
Minutes of Meetings of Executive Committee: 10/28/40*, 11/25/40, 1/13/41, 2/20/41, 3/27/41. .Meetings of Sub-Committee: 11/1/40, 3/14/41. Memo on National Research Associates, 10/28/40, 11/1/40.Correspondence: B. Drury, C.J. Liebman, Wm. Rosenwald, H. Shapley, F.M. Stein.
Index Terms:
Drury, Betty
Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars, N.Y.
Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced German Scholars, N.Y.
Liebman, Charles J.
Rosenwald, William
Scholars and Teachers
Shapley, H.
Stein, Fred M.
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File 222h: Organizations: NGOs, Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars, N.Y., 1941 April - October
Minutes of Meetings of Executive Committee: 4/17/41, 10/20/41.Meetings of Sub-Committee: 5/20/41, 6/17/41, 8/5/41, 10/9/41, 10/20/41.Annual Report: 6/1/41. Table of Committee Grantees, 9/24/41.Correspondence: S. Duggan, C.J. Liebman, H. Shapley.
Index Terms:
Duggan, Dr. Stephen
Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars, N.Y.
Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced German Scholars, N.Y.
Liebman, Charles J.
Scholars and Teachers
Shapley, H.
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File 222i: Organizations: NGOs, Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars, N.Y., 1941 December - 1942 April
Minutes of Meetings of Executive Committee: 3/5/42*, 4/9/42.Meetings of Sub-Committee: 12/4/41, 12/23/41, 2/9/42, 3/10/42, 4/7/42, 4/9/42. Annual Report: 1/31/42. Committee Applications for Funds to: Rosenwald Family Association, 2/10/42; N.Y. Foundation, 4/1/42.Memo: "Citizen Status of our Scholars," attach. to 12/22/41. Correspondence: S. Duggan, Wm. Rosenwald.
Index Terms:
Duggan, Dr. Stephen
Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars, N.Y.
Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced German Scholars, N.Y.
Rosenwald, William
Scholars and Teachers
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File 222j: Organizations: NGOs, Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars, N.Y., 1942 May - October
Minutes of Meetings of Executive Committee: 5/12/42.Minutes of Sub-Committee: 5/5/42, 6/9/42, 7/9/42, 9/23/42(2), 10/13/42(2). Correspondence: C.J. Liebman, F.M. Stein.
Index Terms:
Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars, N.Y.
Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced German Scholars, N.Y.
Liebman, Charles J.
Scholars and Teachers
Stein, Fred M.
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File 222k: Organizations: NGOs, Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars, N.Y., 1942 November - 1943 March
Minutes of Meetings of Executive Committee: 3/23/43. Meetings of Sub-Committee: 11/10/42, 12/22/42, 2/9/43. Fellowship Grants: 11/10/42 Part II, 11/18/42, 11/25/42, 12/8/42 Part II, 3/23/42 Part II. Correspondence: Wm. Rosenwald, H. Shapley, F.M. Stein.
Index Terms:
Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars, N.Y.
Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced German Scholars, N.Y.
Rosenwald, William
Scholars and Teachers
Shapley, H.
Stein, Fred M.
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File 222l: Organizations: NGOs, Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars, N.Y., 1943 April - June
Meetings of Sub-Committee: 4/6/43, 5/18/43, 6/9/43. Fellowship Grants: Sub-Committee Meetings Part II plus Fellowship Applications, 4/6/43, 5/18/43, 6/9/43. Correspondence: S. Duggan, F.M. Stein.
Index Terms:
Duggan, Dr. Stephen
Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars, N.Y.
Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced German Scholars, N.Y.
Scholars and Teachers
Stein, Fred M.
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File 222m: Organizations: NGOs, Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars, N.Y., 1943 July - 1944 March
Minutes of Meetings of Executive Committee: 12/1/43. Meetings of Sub-Committee: 7/28/43, 9/22/43. Fellowship Grants: Sub-Committee Meetings Part I plus Fellowship Applications, 7/28/43, 9/22/43, November 1943. Table of Committee Grantees: Agenda 12/1/43.
Index Terms:
Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars, N.Y.
Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced German Scholars, N.Y.
Scholars and Teachers
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File 222n: Organizations: NGOs, Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars, N.Y., 1944 April -1945
Minutes of Meetings of Executive Committee: 9/21/44, 11/1/44, 11/20/44. Meetings of Sub-Committee: 5/2/44, 6/15/44, 7/5/44, 9/21/44, 11/1/44. Fellowship Grants: Sub-Committee Meetings Part II 5/2/44 plus Fellowship Applications 4/9/44; Meetings Part II plus Fellowship Applications of same date, 6/15/44, 9/21/44, 11/1/44, 11/20/44. Memos: Personal Data on Older Scholars, 6/14/44. Correspondence: S. Duggan, C.J. Liebman.
Index Terms:
Duggan, Dr. Stephen
Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced ForeignScholars, N.Y.
Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced German Scholars, N.Y.
Liebman, Charles J.
Scholars and Teachers
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Series 18: Organizations: NGOs, Emergency Committee to Save the Jewish People of Europe
File 223: Organizations: NGOs, Emergency Committee to Save the Jewish People of Europe
The Committee was established in June 1943 with the aim of mobilizing public opinion in support of Jewish rescue operations. Its activities were strictly promotional. The Committee pressed the JDC for large allocations on several occasions for conducting rescue operations, but it never succeeded in meeting legal or political requirements essential to the conduct of such operations. As time passed, American-Jewish organizations in the great majority responded negatively to the Committee, more and more.On the JDC and the Committee: 12/22/43, 2/11/44, 2/17/44, 6/8/44-6/30/44, 7/3/44, 7/17/44, 7/26/44-8/2/44, 8/5/44, 8/30/44, 12/18/44, 12/26/44, 1/2/45, 1/25/45.Report: On the Committee by the CJFWF, 1/12/44 and Supplement December 1944. Correspondence: J. Brunot, H.K. Buchman, J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt, J.W. Pehle, G.W. Rabinoff, Wm. Rosenwald, U.S. Schwartz, J.J. Smertenko, L.H. Sobel.
Index Terms:
Emergency Committee to Save the Jewish People of Europe
Brunot, J.
Buchman, H. K.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Leavitt, M. A.
Pehle, J. W.
Rabinoff, G. W.
Rosenwald, William
Schwartz, U. S.
Smertenko, J. J.
Sobel, L. H.
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Series 19: Organizations: NGOs, Emergency Rescue Committee (ERC)
File 224: Organizations: NGOs, Emergency Rescue Committee (ERC)
The ERC was established in June 1940, following the fall of France, with the object of rescuing via emigration so-called political and intellectual anti-Nazi refugees. By the close of 1941, the ERC had raised over $340,000 and aided some 1,200 persons to emigrate. To aid the ERC, the JDC granted it $5,000 in 1940 and $10,000 in 1941. The relationship with the JDC was cordial and continuing. In 1942, the ERC merged with the International Relief Association to form the International Rescue and Relief Committee. Dr. Frank Kingdon served as Chairman throughout. Correspondence: M. Adams, P. Baerwald, J.C. Hyman, F. Kingdon, D.F. Seiferheld.
Index Terms:
Adams, M.
Baerwald, Paul
Emergency Rescue Committee (ERC)
Hyman, Joseph C.
Immigration and Emigration
Kingdon, Dr. Frank
Kingdon, Dr. Frank
Refugees
Seiferheld, D. F.
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Series 20: Organizations: NGOs, Refugee Assistance Fund (RAF)
Emigre Charitable Fund (ECF) (1934). Refugee Assistance Fund (RAF) (1947). The Emigre Charitable Fund (ECF) and the Refugee Economic Corp (REC) were established in 1934 to aid in the resettlement and rehabilitation of refugees from Nazi Germany. The ECF was created as a philanthropic institution, and its allocations were granted for social and humanitarian reasons and not on business or investment grounds as in the case of the REC. The two organizations worked hand-in-glove. For materials on the REC, see: Files 334-334d.
Index Terms:
Emigre Charitable Fund (ECF)
Germany
Refugee Assistance Fund (RAF)
Refugees
File 224a: Organizations: NGOs, Refugee Assistance Fund (RAF), General, 1935; 1938-1942; 1947-1950
Summary of activities 5/26/41. Thumbnail resumes of activities, 2/7/47, 10/22/47. Report by the CJFWF, 8/17/48-11/16/48. Memo of activities, 12/13/48. Correspondence: A. Gurin, E.H. Komlos, C.J. Liebman, L.L. Strauss.
Index Terms:
Emigre Charitable Fund (ECF)
Gurin, A.
Komlos, E. H.
Liebman, Charles J.
Refugee Assistance Fund (RAF)
Strauss, L. L.
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File 224b: Organizations: NGOs, Refugee Assistance Fund (RAF), Contributions, 1941; 1946 - 1948
Lists of contributors; 1941 (May), 1948, 8/24/48.
Index Terms:
Emigre Charitable Fund (ECF)
Refugee Assistance Fund (RAF)
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File 224c: Organizations: NGOs, Refugee Assistance Fund (RAF), Board of Trustees, 1934 - 1950
Minutes of Meetings: 8/22/34, 6/13/35, 8/13/35, 1/30/36, 4/9/36, 5/14/36, 11/23/36, 1/22/37, 3/3/37, 5/13/37, 9/23/37, 11/19/37, 12/30/37, 3/10/38, 5/23/38, 10/13/38, 10/20/38, 12/8/38, 1/10/39, 4/11/39, 10/10/39, 12/12/39, 5/20/40, 2/1/41, 4/28/41, 12/31/41, 2/18/42, 3/9/50, 4/13/50.Between 9/23/37-12/30/37, and 1/10/39-5/20/40, Statis. and Fin. data are provided but there are no Minutes of Meetings.
Index Terms:
Emigre Charitable Fund (ECF)
Refugee Assistance Fund (RAF)
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File 224d: Organizations: NGOs, Refugee Assistance Fund (RAF), Resettlement Projects for German Refugees, 1938 - 1939
1. General. 2. Individual Countries. In 1938, the ECF granted $25,000 to the Walter Hines Page School for International Relations at Johns Hopkins Univ. for the preparation of studies on resettlement prospects for German refugees in overseas lands. The studies were conducted under the direction of Dr. Isaiah Bowman, President of J.H. Univ. who ranked as the foremost American geographer. Many resettlement studies were prepared by specialists and the major focus rested on overseas countries that were underdeveloped and underpopulated. Broadly speaking, the studies fell into three categories: 1) South and Central America, 2) Africa and Asia, 3) Australia and New Zealand. For German refugee resettlement in South America, see: listings for individual countries there. For Australia, see: Files 438-438i. In a number of other countries resettlement projects were launched or projected, but the outbreak of W.W.II brought them to a standstill and they were never reborn in post-war days; see: British Honduras Files 451a-451b; Costa Rica Files 504a-504c; Philippines File 787a. Studies based on Africa and Asia (Palestine excepted) and notably those in tropical regions held no appeal for German refugees and gained but scant consideration by the ECF/REC. Data on those projects is included in File 224d(2). For data on projects in the U.S., see: Files 200a-200c, and 258a.
Index Terms:
Australia
Central America
Emigre Charitable Fund (ECF)
New Zealand
Refugee Assistance Fund (RAF)
Refugees
South America
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Series 21: Organizations: NGOs, American Federation for Polish Jews
Federation of Polish Jews in America (Federation) (1908).American Federation for Polish Jews 1940.The Federation was established in 1908, and in subsequent years it come to focus upon promoting the welfare of Jews in Poland. Up to 1936, income stemmed from dues and contributions in the main, and its activities were basically political in character. In 1935, the Federation created a fund-raising arm (American Committee for the Relief of Jews in Poland) to conduct independent campaigns for Polish relief, after the JDC had rejected four demands for specific commitments by the Federation. The JDC maintained that the Federation proposals for Polish relief were ineffectual attempts at duplicating its own activities of many years standing in that country. Moreover, the JDC claimed that its own fund-raising was weakened because the Federation solicited the established JDC circle of contributors for funds and failed to develop meaningful sources of its own. Between 1936-1943, the JDC and the Federation were continually at odds on these points. In 1939, the CJFWF advised its constituent members to grant their contributions for Polish relief to the JDC and not to the Federation. In 1940, the Federation became the American Federation for Polish Jews. In the summer of 1945, the Federation proposed a cooperative arrangement with the JDC for the distribution in Poland of relief funds raised by it. A JDC-Federation Agreement was reached at the end of October, see: File 232. But early in 1946, complaints from many UJA communities reached the JDC, that in its campaigning the Federation was violating the Agreement in spirit and in letter. Moreover, the Federation had failed to live up to its obligation to transfer funds to the JDC for distribution in Poland. In April 1946, the JDC abrogated the Agreement and it was never reinstated. Benjamin Winter served as National Chairman of the Federation between 1923-1943, and was followed by Joseph Tannenbaum as President. Z. Tygel served as Executive Director from 1923-1940 and was followed first by Henry Szoszkies and then by Morris Blumenstock.
Index Terms:
American Federation for Polish Jews
Blumenstock, Morris
Federation of Polish Jews in America (Federation)
Poland
Szoszkies, Henry
Tannenbaum, Joseph
Tygel, Z.
Winter, Benjamin
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File 225: Organizations: NGOs, American Federation for Polish Jews, 1933 - 1935
On the JDC and the Federation: 3/14/33, 6/6/34, 3/13/35, 3/18/35, 3/21/35, 4/3/35, 4/16/35, 4/22/35, 5/10/35, 6/13/35, 7/3/35, 9/4/35, 12/27/35 (2). The Federation stated it will run an independent fund-raising campaign if the JDC failed to accept its proposals, 4/22/35, 5/9/35. The Federation organized a fundraising arm (American Committee for the Relief of Jews in Poland), 12/17/35. Publications: Yearbook #2, "Poilische Yiden", June 1934, edited by Z. Tygel. Correspondence: C. Adler, P. Baerwald, I. Coons, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, E.M. Morrissey, Z. Tygel, B. Winter.
Index Terms:
Adler, Cyrus
American Federation for Polish Jews
Baerwald, Paul
Coons, I.
Federation of Polish Jews in America (Federation)
Hyman, Joseph C.
Kahn, Dr. Bernhard
Morrissey, Evelyn M.
Tygel, Z.
Winter, Benjamin
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File 226: Organizations: NGOs, American Federation for Polish Jews, 1936
On the JDC and the Federation: 3/18/36, 3/25/36, 3/27/36, 4/3/36, 5/18/36, 8/28/36, 11/18/36. Report on the Federation by the CJFWF, 8/13/36. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, J. Billikopf, I. Coons, S.A. Goldsmith, J.C. Hyman, B. Renard, W.J. Schroder, Z. Tygel, B. Winter, J.B. Wise.
Index Terms:
American Federation for Polish Jews
Baerwald, Paul
Billikopf, Jacob
Coons, I.
Federation of Polish Jews in America (Federation)
Goldsmith, S. A.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Renard, B.
Schroder, William J.
Tygel, Z.
Winter, Benjamin
Wise, J. B.
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File 227: Organizations: NGOs, American Federation for Polish Jews, 1937
On the JDC and the Federation: 2/1/37, 2/27/37, 3/29/37, 4/5/37, 4/20/37 Hyman to Kahn, 4/23/37, 4/28/37, 5/10/37, 6/4/37, 11/5/37, 12/2/37 attachment to 12/7/37, 12/15/37, 12/24/37, 12/30/37. Discussions on the Federation between S. Untermyer and the JDC, 4/23/37, 6/14/37 (2), 6/15/37, 6/17/37. Publicity statement by the JDC on Federation activities, 5/5/37 and responses thereto, 5/6/47 and attachments. Rebuttal by B. Winter 5/6/37 and Rebuttal Publicity Release, 5/7/37. Publications: "American Committee Appeal for the Jews in Poland" February 1936-1937; "Polish Jews Fifth Year Book" June 1937.Reports: Bulletin on the Federation by the CJFWF, 4/12/37. Correspondence: C. Adler, P. Baerwald, N.C. Belth, H.K. Buchman, I. Coons, S. Dingol, Albert Einstein, S.A. Goldsmith, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, S.C. Lamport, L. Rittenberg, Z. Tygel, S. Untermyer, P.F. Warburg, B. Winter, J.B. Wise.
Index Terms:
Adler, Cyrus
American Federation for Polish Jews
Baerwald, Paul
Belth, N. C.
Buchman, H. K.
Coons, I.
Dingol, S.
Einstein, Albert
Federation of Polish Jews in America (Federation)
Goldsmith, S. A.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Kahn, Dr. Bernhard
Lamport, S. C.
Poland
Rittenberg, L.
Tygel, Z.
Untermyer, S.
Warburg, Paul Felix
Winter, Benjamin
Wise, J. B.
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File 228: Organizations: NGOs, American Federation for Polish Jews, 1938
On the JDC and the Federation: 1/14/38, 1/27/38, 1/28/38, 2/1/38 (2), 2/8/38 Hyman to Taylor, 3/9/38 and attachments, 3/25/38 Hyman to Sobeloff, 3/30/38, 4/11/38, 4/12/38, 6/14/38, 6/16/38, 8/26/38-9/16/38, 10/21/38-11/1/38. Handwritten note by Sholem Asch supporting JDC policies vis-a-vis the Federation, 9/23/38 attachment to 10/3/38. Correspondence: Sholem Asch, H.K. Buchman, M.M. Cohn, J.C. Hyman, A. Kahn, I. Sobeloff, M.C. Troper, Z. Tygel.
Index Terms:
American Federation for Polish Jews
Asch, Sholem
Buchman, H. K.
Cohn, M. M.
Federation of Polish Jews in America (Federation)
Hyman, Joseph C.
Kahn, Alexander
Sobeloff, I.
Troper, Morris C.
Tygel, Z.
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File 229: Organizations: NGOs, American Federation for Polish Jews, 1939
On the JDC and the Federation: 3/10/39 Buchman to Schanfarber, 10/13/39 Hyman memo, 10/17/39, 10/20/39, 11/3/39, 11/22/39 Buchman to Sobeloff. Discussions of Federation policies between: B. Kahn and H. Szoszkies (Polish-Jewish leader), 7/3/39; Fed. and JDC representatives, 11/22/39 memo. The CJFWF advised the welfare funds not to contribute to the Federation campaign, 11/14/39. Correspondence: H.K. Buchman, M.M. Fertig, J.C. Hyman, J.J. Schwartz, I. Sobeloff, Z. Tygel.
Index Terms:
American Federation for Polish Jews
Buchman, H. K.
Federation of Polish Jews in America (Federation)
Fertig, M. M.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Kahn, Dr. Bernhard
Schwartz, J. J.
Sobeloff, I.
Szoszkies, Henry
Tygel, Z.
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File 230: Organizations: NGOs, American Federation for Polish Jews, 1940
On the JDC and the Federation: 1/16/40, 2/26/40, 2/27/40, 3/20/40, 3/28/40, 5/30/40, 6/10/40, 8/30/40, 9/5/40, 10/8/40 Leavitt to Hayes, 10/23/40 Leavitt to Hayes, 11/27/40. The CJFWF compares expenditures in Poland for 1939 by the Federation and the JDC, May 1940. Policy discussions between representatives of the JDC and the Federation, 10/11/40. Correspondence: H.K. Buchman, M.M. Fertig, N.V. Gilmovsky, L. Gould, S. Hayes, J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt, J.L. Levy, K. Peiser, J.J. Schwartz, H. Szoszkies, Z. Tygel.
Index Terms:
American Federation for Polish Jews
Buchman, H. K.
Federation of Polish Jews in America (Federation)
Fertig, M. M.
Gilmovsky, N. V.
Gould, L.
Hayes, S.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Leavitt, M. A.
Levy, J. L.
Peiser, K.
Poland
Schwartz, J. J.
Szoszkies, Henry
Tygel, Z.
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File 231: Organizations: NGOs, American Federation for Polish Jews, 1941 - 1944
On the JDC and the Federation: 1/23/41, 2/19/41, 4/14/41, 6/13/41, 5/18/42, 6/19/42 memo for A. Lieberman, 7/13/42, 7/23/42, 8/6/42, 2/9/43, 5/2/44, 10/23/44, 11/22/44, 12/11/44. Brief memos on the Federation by the CJFWF 9/26/41, 2/24/42, 11/14/44. Comments on Federation practices 10/15/41, 11/10/41, 1/26/42. Memo for JDC speech to the Federation Convention by A. Lieberman, 6/19/42. Table of JDC appropriations for Poland 1933-1942, 8/4/42. Correspondence: H.K. Buchman, I. Coons, S.A. Goldsmith, J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt, B. Renard, B. Winter.
Index Terms:
American Federation for Polish Jews
Buchman, H. K.
Coons, I.
Federation of Polish Jews in America (Federation)
Goldsmith, S. A.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Leavitt, M. A.
Lieberman, A. H.
Poland
Renard, B.
Winter, Benjamin
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File 232: Organizations: NGOs, American Federation for Polish Jews, 1945 - 1950
The JDC and the Federation reached agreement, whereby the Federation would turn over to the JDC 75% of its campaign funds for Polish Jews, and would consult with it on its own campaign timing and methods so as to avoid interference with the UJA Campaigns, 10/23/45, 10/29/45, 11/30/45. The JDC agreed to set up a special Committee on Poland and to forward its recommendations for action to its administration Committee, 10/23/45.The Federation turned over to the JDC 20,000 food packages, at a cost of $80,000, for distribution in Poland, 11/21/45. The UJA complained that Federation fund-raising interfered with its own campaign, 1/7/46-2/14/46. The JDC abrogated the Agreement with the Federation, citing repeated violations of it by the Federation in spirit and in letter, 4/1/46. The CJFWF Report on the Federation and a statement by the Federation in rebuttal of letter dated 4/1/46 cited above, both attached to letter 10/21/46. The JDC response to the Federation rebuttal, 11/1/46, 11/29/46. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, H.K. Buchman, S. Federman, A. Gurin, S. Hayes, J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt, J. Lightman, H. Montor, E.A. Norma, R. Pilpel, J.J. Schwartz, L. Sobel. J. Tenenbaum.
Index Terms:
American Federation for Polish Jews
Baerwald, Paul
Buchman, H. K.
Federation of Polish Jews in America (Federation)
Federman, S.
Gurin, A.
Hayes, S.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Leavitt, M. A.
Lightman, J. B.
Montor, H.
Norma, E. A.
Pilpel, Robert
Poland
Schwartz, J. J.
Sobel, L. H.
Tenenbaum, J.
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Series 22: Organizations: NGOs, European-Jewish Children's Aid
German-Jewish Children's Aid (1933).European-Jewish Children's Aid (1942).The Children's Aid was organized in N.Y. at the close of 1933 and incorporated in April 1934. Solomon Lowenstein was the first Chairman. He was succeeded by Blanche B. Goldman in 1938, Allan M. Stroock in 1941 and Herman W. Block in 1943. Paul Felix Warburg served as treasurer, J.C. Hyman as Secretary and Cecilia Razovsky as Executive Director. As a first project the Children's Aid prepared to bring 250 German refugee children under 16 into the U.S. for schooling, and the U.S. Labor Department agreed to admit them under the permanent immigration quota. In 1934, a guarantee fund of $27,000 to assure that the children would not become public charges was provided by private foundations mainly (Baron de Hirsch, Hofheimer and New York) and by Jewish organizations, and $10,000 for administration expenses was contributed by the three foundations. Transportation costs were met by individual subscriptions. It was early in 1937 before the 250 children were all placed. The agency brought in 120 children more in that year, and these were placed on schedule. In 1938, the authorized number of new arrivals was raised to 240. By mid-1939, only 44 of them had come in, owing to hitches in U.S. immigration procedures. Immigration started up again in December 1939 and ran on until the end of 1941. All told, 588 refugee children were brought in and placed under the program. In January 1938, the National Council of Jewish Women undertook to raise $250,000 over a three year period, to cover the national administration costs of the Children's Aid. Operational responsibility remained with the Children's Aid. At the end of 1940, the National Refugee Service agreed to shoulder responsibility for the national administration costs of the Children's Aid. In November 1941, the U.S. Committee for the Care of European Children and the Children's Aid also made a fin. arrangement, see below: File 237, Minutes 11/27/41. For additional materials on the U.S. Committee, see: Files 343-345.At the end of 1942, the German-Jewish Children's Aid became the European-Jewish Children's Aid. The Minutes of the Meetings listed in the files below provide the best running account over the years of the activities of the Children's Aid, and the shifts that occurred. Some Minutes are missing, notably in the war years.
Index Terms:
Block, Herman W.
Children
European-Jewish Children's Aid
German-Jewish Children's Aid
Goldman, Blanche B.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Immigration and Emigration
Lowenstein, Solomon
Razovsky, Cecilia
Refugees
Stroock, Allan M.
Warburg, Paul Felix
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File 233: Organizations: NGOs, European-Jewish Children's Aid, General, 1933 - 1934
Project to bring in 250 refugee children: 1/3/34, 4/5/34, 4/6/34, 4/18/34, 4/24/34, 5/3/34(2) Messersmith to Baerwald, 6/20/34, 7/14/34, 7/16/34, 8/16/34, 8/23/34, 8/30/34, 9/4/34, 9/5/34, 9/16/34, 9/17/34, 10/27/34, 12/4/34, 12/31/34(2). Minutes of Meetings: 1/3/34, 4/18/34, 4/23/34, 5/23/34, 6/20/34, 6/29/34, 7/24/34, 9/6/34, 11/8/34, 12/13/34. Correspondence: J.P. Chamberlain, B. Kahn, J.C. Hyman, M.J. Kohler, S. Lowenstein, G. Messersmith, C. Razovsky, D.J. Schweitzer.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, Paul
Chamberlain, J. P.
Children
European-Jewish Children's Aid
German-Jewish Children's Aid
Hyman, Joseph C.
Kahn, Dr. Bernhard
Kohler, M. J.
Lowenstein, Solomon
Messersmith, G.
Razovsky, Cecilia
Refugees
Schweitzer, D. J.
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File 234: Organizations: NGOs, European-Jewish Children's Aid, General, 1935 - 1937
Reports and Memos: Statement Regarding German-Jewish Children to be Brought to the U.S., January 1935; 3/8/35. Projects for bringing in refugee children: 5/6/35, 9/4/35-9/18/35, 12/30/35, 10/23/36, 4/6/37, 5/12/37, 12/7/37.Minutes of Meetings: 5/9/35, 6/6/35, 9/19/35, 12/17/35, 2/13/36, 4/16/36, 6/11/36, 11/20/36, 5/13/37, 6/25/37, 11/4/37. Correspondence: B.B. (M.L.) Goldman, L. Hahn-Warburg, J.C. Hyman, S. Lowenstein, E.M. Morrissey, C. Razovsky.
Index Terms:
Children
European-Jewish Children's Aid
German-Jewish Children's Aid
Goldman, Blanche B.
Hahn-Warburg, L.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Lowenstein, Solomon
Morrissey, Evelyn M.
Razovsky, Cecilia
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File 235: Organizations: NGOs, European-Jewish Children's Aid, General, 1938 - 1939
Projects for bringing in refugee children: 1/20/38, 1/28/38, 2/12/38-2/23/38 Hyman to Goldsmith, 2/25/38, 2/28/38, 3/28/38, 6/20/38, 8/2/38, 9/30/38, 6/15/39, 6/23/39 Hyman to Pickett, 7/3/39, 7/5/39, 7/24/39(2), 8/1/39, 10/4/39, 12/28/39. Congressional Hearings on the Admission of German Refugee Children April 21-24, 1939.Minutes of Meetings: 1/20/38, 2/28/38, 4/21/38, 6/3/38, 7/12/38, 9/7/38, 11/10/38, 1/13/39, 2/25/39, *3/9/39, 5/4/39, 7/13/39, *7/24/39, 10/3/39, 12/11/39.Note: Meetings preceded by an asterisk pertain to subCommittee meetings. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, B.B. (M.L.) Goldman, S.A. Goldsmith, J.C. Hyman, H. Katzki, E.M. Morrissey, C. Razovsky, A.M. Warren.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, Paul
Children
European-Jewish Children's Aid
German-Jewish Children's Aid
Goldman, Blanche B.
Goldsmith, S. A.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Katzki, Herbert
Morrissey, Evelyn M.
Pickett, Clarence E.
Razovsky, Cecilia
Refugees
Warren, A. M.
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File 236: Organizations: NGOs, European-Jewish Children's Aid, General, 1940
Projects for bringing in refugee children: 1/31/40, 3/15/40, 7/16/40, 8/23/40, 8/24/40, 9/3/40, 11/12/40.Minutes of Meetings: 4/12/40, 5/2/40, 6/11/40, 6/27/40. Correspondence: Wm. Haber, P.E. Hoffman, J.C. Hyman, L. Marcuse, C. Razovsky, K. Rosenheim.
Index Terms:
Children
European-Jewish Children's Aid
German-Jewish Children's Aid
Haber, William
Hoffman, P. E.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Marcuse, L.
Razovsky, Cecilia
Refugees
Rosenheim, K.
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File 237: Organizations: NGOs, European-Jewish Children's Aid, General, 1941 - 1942
Projects for bringing in refugee children: 5/13/41, 5/20/41, 6/10/41, 7/16/41, 8/19/41.Minutes of Meetings: 1/3/41, 2/27/41, 5/13/41(2), 6/11/41, 9/30/41, 10/9/41, 11/27/41, 9/30/42(2), 11/18/42. Correspondence: J.C. Hyman, L. Marcuse, C. Razovsky, C.A. Riegelman, A.M. Stroock.
Index Terms:
Children
European-Jewish Children's Aid
German-Jewish Children's Aid
Hyman, Joseph C.
Marcuse, L.
Razovsky, Cecilia
Refugees
Riegelman, Charles A.
Stroock, Allan M.
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File 238: Organizations: NGOs, European-Jewish Children's Aid, General, 1943 - 1944
Relations between the U.S. Committee and the Children's Aid, 6/1/43.Minutes of Meetings: 3/16/43.Report: Review of the European-Jewish Children's Aid by Elsa Castendyck, December 1943 and Summary 5/10/44. Correspondence: M. Field, J.C. Hyman, L. Marcuse, C.A. Riegelman.
Index Terms:
Children
European-Jewish Children's Aid
Field, M.
German-Jewish Children's Aid
Hyman, Joseph C.
Marcuse, L.
Riegelman, Charles A.
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File 239: Organizations: NGOs, European-Jewish Children's Aid, Financial
Loeb and Troper Audits. Annual or Semi-Annual: May 1934-June 1935 (July-December); 1936; 1939; 1940 (July-December); 1942; 1943; 1944.
Index Terms:
European-Jewish Children's Aid
German-Jewish Children's Aid
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Series 23: Organizations: NGOs, Greater N.Y. Committee for Aid of German Refugees
File 240: Organizations: NGOs, Greater N.Y. Committee for Aid of German Refugees
The Committee was organized in October 1934 (Chairman: David Sulzberger) to coordinate the activities of local organizations providing aid to German refugees. The necessary funds came via the JDC and from private foundations, among them the N.Y. Foundation, the Baron de Hirsch Fund, the Hofheimer Foundation and the Rosenwald Foundation. JDC leaders were usually key personalities in those funds. By mid-1936, refugee needs in the N.Y. area had expanded to the point where a special Committee, the Allocations Committee (AC) of the National Coordinating Committee (NCC) (Chairman: Eustace Seligman) was created to administer the funds and to widen the base of national support. The AC was incorporated in 1938 and renamed the NCC Fund Inc. JDC aid to the Committee was channelled via the NCC. On the organization and activities of the Committee: 7/11/34, 9/20/34, 10/3/34, 10/9/34, 11/1/34, 12/4/34, 12/17/34, 4/22/35, 5/13/35, 5/22/35, 10/1/35, 11/15/35, 12/18/35-12/24/35, 1/7/36, 1/16/36, 6/5/36-6/23/36. For materials on the years 1937-1938, see: ORG., NCC, Files 277-279, NCC Fund, File 281. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, D.M. Bressler, J.C. Hyman, S. Lowenstein, D.H. Sulzberger.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, Paul
Bressler, David M.
Greater N.Y. Committee for Aid of German Refugees
Hyman, Joseph C.
Lowenstein, Solomon
Refugees
Seligman, Eustace
Sulzberger, David H.
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Series 24: Organizations: NGOs, Hadassah (Women's Zionist Organization of America)
In 1935, Hadassah launched its support of Youth Aliyah which called for the transportation to Palestine of teen-aged refugees from Germany, Austria and Poland and the placing of them in agricultural settlements and vocational schools for a two-year course of study. Hadassah shouldered the costs of support and schooling in Palestine, while in most instances the JDC, via HICEM, shouldered the costs of transportation in whole or in great part. Between 1935-1944, Hadassah contributed about $4,000,000 for the support and schooling of some 10,000 refugee teen-agers in Palestine. In 1951, the JDC and the Hadassah shared in the upkeep costs of Youth Aliyah homes in France. Relations between the JDC and Hadassah date back to 1918. For earlier materials, see: Archives 1921-1932, Files 95, 276-278; Archives 1919-1921, Files 177b-181; Archives 1914-1918, Files 58, 124.
Index Terms:
Austria
Education, Vocational and Trade
France
Germany
Hadassah (Women's Zionist Organization of America)
Palestine
Poland
Refugees
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File 241: Organizations: NGOs, Hadassah, 1934 - 1942
Relationship of the JDC with Hadassah, 12/16/38, 1/17/39, 4/27/39, 6/11/43. Reports: Hadassah, by the CJFWF, March 1937, July 1939, September 1940, 12/9/41. Publications: Hadassah News Letter April 1935, February 1936, November 1936, January 1937, May-June 1941. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, H.K. Buchman, H.E. Epstein, R.L. Halprin, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, M.A. Leavitt, F.M. Warburg.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, Paul
Buchman, H. K.
Epstein, H. E.
Hadassah (Women's Zionist Organization of America)
Halprin, R. L.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Kahn, Dr. Bernhard
Leavitt, M. A.
Warburg, Felix M.
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File 242: Organizations: NGOs, Hadassah, 1943 - 1952; 1955
Relationship of the JDC with Hadassah: 2/24/43, 11/12/46, 2/13/47, 3/1/50, 2/20/51, 3/2/51, 3/19/51, 7/2/51. Publications: Medical Reference Board of Hadassah by Dr. E.M. Bluestone, October 1943. Facts About the Hadassah Medical Organization in Palestine, January 1944, attachment to 2/9/44. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, M.W. Beckelman, H.K. Buchman, J.C. Hyman, H. Katzki, M. Laub, J. Magnes, H. Montor.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, Paul
Beckelman, M. W.
Buchman, H. K.
Hadassah (Women's Zionist Organization of America)
Hyman, Joseph C.
Katzki, Herbert
Laub, M.
Magnes, J. L.
Medical
Montor, H.
Palestine
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Series 25: Organizations: NGOs, Hebrew Free Loan Society, New York
File 243: Organizations: NGOs, Hebrew Free Loan Society, New York
The Hebrew Free Loan Society, a non-sectarian organization, was organized in 1892 to provide the needy with small interest-free loans (usually up to $500, for a six-month period). Jacob H. Schiff and Felix M. Warburg were among its early sponsors. In 1935, the Society agreed to grant up to $10,000 in loans to needy German refugees in Greater N.Y., and the JDC underwrote up to 75% of whatever losses were incurred. The JDC and the JDC Foundation agreed to sub-divide those losses in the ratio of one-third to two-thirds. In 1937, the Society, the JDC and the JDC Foundation agreed to a second $10,000 allotment for refugee loans upon the same terms. In 1940, the JDC and the JDC Foundation transferred their liability for the loans to the National Refugee Service. On the status of the JDC guarantee: 6/15/34, 10/31/35, 10/23/36, 11/5/36, 11/6/36, 12/3/37, 2/25/38, 12/8/39, 7/11/40, 7/26/40, 8/2/40, 10/1/40, 2/4/41. For additional materials, see below: Files 397-398 Correspondence: P. Baerwald, A. Gribetz, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, A.A. Landesco, J.B. Lightman, C. Razovsky, I. Rosen.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, Paul
Gribetz, A.
Hebrew Free Loan Society
Hyman, Joseph C.
Kahn, Dr. Bernhard
Landesco, A. A.
Lightman, J. B.
Razovsky, Cecilia
Refugees
Rosen, I.
Warburg, Felix M.
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Series 26: Organizations: NGOs, HIAS (Hebrew Sheltering and Immigrant Aid Society)
The HIAS was established in New York in 1909. In 1927, the HIAS, the ICA (Jewish Colonization Association) and the Emig-Direkt (Association for Jewish Emigration) jointly created the HICEM (HIAS-ICA-Emig-Direkt Association), to aid in preparing refugees for emigration and in helping them to settle in lands other than the U.S., (where HIAS alone was authorized to operate). Emig-Direkt withdrew in 1934. HICEM raised no funds of its own. Until the outbreak of World War II, the ICA and the HIAS shouldered the costs of administration. Thereafter, the HIAS shouldered them in full, because war-time currency restrictions kept the ICA, a British corporation, from transferring its funds abroad. Between 1933-1940, the ICA, the HIAS, the British Council for German Jewry and the JDC covered all transportation costs and landing fees expended by the HICEM in aid of German refugees from Europe. War-time currency restrictions (July 1940) cut off the flow of funds from the ICA and the British Council, and the JDC shouldered those costs in full or in overwhelming degree until 1944. The JDC made no allocations to the HIAS for its own use. The following table presents the contributions to the HICEM by the JDC and the HIAS in the years of heaviest expenditure, 1939-1943. The JDC contributions went for the transportation, covered transportation costs of refugees from elsewhere. The HIAS contributions covered refugees everywhere and included those coming from Eastern Europe and settling in Latin America. Contributions to HICEM.JDC (Transportation).1939: $454,257; 1940: $313,800; 1941: $563,000; 1942: $600,000; 1943: $432,435.HIAS (Administration/Transportation).1939: $90,000/$50,000; 1940: $147,000/$73,000; 1941: $154,292/$61,028; 1942: $151,779/$90,444; 1943: $198,500/$61,000.Until 1940, relations were cordial between the HIAS and the JDC. In that year, the HIAS, which was not a UJA beneficiary, campaigned for a special Transportation Fund for East-European refugees to be administered by the HICEM. For several years, confusion reigned among many Jewish contributors on the distinction between the HIAS and the HICEM. HICEM activities were often credited to the HIAS and the role of the JDC in providing the major share of the HICEM funds was too often ignored or downgraded, a condition that led to misunderstandings, on occasion. Between 1933-1945, Abraham Herman was President of the HIAS and Isaac L. Asofsky was Executive Director. Max Gottschalk was President of the HICEM from 1939-1945 For earlier materials on HIAS, see: Archives, 1921-1932, Files 95a, 103; 1919-1921, File 77h; 1914-1918, File 59.
Index Terms:
Asofsky, Isaac L.
Gottschalk, Max
HIAS (Hebrew Sheltering and Immigrant Aid Society)
Herman, Abraham
Immigration and Emigration
Latin America
Refugees
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File 244: Organizations: NGOs, HIAS, 1933 - 1939
Relationship of the JDC with the HIAS and the HICEM: 4/9/34, 6/7/34, 10/10/34, 4/9/36, 10/28/36, 1/8/37, 9/2/37, 6/21/38 (Memo), 9/20/38 (Hyman to Lieberman), 10/5/39. Correspondence: I.L. Asofsky, H.K. Buchman, A. Copeland, M.D. Goldsmith, M. Gottschalk, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, A.H. Lieberman, B. Renard, Wm. Rosenwald, J.J. Schwartz, L.L. Strauss, M.C. Troper, J.B. Wise.
Index Terms:
Asofsky, Isaac L.
Buchman, H. K.
Copeland, A.
Goldsmith, M. D.
Gottschalk, Max
HIAS (Hebrew Sheltering and Immigrant Aid Society)
Hyman, Joseph C.
Kahn, Dr. Bernhard
Lieberman, A. H.
Renard, B.
Rosenwald, William
Schwartz, J. J.
Strauss, L. L.
Troper, Morris C.
Wise, J. B.
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File 245: Organizations: NGOs, HIAS, 1940
Relationship of the JDC with the HIAS and the HICEM: 2/14/40 (Memo: by Hyman), 3/6/40 (I. Rosen to Blumenthal), 3/25/40, 5/13/40, 8/15/40, 8/20/40, 8/23/40, 8/28/40, 8/29/40 (Minutes of Meeting), 9/9/40 (Sub-Committee discussions), 9/16/40, 9/27/40, 11/16/40, 11/18/40, 11/22/40 (Statement), Division of responsibility outlined between the JDC, the HIAS and the NRS in transportation matters in re refugees, 3/13/40 (Memo), and between the HIAS and the NRS, 8/5/40, 8/15/40 (Greenleigh to Hyman). The JDC, the HIAS and the HICEM issued a statement defining their mutual relationship, 9/24/40. Also see: 11/1/40, 11/7/40. Fin. Statements: HIAS, Income and Expenses 1939 and Budget for 1940, 4/5/40; HICEM France as of 9/30/40.Reports: HIAS by CJFWF, July 1940; HICEM activities 1/1/40-9/30/40, October 1940; Transmigration Service and its Relationships to the HICEM, the HIAS and the NRS, 11/23/40.Publications, HIAS: HIAS Activities in the U.S. and Overseas Countries, including the President's Message, undated; Rescue through Emigration, undated (1940). Correspondence: I.L. Asofsky, P. Baerwald, M.E. Bernstein, H.K. Buchman, I.E. Goldwasser, M. Gottschalk, Wm. Haber, M.R. Herman, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, M.A. Leavitt, E.M. Morrissey, I. Rosen, Wm. Rosenwald.
Index Terms:
Asofsky, Isaac L.
Baerwald, Paul
Bernstein, M. E.
Buchman, H. K.
France
Goldwasser, I. E.
Gottschalk, Max
Greenleigh, A. D.
HIAS (Hebrew Sheltering and Immigrant Aid Society)
Haber, William
Herman, M. R.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Immigration and Emigration
Kahn, Dr. Bernhard
Leavitt, M. A.
Morrissey, Evelyn M.
Refugees
Rosen, I.
Rosenwald, William
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File 246: Organizations: NGOs, HIAS, 1941 - 1942
Relationship of the JDC with the HIAS and the HICEM: 1/29/41, 3/18/41, 5/6/41, 7/10/41, 8/5/41, 8/6/41, 9/16/41, December 1941 (?) (Relation of HIAS to UJA), 2/6/42, 4/15/42, 5/7/42, 5/21/42, 7/7/42, 10/30/42, 12/31/42 (Hyman to Lieberman). HIAS statement on emigration activity in 1940 by the HIAS, the HICEM and the JDC, 2/6/42.Fin. Statements, HICEM: 12/31/41 and last quarter 1942.Reports: HIAS, by CJFWF, March 1941, undated, HICEM activities in Europe, 1/1/42-9/30/42. Rescue News, HIAS Publication: 6/24/42, 11/23/42, 12/23/42. Correspondence: I.L. Asofsky, P. Baerwald, M.W. Beckelman, H.K. Buchman, I. Coons, J.J. Goldstein, M. Gottschalk, A.D. Greenleigh, M.R. Herman, J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt, L. Oungre, B. Renard, Wm. Rosenwald.
Index Terms:
Asofsky, Isaac L.
Baerwald, Paul
Beckelman, M. W.
Buchman, H. K.
Coons, I.
Goldstein, J. J.
Gottschalk, Max
Greenleigh, A. D.
HIAS (Hebrew Sheltering and Immigrant Aid Society)
Herman, M. R.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Immigration and Emigration
Leavitt, M. A.
Lieberman, A. H.
Oungre, Louis
Renard, B.
Rosenwald, William
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File 247: Organizations: NGOs, HIAS, 1943 - 1944 April
Relationship of the JDC with the HIAS and the HICEM: 1/28/43, 5/12/43, 8/10/43, 2/17/44, 3/27/44. Reports: HIAS by CJFWF, June 1943. David Schweitzer becomes the HICEM special representative in the Middle East, 3/27/44.Publications: "Rescue News", 1/25/43, 3/18/43, 5/12/43, 7/9/43, September 1943. Correspondence: I.L. Asofsky, H.K. Buchman, I.M. Dijur, A. Herman, J.C. Hyman, H. Katzki, M.A. Leavitt, R. Pilpel, Wm. Rosenwald, L.H. Sobel, M.C. Troper.
Index Terms:
Asofsky, Isaac L.
Buchman, H. K.
Dijur, I. M.
HIAS (Hebrew Sheltering and Immigrant Aid Society)
Herman, Abraham
Hyman, Joseph C.
Katzki, Herbert
Leavitt, M. A.
Pilpel, Robert
Rosenwald, William
Schweitzer, D. J.
Sobel, L. H.
Troper, Morris C.
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File 248: Organizations: NGOs, HIAS, 1944 May - 1945
Relationship of the JDC with the HIAS and the HICEM: 5/26/44, 12/4/44, 1/29/45, 3/11/45. The HICEM disbanded when ICA withdrew from proposed reorganization, and the HIAS took over its functions in Europe, 10/22/45-11/6/45.Reports: HIAS, undated (June 1944?), HIAS, semi-annual report 11/1/44-6/30/44, undated, HIAS in 1945, 3/10/46. Correspondence: I.L. Asofsky, M. Gottschalk, J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt, A.H. Lieberman, R. Pilpel, J.J. Schwartz, L.H. Sobel.
Index Terms:
Asofsky, Isaac L.
Gottschalk, Max
HIAS (Hebrew Sheltering and Immigrant Aid Society)
Hyman, Joseph C.
Leavitt, M. A.
Lieberman, A. H.
Pilpel, Robert
Schwartz, J. J.
Sobel, L. H.
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Series 27: Organizations: NGOs, High Commission for Refugees
In October 1933, the League of Nations established the "High Commission for Refugees Coming from Germany," at the behest of western governments and major Jewish organizations, and named James G. McDonald of New York as the High Commissioner. His task was to seek international collaboration for solving the economic, financial and social problems of the refugees. The seat of the High Commission was in Lausanne at first, but it was transferred to London in October 1934.The High Commission, unlike other League Commissions, was made autonomous and not responsible to the League Council, in an effort to avoid offending the German Government, which was a League member at the time. Moreover, the League provided no funds for a budget, and merely advanced a one-time loan of SFr. 25,000 for start-up administrative expenses. In consequence, Jewish organizations covered over 75% of the administration expenses for the first two years. The High Commission consisted of two bodies: A Governing Body on which 13 governments, the U.S. included, were represented, and an Advisory Council consisting of the major international private agencies, Jewish and non-Jewish, which worked with refugees. The JDC was a member of the Advisory Council and to wards the administrative expenses of the High Commissioner it allocated $31,250 in 1934 and $25,000 in 1935. In 1935-1935, the High Commission achieved but little. McDonald, convinced that his efforts were useless without the backing of the League, resigned at the close of 1935. His successor was Sir Neill Malcolm. He was granted a temporary appointment in February 1936, after Germany had left the League, and in September he was reappointed until the end of 1938. Under Malcolm, the League shouldered direct responsibility for the High Commission and covered its budget. But its scope was limited to legal and political aspects of refugee activities, while the economic aspects were left to the private organizations entirely. On 9/30/38, the League Assembly merged the Nansen Office for Refugees with the Office of the High Commission, and on 1/1/39 appointed Sir Herbert Emerson to a five-year term with a new title: "High Commissioner for Refugees Under the Protection of the League of Nations". At the same time, he also served as Director of the Inter-Governmental Committee on Refugees. Practical results from the entire effort were on the small scale side. The High Commissioner did secure legal status for stateless refugees and aided in coordinating the activities of private Jewish agencies working in the refugee field.
Index Terms:
Emerson, Sir Herbert W.
Germany
High Commission for Refugees
London
Malcolm, Sir Neill
McDonald, James G.
Refugees
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File 249: Organizations: NGOs, High Commission for Refugees, General, 1933 - 1934 May
The JDC named B. Kahn as its representative on the Adivisory Council, 4/2/34(2), 4/22/34. Meeting of the Governing Body London, 1/31/34, 2/3/34 and Report of the Second Meeting of the Governing Body London, May 2-4, 1934. Meeting between JDC leaders and High Commissioner, 3/19/34. Fin. Audit of the High Commission, 4/21/34. Correspondence: C. Adler, N. Bentwich, E.R. Embree, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, N. Laski, J.C. McDonald, J.N. Rosenberg, F.M. Warburg.
Index Terms:
Adler, Cyrus
Bentwich, N.
High Commission for Refugees
Hyman, Joseph C.
Kahn, Dr. Bernhard
Laski, N.
London
McDonald, James G.
Rosenberg, James N.
Warburg, Felix M.
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File 250: Organizations: NGOs, High Commission for Refugees, General, 1934 June-December
Evaluation of the High Commission by J.C. Hyman, 7/17/34. Criticisms of the High Commission, 10/16/34. Meeting of the Advisory Council 6/18/34(2). Meeting of Special Committee on Emigration Possibilities, 7/19/34 attachment to 8/10/34.Reports: Experts Committee on Academic and Kindred Refugees from Germany, 7/4/34-7/5/34, 7/7/34; Third Meeting of the Governing Body London, 11/1/34-11/2/34, 11/21/34, 12/3/34. Fin. Audit of the High Committee 4/11/34-9/29/34, 10/8/34 attachment to 10/12/34. Correspondence: J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, J.G. McDonald, A. Wurfbain.
Index Terms:
Germany
High Commission for Refugees
Hyman, Joseph C.
Immigration and Emigration
Kahn, Dr. Bernhard
London
McDonald, James G.
Refugees
Wurfbain, A.
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File 251: Organizations: NGOs, High Commission for Refugees, General, 1935
Statements by J. McDonald at Meetings of the Permanent Committee of the Governing Body London, 2/12/35, 10/16/35. Meetings: Experts Committee on Academic and Kindred Refugees from Germany, 7/13/35; Advisory Council, 7/15/35; Fourth Meeting of the Governing Body, 7/17/35; Advisory Council, 10/15/35. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, J.G. McDonald, A. Wurfbain.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, Paul
Germany
High Commission for Refugees
Hyman, Joseph C.
Kahn, Dr. Bernhard
London
McDonald, James G.
Refugees
Wurfbain, A.
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File 252: Organizations: NGOs, High Commission for Refugees, General, 1936 - 1937
Letter of resignation as High Commissioner by J.G. McDonald, 1/15/36. Meeting of the High Commissioner with JDC and other private Jewish organizations, 10/29/36. Reports submitted to the League of Nations by: the High Commissioner, 9/1/36 and 9/1/37; the Sixth Committee, 10/9/36. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, N. Bentwich, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, N. Katz, N. Malcolm.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, Paul
Bentwich, N.
High Commission for Refugees
Hyman, Joseph C.
Kahn, Dr. Bernhard
Katz, Nathan
Malcolm, Sir Neill
McDonald, James G.
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File 253: Organizations: NGOs, High Commission for Refugees, General, 1938 - 1943
League Conference for the adoption of a convention governing the status of refugees from Germany, Seven Meetings 2/7/38-2/10/38. Convention on the status of refugees from Germany, 2/10/38. Reports to the League Assembly submitted by the High Commissioner, 7/24/39, August 1943. Correspondence: N. Bentwich, N. Katz, M.A. Leavitt, J.J. Schwartz, M.C. Troper.
Index Terms:
Bentwich, N.
Germany
High Commission for Refugees
Katz, Nathan
Leavitt, M. A.
Refugees
Schwartz, J. J.
Troper, Morris C.
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File 254: Organizations: NGOs, High Commission for Refugees, Liaison Committee of the High Commissioner, 1937 - 1939
The Liaison Committee of the (private) Organizations Dealing with Refugees Coming from Germany was established in 1937. Some 20 organizations were represented on it, including the JDC. Nathan Katz, Secy-General of the JDC EUREXCO, was elected Secretary. Thumbnail sketches of personalities identified with the Liaison Committee by J.C. Hyman, 6/13/38.Minutes of Meetings: 9/22/37, *12/13/37-12/14/37, *9/14/38, 12/19/38, 2/21/39. Note: The meetings preceded by an asterisk are followed by summary reports on them by N. Bentwich. Correspondence: S. Adler-Rudel, J.C. Hyman, N. Katz.
Index Terms:
Adler-Rudel, S.
Bentwich, N.
Germany
High Commission for Refugees
Hyman, Joseph C.
Katz, Nathan
Refugees
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Series 28: Organizations: NGOs, Inter-Governmental Committee on Refugees (IGCR)
In April 1938, President Roosevelt invited 32 governments to consult with U.S. representatives on refugee problems at Evian, France. The conferees met in July 1938 (Chairman: Myron C. Taylor), and set up the IGCR so as to facilitate the emigration of refugees from Germany and Austria. The Evian Conference was held at government level while voluntary agencies working with refugees were permitted to present their cases only before a special sub-Committee, or by submitting memoranda. The IGCR established its seat in London. The first director, George Rublee, resigned in February 1939, and was followed by Sir Herbert Emerson who was serving as the High Commissioner for Refugees at the League of Nations. Up to mid-1943, practical achievements by the IGCR were limited, and fell far short of expectations. Only President Trujillo of the Dominican Republic had come forward to accept Jewish refugees under the auspices of the IGCR. But in August 1943, the IGCR mandate was greatly enlarged so that it could cope with post-war problems. In 1946, the Allied Governments granted it $25,000,000 for the aid of DP's; nine-tenths of the sum was earmarked for Jewish victims, and the administration of it was entrusted to the JDC and the Jewish Agency. In 1947, the IGCR was merged with the IRO. For additional materials, see: Coordinating Foundation, File 220 Italy, File 716 Archives DORSA, Files 45a-45b (1938-1941) Switzerland, File 989.
Index Terms:
Austria
Dominican Republic
Emerson, Sir Herbert W.
Evian
France
Germany
Immigration and Emigration
Inter-Governmental Committee on Refugees (IGCR)
London
Refugees
Roosevelt, President Franklin D.
Rublee, George
Trujillo, President
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File 255: Organizations: NGOs, Inter-Governmental Committee on Refugees (IGCR), 1938 - 1939; 1943 - 1945
President Roosevelt appointed Paul Baerwald to the American Advisory Committee that was charged with aiding in the preparations for the Evian Conf., 4/18/38, 4/21/38. Memo telling of Jewish organizations interest in Evian Conf., 7/6/38. Discussion between JDC representatives and Evian Committee in London, Memo September 1938. Report by Emerson on activities of the IGCR and its reorganization, 7/25/44 attachment to 8/8/44. The IGCR Report of its Fourth Plenary Session 8/15/-17/44, attachment to 11/21/44. The IGCR agreed to shoulder $525,000 of certain JDC obligations in occupied countries for 3rd quarter 1944, and the JDC to act as its agent in the administration, 7/22/44-8/7/44. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, N. Bentwich, A.G. Brotman, H.W. Emerson, A. Greenleigh, J.C. Hyman, A. Jaretzki Jr., B. Kahn, N. Katz, M.A. Leavitt, J.W. Pehle, Franklin D. Roosevelt, J.J. Schwartz, M.C. Troper, G.L. Warren.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, Paul
Bentwich, N.
Brotman, A. G.
Emerson, Sir Herbert W.
Evian
Greenleigh, A. D.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Inter-Governmental Committee on Refugees (IGCR)
Jaretzki, A.
Kahn, Dr. Bernhard
Katz, Nathan
Leavitt, M. A.
London
Pehle, J. W.
Roosevelt, President Franklin D.
Schwartz, J. J.
Troper, Morris C.
Warren, G. L.
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File 256: Organizations: NGOs, Inter-Governmental Committee on Refugees (IGCR), Evian Conference, 1938 July 6-15
Verbatim reports of meetings #1-4 (English) and #6 (French). The fifth meeting was private and the sixth meeting was the last. Among others, the JDC, the ORT, the OSE, the WJC and the Reichsvertretung der Juden in Deutschland submitted memoranda to the Conference on the activities of their respective organizations.
Index Terms:
Evian
Inter-Governmental Committee on Refugees (IGCR)
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Series 29: Organizations: NGOs, Jewish Agency for Palestine (JA)
The JA was founded in 1922 and enlarged in August 1929 to include non-Zionist members as well, among them Louis Marshall, who was elected Chairman of the Executive Committee and Felix Warburg Chairman of the administration Committee Relations between the Zionist and Non-Zionist members of the JA weathered rough sailing from time to time. In May 1942, non-Zionist participation in the JA came to a standstill for the duration of the war, when the Zionists adopted a program calling for a Jewish commonwealth in Palestine. In its activities, the JA organized the movement and absorption of immigrants to Palestine, fostered settlement on the land, aided in the development of the Jewish economy and promoted educational and social services. After the rise of Hitler, the JA shouldered responsibility for the Youth Aliyah transfers of children from Nazi Germany to Palestine. Between 1933-1940, the JDC via the HICEM was a major contributor to the transportation costs and landing fees of Jewish refugees moving to Palestine from Germany, and shouldered those costs in full or in overwhelming degree after the outbreak of the war. See: HIAS, Files 244-248. In the course of the war, the JDC also granted direct allocations to the JA to cover emergency costs of refugees who came to Palestine. See below: Palestine, File 748.For earlier materials, see: Archives 1921-1933, File 96(6).
Index Terms:
Children
Germany
Jewish Agency for Palestine (JA)
Palestine
Refugees
Warburg, Felix M.
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File 257: Organizations: NGOs, Jewish Agency for Palestine (JA)
Relations between the JDC and the JA: 4/4/39, 7/18/40, 7/24/40, 8/4/41 and attachments. The JA launched a $1,000,000 loan fund in the U.S. to be repaid out of the UPA share of UJA funds, 7/24/40 Hyman Notes. "Proposed Resolutions Indicating Program of Action by American Jewry on Certain Specified Matters", 6/23/42-8/28/42. Correspondence: J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, M.A. Leavitt, S. Mayer, H. Montor, E.M. Morrissey, J.N. Rosenberg, M.C. Troper, F. Ullman, E.M.M. Warburg, M.D. Waldman, M.W. Weisgal.
Index Terms:
Hyman, Joseph C.
Jewish Agency for Palestine (JA)
Kahn, Dr. Bernhard
Leavitt, M. A.
Mayer, S.
Montor, H.
Morrissey, Evelyn M.
Rosenberg, James N.
Troper, Morris C.
Ullman, F.
Waldman, M. D.
Warburg, Edward M. M.
Weisgal, M. W.
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File 258: Organizations: NGOs, Jewish Agency for Palestine (JA)
Relations between the JDC and the JA: 5/14/43, 6/29/43-7/9/43, 8/23/43, 2/10/44 and attachment-2/11/44(2), 2/18/44, 2/28/44, 3/20/44, 3/23/44, 6/13/44-6/28/44, 8/5/44, 9/20/44, 9/25/44, 10/9/44, 10/18/44, 10/19/44, 11/7/44, 12/20/44. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, Ch. Barlas, J.C. Hyman, H. Katzki, M.A. Leavitt, J.L. Magnes, C. Passman, R. Resnick, J.J. Schwartz, M.M. Warburg.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, Paul
Barlas, Charles
Hyman, Joseph C.
Jewish Agency for Palestine (JA)
Katzki, Herbert
Leavitt, M. A.
Magnes, J. L.
Passman, C.
Resnick, R. B.
Schwartz, J. J.
Warburg, Max M.
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Series 30: Organizations: NGOs, Jewish Agricultural Society (JAS)
File 258a: Organizations: NGOs, Jewish Agricultural Society (JAS)
In 1938/39, the REC advanced $11,416 to the JAS to aid in the making of farm loans to Jewish refugee farmers in the U.S. In 1942, the REC advanced $1,334 more. Over 92% of the funds were repaid in the course of the years (see: 1/16/48).
Index Terms:
Jewish Agricultural Society (JAS)
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Series 31: Organizations: NGOs, Jewish Colonization Association (ICA)
The ICA was established in London in 1891 by Baron Maurice de Hirsch to aid the impoverished Jews of Eastern Europe. The founding capital amounted to $40,000,000. In the course of decades, the JDC and the ICA cooperated closely in two areas, most notably, emigration and reconstruction. In 1919, they founded the United Evacuations Committee (Along with Emig-Direct) to aid Jewish refugees stranded in European ports. In 1924, they created the American Joint Reconstruction Foundation, which conducted its activities in Paris until the fall of France in June 1940. For data on the Foundation, see below: Files 394-403. For earlier materials, see: Archives 1921-1932, Files 147-160. Between 1933-1940, the JDC, the ICA, the HIAS and the CBF/ British Council for German Jewry agreed to cover the transportation costs of Nazi victims incurred by the HICEM, an organization aiding in the emigration of Jewish refugees. For additional data, see below: Emigration, Files 363-367.Following the outbreak of W.W. II, the ICA, as a British corporation, witnessed its funds blocked by Britain's currency restrictions. In consequence, it became financially immobilized for the duration and was unable to contribute to the activities of the HICEM and of the Reconstruction Foundation. Sir Leonard Cohen served as President of the ICA from 1929-1934, Sir Osmond d'Avigdor Goldsmid from 1934-1940, and Leonard Montefiore from 1940-1944. Louis Oungre served as General Manager.
Index Terms:
Cohen, Sir Leonard
France
Immigration and Emigration
Jewish Colonization Association (ICA)
London
Montefiore, Leonard
Oungre, Louis
Paris
Reconstruction
Refugees
d'Avigdor Goldsmid, Sir Osmond E.
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File 259: Organizations: NGOs, Jewish Colonization Association (ICA)
The ICA participation in the program of German aid, 8/21/35, 12/3/36. The ICA trade schools and vocational courses aided in Poland, 12/16/37. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, O.E. d'Avigdor Goldsmid, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, L. Oungre, R. Pilpel, D.J. Schweitzer, M.C. Troper, F. Warburg.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, Paul
Education, Vocational and Trade
Hyman, Joseph C.
Jewish Colonization Association (ICA)
Kahn, Dr. Bernhard
Oungre, Louis
Pilpel, Robert
Poland
Schweitzer, D. J.
Troper, Morris C.
Warburg, Felix M.
d'Avigdor Goldsmid, Sir Osmond E.
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File 260: Organizations: NGOs, Jewish Colonization Association (ICA), HICEM
The correspondence between P. Baerwald and Sir Osmond d'Avigdor Goldsmid in the years between 1933-1939 form the bulk of the materials. The correspondence focuses on relationships with the HICEM and on the migration problems of Jewish refugees. Correspondence: C. Adler, P. Baerwald, B. Flexner, Sir Osmond d'A Goldsmid, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, M.C. Troper, F.M. Warburg.
Index Terms:
Adler, Cyrus
Baerwald, Paul
Flexner, B.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Jewish Colonization Association (ICA)
Kahn, Dr. Bernhard
Refugees
Troper, Morris C.
Warburg, Felix M.
d'Avigdor Goldsmid, Sir Osmond E.
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File 261: Organizations: NGOs, Jewish Colonization Association (ICA), Annual Reports, 1931, 1932, 1933
Index Terms:
Jewish Colonization Association (ICA)
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File 262: Organizations: NGOs, Jewish Colonization Association (ICA), Annual Reports, 1934, 1935, 1937
Index Terms:
Jewish Colonization Association (ICA)
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Series 32: Organizations: NGOs, Jewish Labor Committee (JLC)
The JLC was organized in 1934 (Chairman: B.C. Vladeck) as the representative of organized Jewish labor in affairs of Jewish interest. Until W.W. II, the JLC conducted special campaigns from time to time in aid of Jewish labor groups in Poland, and in 1937 it contributed $32,500 to the JDC, $20,000 of it earmarked for that purpose, and the rest free of restriction. .After war broke out, the JLC enlarged its fund-raising and contributed to the aid of Jewish labor groups in Nazi occupied countries, Poland and France most notably. It also aided refugee members of labor groups in Portugal, Shanghai and Japan, and contributed heavily to the transportation costs of Jewish labor leaders journeying from Eastern Europe to the U.S. via Siberia. JLC budgets expanded from $350,000 in 1941 to some $1,000,000 in 1945. About 60-70% of the funds were earmarked for overseas aid. In the first post-war years, the JLC continued to aid Jewish labor organizations and groups in France and Poland, most notably. Some of these labor organizations which conducted social welfare programs for refugees complained that the JDC was doing but little to help them. In many instances, they did receive sizeable subsidies from local Jewish communal organizations, but overlooked the fact that the budgets of the latter organizations were heavily subsidized by the JDC. The relationship between the JDC and JLC was a cordial and continuing one over the years, and particularly until the end of W.W. II. A number of JLC leaders served at the JDC as well, most notably Alexander Kahn. B. Charney Vladeck headed the JLC until his death in 1938 and was succeeded by Adolph Held, 1938-1968. Isaiah Minkoff served as Executive Secy. from 1939-1941 and was followed by Jacob Pat, 1941-1963.
Index Terms:
France
Held, Adolph
Japan
Jewish Labor Committee (JLC)
Kahn, Alexander
Minkoff, Isaiah
Pat, Jacob
Poland
Portugal
Refugees
Shanghai
Siberia
Vladeck, B. Charney
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File 263: Organizations: NGOs, Jewish Labor Committee (JLC), 1934; 1937; 1939 - 1941
On the JDC and the JLC: 10/17/39, 10/27/39, 12/5/39, 1/16/40, 4/26/40, 11/28/40, 12/16/40, 3/27/41, 5/13/41. Purposes of the JLC, 12/31/37, 3/14/39. Publications: "Facts and Opinions", monthly in Yiddish, December 1941. "In Defense of Human Rights" (January 1941). Correspondence: I.L. Asofsky, M. Beckelman, H.K. Buchman, S.A. Goldsmith, A. Held, J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt, J. Pat, B. Renard, J.J. Schwartz.
Index Terms:
Asofsky, Isaac L.
Beckelman, M. W.
Buchman, H. K.
Goldsmith, S. A.
Held, Adolph
Hyman, Joseph C.
Jewish Labor Committee (JLC)
Leavitt, M. A.
Pat, Jacob
Renard, B.
Schwartz, J. J.
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File 264: Organizations: NGOs, Jewish Labor Committee (JLC), 1942 - 1944
On the JDC and the JLC: 4/29/43, 10/13/43, 1/26/44, 9/21/44, 10/4/44. Publications: "The Jewish Labor Committee, What it Does and What it Stands For", 1942. "Facts and Opinions", monthly in Yiddish, 1942: January, February, March, April (excerpts), May. JLC Newsletter "The Voice of the Unconquered", 1944: June, July, August, September, December. Reports: JLC by the CJFWF, August 1944. Correspondence: H.K. Buchman, A. Held, J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt, H.L. Lurie, C. Passman, J. Pat, A.C. Ringland.
Index Terms:
Buchman, H. K.
Held, Adolph
Hyman, Joseph C.
Jewish Labor Committee (JLC)
Leavitt, M. A.
Lurie, H. L.
Passman, C.
Pat, Jacob
Ringland, A. C.
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File 265: Organizations: NGOs, Jewish Labor Committee (JLC), 1945 - 1954
On the JDC and the JLC: 3/20/46, 4/10/46, 3/3/47, 3/14/47 Joslow to Sobel, 4/18/47, 7/17/47, 11/17/47, 3/17/48, 3/11/49, 3/28/49, 4/4/49, 4/27/49, 5/27/49, 5/28/49, 6/15/49, 6/27/49, 10/28/49, 9/28/51. Publications: "Facts and Opinions", Yiddish monthly: 1947, March; 1948, Dec; 1949, February, Dec; 1950, June, Oct; 1951 Dec; 1952, Jan; 1953, March; "JLC Newsletter", English bi-monthly: 1949, January-February, March-April, September-October. Correspondence: M.B. Beckelman, H.K. Buchman, M.S. Goldstein, A. Gurin, J.C. Hyman, H.J. Joslow, A. Kahn, M. Laub, M.A. Leavitt, A.H. Lieberman, J. Pat, I. Rosen, J.J. Schwartz, L.H. Sobel, R.L. Stein, B. Tabachinsky, B. Ulin.
Index Terms:
Beckelman, M. W.
Buchman, H. K.
Goldstein, M. S.
Gurin, A.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Jewish Labor Committee (JLC)
Joslow, H. J.
Kahn, Alexander
Laub, M.
Leavitt, M. A.
Lieberman, A. H.
Pat, Jacob
Rosen, I.
Schwartz, J. J.
Sobel, L. H.
Stein, R. L.
Tabachinsky, B.
Ulin, B.
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Series 33: Organizations: NGOs, Jewish Telegraphic Agency (JTA; ITA)
File 266: Organizations: NGOs, Jewish Telegraphic Agency (JTA; ITA)
The JTA, established in 1917, distributes to its subscribers a Daily Bulletin of news of Jewish interest. In 1940, it launched an affiliate, the Overseas News Agency (ONA), to maintain contact with the non-Jewish press in the U.S., Canada and overseas lands. To aid in the creation and operation of the ONA, the JDC allocated $16,666 in 1940 and the AJC added a matching sum. JDC special grants to the JTA (including ONA), but excluding subscriptions and special services ran as follows: 1940: $21,667.1941: $10,000.1942: $10,000.1943: $10,000.1944: $10,000.Between 1939-1944, George Backer served as President of the JTA, Jacob Blaustein as Chairman of the Executive Committee, and Jacob Landau as Managing Editor. Tabulation of JDC payments to the JTA 1937-1940, 2/18/41. The JTA reports on its activities (including ONA), 2/6/42, 2/28/42. A JDC memo on the JTA, 4/6/42. A JTA Statement of Income and Expenditures 1942, attachment to 5/4/43. Correspondence: F.R. Adlerstein, J. Blaustein, J.C. Hyman, J. Landau, R. Pilpel, B. Smolar, L.H. Sobel, J.J. Schwartz, L.S. Strauss, M.C. Troper, M.D. Waldman.
Index Terms:
Adlerstein, F. R.
Backer, George
Blaustein, Jacob
Hyman, Joseph C.
Jewish Telegraphic Agency (JTA; ITA)
Landau, Jacob
Pilpel, Robert
Schwartz, J. J.
Smolar, B.
Sobel, L. H.
Strauss, L. L.
Troper, Morris C.
Waldman, M. D.
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Series 34: Organizations: NGOs, Joint Emergency Committee on European Jewish Affairs (JEC)
File 267: Organizations: NGOs, Joint Emergency Committee on European Jewish Affairs (JEC)
The JEC was organized in March 1943 "to coordinate activities to save as many Jews in Europe as possible from the Nazi extermination program." The JEC included representatives of the American Jewish Committee, American Jewish Congress, B'nai Brith, Jewish Labor Committee, American Committee of Zionist Emergency Affairs, Synagogue Council of America, Union of Orthodox Rabbis, American Section of Agudath Israel and United Palestine Appeal. The JDC was not a JEC member but was represented by an observer. Informally, it also provided the JEC with information and data on programs of immediate aid that could be undertaken. In April 1943, the JEC submitted to the Bermuda Conference an appeal for the Rescue of Jews from Nazi Occupied Europe. For additional materials on the Bermuda Conference, see below: Refugees, File 410. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, J.C. Hyman, J.B. Wise, S.S. Wise.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, Paul
Hyman, Joseph C.
Joint Emergency Committee on European Jewish Affairs (JEC)
Wise, J. B.
Wise, S. S.
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Series 35: Organizations: NGOs, Miscellaneous
File 268: Organizations: NGOs, Miscellaneous Organizations
1. Agudas Israel World Organization, 1936-1944. 2. Alliance American Lithuanian Jews, 1941-1945. 3. American Committee for Hungarian War Refugees, 1941.4. American Philanthropic Fund (Rosenwald Estate), 1938-1945 Between 1941-1945 the American Philanthropic Fund granted a number of allocations based on JDC recommendations. The most notable came in 1944, a $100,000 grant to the American Friends Service Committee in aid of refugee transportation. Also see below: File 283, Rosenwald Family Capital Outlay Fund.5. Anti-Defamation League of B'nai Brith, 1941.6. Assembly Hebrew Orthodox Rabbis of American and Canada, 1936.7. Bureau of Jewish Social Research-Council of Jewish Federations and Welfare Funds, 1931-1933.8. Central Conference of American Rabbis, 1935-1940.8a. Federal Council of the Churches of America, 1933-1934.9. International Migration Service, 1934-1944.10. United Fund for Refugee Children, 1940-1941.11. Self-Help of Emigres from Central Europe, 1937-1939
Index Terms:
Agudas Israel World Organization
Alliance American Lithuanian Jews
American Committee for Hungarian War Refugees
American Philanthropic Fund (Rosenwald Estate)
Anti-Defamation League of B'nai Brith
Assembly Hebrew Orthodox Rabbis of America and Canada
Bureau of Jewish Social Research-Council of Jewish Federations and Welfare Funds
Central Conference of American Rabbis
Federal Council of the Churches of America
International Migration Service
Refugees
Self-Help of Emigres from Central Europe
United Fund for Refugee Children
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File 269: Organizations: NGOs, Miscellaneous Publications on Jewish Organizations
1. The Jewish Organizations' ABC, 1939. (German).2. American Jewish Committee report on organizations, 1939. A compilation of data, in capsule form, of 63 organizations "whose announced intention is to serve the cause of democracy in one way or another and about which there have been inquiries." Some Jewish organizations were included.3. Prominent agencies in relief, rehabilitation and emigration, Memo by J.C. Hyman.
Index Terms:
Hyman, Joseph C.
Immigration and Emigration
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Series 36: Organizations: NGOs, National Budget Committee for War Appeals (NBCWA)
Community Chests and Councils (CCC).After Pearl Harbor the CCC, the national association of local community funds, began to promote war chest campaigns - central fund-raising efforts covering all war-connected drives and overseas relief appeals. To regulate those campaigns the CCC, in July 1942, set up a National Budget Committee for War Appeals (Chairman: Gerard Swope) composed of leaders prominent in a variety of fields. The NBCWA was called upon to frame a general list of approved war appeals, to organize a national war chest campaign and to fix quotas. In the course of 1942, ten Jewish welfare funds agreed to participate in local Jewish war chest campaigns. The CJFWF and the UJA and its three constituent members divided sharply in their responses. All acknowledged that serious problems would crop up whatever the decision, since local war chests were emerging as a major factor in philanthropy. The CJFWF recommended participation in war chests to its member agencies while the UPA expressed opposition. The UJA and the JDC took no general stand and left decision-making to individual communities. Also see: ORG., National War Fund, File 315.
Index Terms:
National Budget Committee for War Appeals (NBCWA)
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File 270: Organizations: NGOs, National Budget Committee for War Appeals (NBCWA), 1941 - 1942 September
CJFWF Bulletins and Statements: Status of War Chest Plans, 6/10/41; Preliminary Statement of War Chest Developments, 6/17/42; $85,000,000 Goal for War Appeals", 7/17/42; 1942 Campaigns, Results, Characteristics and Prospects, 7/22/42; War Chest Developments, 7/31/42; Pros and Cons of Welfare Fund Affiliations with War Chests, 8/7/42. Baerwald accepts membership on the Executive Committee of the Nat'l Council but ad personam and not on behalf of the JDC or the UJA, 7/17/42, Swope to Baerwald and Wise to Burns. Report: The NBCWA for the 1942 Campaign, 9/16/42. Correspondence: A. Abrahamson, P. Baerwald, A.L. Burns, I. Coons, J.C. Hyman, H.L. Lurie, H. Montor, C.A. Riegelman, Wm. Rosenwald, A.H. Silver, I. Sobeloff, J.B. Wise.
Index Terms:
Abrahamson, Albert
Baerwald, Paul
Burns, A. L.
Coons, I.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Lurie, H. L.
Montor, H.
National Budget Committee for War Appeals (NBCWA)
Riegelman, Charles A.
Rosenwald, William
Silver, A. H.
Sobeloff, I.
Wise, J. B.
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File 271: Organizations: NGOs, National Budget Committee for War Appeals (NBCWA), 1942 October - 1944
Joint Memo: CJFWF - NBCWA, "Jewish Fund-Raising Activities and their Relation to Community War Chest Appeals", 12/1/42. CJFWF Bulletins and Statements: "Hold Everything", 11/13/42; "War Chest Developments", 12/10/42; "Further War Chest Developments", 4/14/43; "Annual Meeting CCC", 5/6/43. Minutes and Memos of Meetings: UJA-War Relief Central Board, 11/5/42. Also see: File 270, 9/16/42. Correspondence: A. Abrahamson, P. Baerwald, I. Coons, S. Hollander, J.C. Hyman, H.L. Lurie, H. Montor, C.A. Riegelman, Wm. Rosenwald.
Index Terms:
Abrahamson, Albert
Baerwald, Paul
Coons, I.
Hollander, S.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Lurie, H. L.
Montor, H.
National Budget Committee for War Appeals (NBCWA)
Riegelman, Charles A.
Rosenwald, William
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Series 37: Organizations: NGOs, National Conference of Christians and Jews
File 272: Organizations: NGOs, National Conference of Christians and Jews
National Conference of Jews and Christians (1928). National Conference of Christians and Jews (1939). The Conference was established in 1928 in an effort to develop aid and understanding between religious groups in the U.S. It raised funds privately. In 1939, the Conference underwent a change in the name order, as noted above. The Rev. Everett R. Clinchy served as the Conference Director between 1933 - 1944 and as its President for over a decade thereafter. Relationships with the JDC were cordial and continuing over the years. Early in 1934, the Conference organized the American Christian Committee for German Refugees, and its relationship with the JDC proved equally cordial and continuing. For materials, see: American Chr. Committee, Files 202-203.Publication: Report of the Director, November 2, 1939. Correspondence: R.A. Ashworth, E.R. Clinchy, J.C. Hyman, M.J. Joslow, R.T. Kennedy, J.S. Shapiro.
Index Terms:
Ashworth, R. A.
Clinchy, Reverend Everett R.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Joslow, H. J.
Kennedy, R. T.
National Conference of Christians and Jews
National Conference of Jews and Christians
Shapiro, J. S.
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Series 38: Organizations: NGOs, National Conference of Jewish Social Welfare (NCJSW)
National Conference of Jewish Social Service (NCJSS) 1918.National Conference of Jewish Social Welfare (NCJSW) 1936.The NCJSS was formed in 1918 and became the NCJSW in 1936. It served as a National Conference, and not as a functional agency, to Jewish social and communal workers on problems which local Jewish organizations were unable to cope with single-handed. J.C. Hyman served as a member of the Executive Committee in 1937 - 1938, and from 1940 - 1945. L.H. Sobel served as President in 1947, and as a member of the Executive Committee from 1945 - 1955. Other JDC staff members also participated in the activities of the NCJSW over the years.
Index Terms:
Hyman, Joseph C.
National Conference of Jewish Social Welfare (NCJSW)
Sobel, L. H.
File 273: Organizations: NGOs, National Conference of Jewish Social Welfare (NCJSW), 1929 - 1938; 1940
Correspondence: M.W. Beckelman, H. Greenstein, J.C. Hyman, M.J. Karpf, M.A. Leavitt, J.J. Schwartz, L.H. Sobel.
Index Terms:
Beckelman, M. W.
Greenstein, H.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Karpf, M. J.
Leavitt, M. A.
National Conference of Jewish Social Welfare (NCJSW)
Schwartz, J. J.
Sobel, L. H.
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File 274: Organizations: NGOs, National Conference of Jewish Social Welfare (NCJSW), 1945 - 1950
The JDC granted $1,000 to the NCJSW to aid in the publication of: "The History of Jewish Social Welfare". Correspondence: H.H. Aptekar, B.B. Goldman, J.C. Hyman, L. Kraft, L.H. Sobel.
Index Terms:
Aptekar, H. H.
Goldman, Blanche B.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Kraft, L.
National Conference of Jewish Social Welfare (NCJSW)
Sobel, L. H.
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Series 39: Organizations: NGOs, National Coordinating Committee (NCC) for Aid to Refugees and Emigrants Coming from Germany
The NCC was organized in 1934 to coordinate the activities of national agencies serving emigres and refugees, and to act as a national clearing agency of activities conducted on behalf of emigres to the U.S. Some 22 organizations were associated with the NCC, most notably the Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars, the Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Physicians, the German-Jewish Children's Aid, the Greater New York Committee for German Refugees, and the National Council of Jewish Women. From 1934 - 1939, Joseph B. Chamberlain served as Chairman, Wm. Rosenwald, Vice-Chairman, (1936 - 1939), Paul Felix Warburg, Treasurer, and Cecilia Razovsky, Secy and Executive Director. Jewish refugee migration to the U.S. in the 1930's came from Germany in the main, and later also from Austria and Czechoslovakia. It soared from some 7,000 persons in 1934 to 10,500 in 1936, to 25,500 in 1938, to 51,000 in 1939. Over the same span, JDC allocations to the NCC and its affiliated organizations took the following pattern:1934: $10,000.1935: $15,000.1936: $87,500.1937: $150,000.1938: $150,000.Total: $412,500.In addition, the UJA made direct grants of $80,000 in 1934/35, of which $48,000 was the portion credited to the JDC. Funds from private foundations also flowed to the NCC via the JDC, and from Welfare Funds, the latter starting in 1938. But by mid-1938, refugee needs in the U.S. soared beyond the volume of funds at the disposal of the JDC for its world-wise operations. In consequence, the NCC became a UJA beneficiary in 1939, along with the JDC and the UPA. The financial switchover was accompanied by a structural reorganization of the NCC and its affiliates, and the National Refugee Service (NRS) became the successor organization. Most of the JDC activists in the NCC continued to serve the NRS in similar capacities. From the start, the newcomer refugees congregated in New York City and vicinity, in the main, giving rise to complex organizational and fiscal problems. In consequence, a Greater N.Y. Committee for German Refugees (Chairman: David Sulzberger) was created so as to coordinate the activities of the relevant local organizations. The necessary funds came from the JDC and from private foundations, among them the New York Foundation, the Baron de Hirsch Fund, the Hofheimer Foundation and the Rosenwald Foundation. By mid-1936, refugee needs in the New York area had expanded to the point where a special committee, the Allocations Committee (AC) of the NCC was organized to administer the funds and widen the base of national support. Eustace Seligman served as Chairman and the membership included representatives of the contributing foundations. The AC was incorporated in 1938 and renamed the NCC Fund Inc. In 1939, the NCC and the NCC Fund were merged in the NRS. For data on the Greater N.Y. Committee for German Refugees between 1934 - 1936 (March), see above: File 240. For data on the individual refugee group committees, see: Files 406 - 409.
Index Terms:
Austria
Chamberlain, J. P.
Czechoslovakia
Germany
National Coordinating Committee (NCC)
Physicians and Doctors
Razovsky, Cecilia
Refugees
Rosenwald, William
Scholars and Teachers
Seligman, Eustace
Sulzberger, David H.
Warburg, Paul Felix
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File 275: Organizations: NGOs, National Coordinating Committee (NCC), General, 1934 - 1935
The JDC allocated $5,000 to the NCC to aid it in getting under way, 6/15/34, 6/18/34. The JDC guaranteed three-fourths of the $10,000 in small loans to German refugees granted by the Hebrew Free Loan Fund, 7/1/35. Minutes of NCC meetings: 4/26/34, 6/7/34, 6/29/34(2), 7/23/34, 11/12/34, 12/31/34, 2/21/35, 10/11/35. In other minutes of meetings refugee problems are discussed, 10/3/34. Brief reports on NCC activities, 7/16/34, 9/20/34, 11/13/34, 12/21/34. Memos: Organizations providing German refugee aid in N.Y., 7/16/34, 5/22/35. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, J.P. Chamberlain, J.C. Hyman, E.M. Morrissey, C. Razovsky, D.J. Schweitzer, D.H. Sulzberger, J.B. Wise.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, Paul
Chamberlain, J. P.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Morrissey, Evelyn M.
National Coordinating Committee (NCC)
Razovsky, Cecilia
Refugees
Schweitzer, D. J.
Sulzberger, David H.
Wise, J. B.
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File 276: Organizations: NGOs, National Coordinating Committee (NCC), General, 1936
Minutes of meetings: 1/6/36 - 1/7/36, 6/12/36, 8/19/36. The NCC was reorganized, its Board of Directors enlarged, and Wm. Rosenwald was elected Vice-Chairman, 6/12/36 - 6/25/36, 7/8/36, 7/30/36, 8/5/36, 8/19/36, 8/26/36. An Allocations Committee was appointed to administer funds supplied by the JDC and private foundations, 10/24/36. Reports: Organizations Providing German Refugee Aid in N.Y., April 1936(2). The NCC by C. Razovsky, 10/22/36. Fin. Statements: Summary of Funds raised for German refugee aid in U.S. 1933 - 1935, 5/15/36; German Refugee Aid in the U.S., 10/30/36; German refugee aid in N.Y., 11/11/36, arrangement renewed with the Hebrew Free Loan Fund, 11/5/36. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, J.P. Chamberlain, J.C. Hyman, S. Lowenstein, E.M. Morrissey, C. Razovsky, Wm. Rosenwald.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, Paul
Chamberlain, J. P.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Lowenstein, Solomon
Morrissey, Evelyn M.
National Coordinating Committee (NCC)
Razovsky, Cecilia
Refugees
Rosenwald, William
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File 277: Organizations: NGOs, National Coordinating Committee (NCC), General, 1937
Jacob Billikopf was appointed Associate Executive Dir. of the NCC and charged with organizing local committees on refugee care to cope with employment and adjustment problems, 1/19/37. Organizations associated with the NCC in New York expended over $800,000 on refugee aid from 1934 - 1936, 3/4/37, 3/8/37. A special JDC Committee appointed (Chairman: Eustace Seligman) to consider German refugee problems in the U.S., 5/18/37, 6/2/37 and attachments, 6/24/37 and attachments. Officers of the principal organizations affiliated with the NCC, 6/11/37. Difficult fin. status of the NCC, 1/21/37, 2/16/37, 4/28/37, 5/7/37, 5/19/37 attachment, 6/11/37, 6/22/37 attachment. NCC Board of Directors Minutes, 6/24/37, 10/4/37 attachment, 10/7/37. Reports: Activities of the NCC, July 1936 - March 1937 presented by Wm. Rosenwald, 5/14/37. Allocations for 1937, 12/31/37. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, J. Billikopf, H.K. Buchman, J.P. Chamberlain, I. Coons, J.C. Hyman, H. Katzki, E.M. Morrissey, C. Razovsky, Wm. Rosenwald, E. Seligman, J.B. Wise.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, Paul
Billikopf, Jacob
Buchman, H. K.
Chamberlain, J. P.
Coons, I.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Katzki, Herbert
Morrissey, Evelyn M.
National Coordinating Committee (NCC)
Razovsky, Cecilia
Refugees
Rosenwald, William
Seligman, Eustace
Wise, J. B.
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File 278: Organizations: NGOs, National Coordinating Committee (NCC), General, 1938 January-June
Speeches on the NCC and affiliated agencies presented at conferences held 1/10/38, attachment to 3/11/38. Baron de Hirsch Fund allocated $50,000 for German refugee relief in NYC via the JDC and the NCC, 1/25/38, 1/26/38, 2/2/38(2), 2/16/38 (Katzki to Troper), 3/28/38, 3/31/38 Benjamin to Baerwald. The NCC applied to Welfare Funds and Campaign Budget Committees for aid, 2/17/38 Baerwald to Steinhart, 2/18/38 Hyman to Gerson and Circular Letter March 1938.Reports: Activities of the NCC and affiliated organizations for 1937, 5/23/38; The German Emigres in the U.S., by C. Razovsky, 6/9/38. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, E.S. Benjamin, J. Billikopf, M. Fainberg, J.C. Hyman, S.C. Kohs, J.B. Lightman, C. Razovsky, Wm. Rosenwald.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, Paul
Benjamin, E. S.
Billikopf, Jacob
Fainberg, M.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Katzki, Herbert
Kohs, S. C.
Lightman, J. B.
National Coordinating Committee (NCC)
Razovsky, Cecilia
Refugees
Rosenwald, William
Troper, Morris C.
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File 279: Organizations: NGOs, National Coordinating Committee (NCC), General, 1938 July-December
Thumbnail identifications of the NCC B. of D., 9/17/38. In 1938, the JDC advanced $265,000 to the NCC against reimbursement, in addition to its allocation, 12/30/38 Morrissey to Lew. Minutes of meetings: NCC Executive Committee 10/12/38; JDC Officers Meeting 10/27/38.Publication: Proceedings of NCC Conference, 9/17/38. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, W. Bieringer, D. Bressler, M. Fainberg, I.B. Goldwasser, J.C. Hyman, H. Katzki, S.C. Kohs, C. Razovsky, Wm. Rosenwald, E. Seligman.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, Paul
Bieringer, W.
Bressler, David M.
Fainberg, M.
Goldwasser, I. E.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Katzki, Herbert
Kohs, S. C.
Morrissey, Evelyn M.
National Coordinating Committee (NCC)
Razovsky, Cecilia
Rosenwald, William
Seligman, Eustace
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File 280: Organizations: NGOs, National Coordinating Committee (NCC), General, 1939; 1941
Agencies associated with the NCC and their functions, 1/21/39. Estimated needs for 1939 of the NCC and affiliated agencies rises to $3,000,000, 2/7/39, 3/9/39 Rosenwald letter, 3/25/39, 3/28/39 and attachments. Status of Nazi refugee migration to Latin America, 3/9/39 "Bound for Nowhere". The NCC was reorganized and succeeded by the National Refugee Service (NRS), NCC Policy Committee Minutes 4/7/39. Report to the JDC Executive Committee by Wm. Rosenwald, 4/19/39. Reorganization Study of the NCC by H. Greenstein, May 1939. The NCC Recast, by H. Greenstein, 6/5/39 CJFWF News and Notes. The NCC repaid the JDC $806,000 in advances extended to it in 1938 - 1939, 6/21/39. JDC allocations to the NCC 1933 - 1938, 1/17/41. Correspondence: J.P. Chamberlain, I. Coons, M. Fainberg, J.C. Hyman, C. Razovsky, Wm. Rosenwald, E. Seligman.
Index Terms:
Chamberlain, J. P.
Coons, I.
Fainberg, M.
Greenstein, H.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Latin America
National Coordinating Committee (NCC)
Razovsky, Cecilia
Refugees
Rosenwald, William
Seligman, Eustace
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File 281: Organizations: NGOs, National Coordinating Committee (NCC), Funds: Allocations Committee (AC) Associated with NCC and NCC Fund, Inc., 1936 - 1938 March
Minutes of meetings AC/NCC: 11/19/36, 1/21/37 (summary), 1/19/38 transcript and summary. The AC applied to the CJFWF for an allocation, 6/14/37. AC memo outlined costs and scope of German refugee programs in 1937, 6/15/37. S. Lowenstein of the CJFWF maintained that the refugee problem is a communal responsibility and should not fall on his organization, 6/17/37. The AC appealed afresh to the CJFWF, 10/5/37 attachment to 10/4/37; 1/28/38 Hyman to Seligman; 2/1/38. Fin. strains mounted as the JSSA was forced to discontinue the grant of advances vs. future reimbursement, 2/17/38. The CJFWF allocated $75,000 to the NCC for refugee care in N.Y., 2/23/38. Correspondence: M. Fainberg, J.C. Hyman, H. Katzki, S. Lowenstein, C. Razovsky, Wm. Rosenwald, E. Seligman.
Index Terms:
Fainberg, M.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Katzki, Herbert
Lowenstein, Solomon
National Coordinating Committee (NCC)
Razovsky, Cecilia
Refugees
Rosenwald, William
Seligman, Eustace
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File 282: Organizations: NGOs, National Coordinating Committee (NCC), Funds: Allocations Committee (AC) Associated with NCC and NCC Fund, Inc., 1938 April - 1939
Minutes of meetings of AC/NCC: 5/20/38, 6/16/38, 11/2/38, and of the NCC Sub-Committee on Physicians and Scholars, 4/28/38. Legacy of $94,000 from the Jacob Fox Estate went to the AC/NCC, via the JDC, for the aid of German-Jewish refugees in the U.S., 6/28/38(3). Deficit of the AC/NCC estimated at $230,000 for 1938 and a shortfall of $800,000 was projected for 1939, 11/2/38 AC/NCC Minutes, 11/3/38. Summary of AC/NCC Activities Report by Wm. Rosenwald, 1/26/39. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, M. Feinberg, J.C. Hyman, S. Lowenstein, Wm. Rosenwald, E. Seligman, M.C. Troper.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, Paul
Feinberg, M.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Lowenstein, Solomon
National Coordinating Committee (NCC)
Physicians and Doctors
Refugees
Rosenwald, William
Scholars and Teachers
Seligman, Eustace
Troper, Morris C.
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File 283: Organizations: NGOs, National Coordinating Committee (NCC), Funds: NCC Capital Outlay Fund (COF), Rosenwald Family Capital Outlay Fund (RFCOF) and National Refugee Service, Capital Loan Fund (NRSCLF), 1938 - 1944
The Rosenwald Family Capital Outlay Fund was organized in July 1938 to grant loans for economic adjustment which were unobtainable elsewhere, to artisans, small businessmen and members of the professions among German-Jewish refugees in the U.S. The Rosenwald Family contributed $20,000 to the Fund and matching amounts came from several sources. The COF was administered by the NCC. When the NRS became the successor agency, its Capital Outlay Committee became the successor of the COF. Abner Bregman served as Chairman and M. Feinberg as Secretary of the successive Capital Loan Funds. For other Rosenwald Funds, see: American Philanthropic Fund, File 268.4.Minutes of Meeting of the Organization Committee of the RFCOF, 7/7/38. .Reports: Activities of the RFCOF, 4/3/39, 6/26/39, 2/8/40. Activities of the NRSCLF 7/26/40 attachment to 7/30/40, and The Year 1940, 4/2/41. Correspondence: J.C. Hyman, N.W. Levin, Wm. Rosenwald.
Index Terms:
Bregman, Abner
Feinberg, M.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Levin, N. W.
National Coordinating Committee (NCC)
Refugees
Rosenwald, William
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File 284: Organizations: NGOs, National Coordinating Committee (NCC), Publications and Publicity: Publications by the NCC and by affiliated and associated agencies, 1939
Publications by the NCC and by affiliated and associated agencies, 1939.
Index Terms:
National Coordinating Committee (NCC)
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File 285: Organizations: NGOs, National Coordinating Committee (NCC), Publications and Publicity: Immigration Requirements, Regulations and Procedures of Various Countries, 1938 - 1939
Immigration Requirements, Regulations and Procedures of Various Countries, 1938 - 1939.
Index Terms:
Immigration and Emigration
National Coordinating Committee (NCC)
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File 286: Organizations: NGOs, National Coordinating Committee (NCC), Financial Reports, Loeb and Troper Fin. Statements, 1935 - 1938
Loeb and Troper Fin. Statements, 1935 - 1938
Index Terms:
National Coordinating Committee (NCC)
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File 287: Organizations: NGOs, National Coordinating Committee (NCC), Weekly Financial Reports, 1938 - 1939
NCC Weekly Reports: Cash in Bank and Pledges, July 1938 - October 1939 Pledges and Payments, August 1938 - November 1939.
Index Terms:
National Coordinating Committee (NCC)
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File 288: Organizations: NGOs, National Coordinating Committee (NCC), Financial/Statistical Reports, First Quarter, 1937
First Quarter, 1937
Index Terms:
National Coordinating Committee (NCC)
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File 289: Organizations: NGOs, National Coordinating Committee (NCC), Statistical Reports, 1936
Statistical reports for 1936 by the NCC and 12 affiliated organizations. For some organizations, the first quarter of 1937 is included.
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File 290: Organizations: NGOs, National Coordinating Committee (NCC), Statistical Reports, 1937
Statistical reports on aid granted by the NCC and affiliated organizations in 23 large cities to Jewish immigrants from Germany.
Index Terms:
Germany
National Coordinating Committee (NCC)
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File 291: Organizations: NGOs, National Coordinating Committee (NCC), Statistical Reports, 1937 - 1938
Annual statistical reports for 1938, plus monthly statistical reports by the NCC and affiliated organizations, August 1938 - June 1939.
Index Terms:
National Coordinating Committee (NCC)
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File 292: Organizations: NGOs, National Coordinating Committee (NCC), Statistical Reports, 1938 - 1939
Weekly statistical reports by the NCC and affiliated organizations, July 1938 - June 1939.
Index Terms:
National Coordinating Committee (NCC)
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Series 40: Organizations: NGOs, Resettlement Division
File 293: Organizations: NGOs, Resettlement Division, 1938 - 1939
The Resettlement Division was organized in October 1936 to aid in resettling throughout the U.S. refugees from Germany who had congregated in New York and vicinity. Jacob Billikopf served as Director in 1938. Resettlement needs grew more critical following the Nazi annexation of Austria and of the Sudentenland. Minutes of meeting, Resettlement Division, 5/29/38, 9/17/38. Minutes of meeting on resettlement problems by communal representatives from the Eastern U.S., 6/26/38. Correspondence: J.C. Hyman, S.C. Kohs, Wm. Rosenwald, W.B. Thalheimer, J.B. Wise.
Index Terms:
Austria
Billikopf, Jacob
Germany
Hyman, Joseph C.
Kohs, S. C.
Refugees
Resettlement Division
Rosenwald, William
Thalheimer, W. B.
Wise, J. B.
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Series 41: Organizations: NGOs, National Council of Jewish Federations and Welfare Funds (CJFWF)
The CJFWF, composed of local federations, welfare funds and community councils, was organized in 1932 to serve its members as a national coordinating agency. It held annual regional conferences in various cities to discuss problems of Jewish education and to formulate policy, as well as annual sessions of its general assembly. It also issued confidential reports to members on regional, national and overseas agencies which sought local support. From 1937 onwards, the CJFWF urged the JDC to conduct united fund-raising drives with the UPA, see Memo 9/28/38 below. Over the years, the CJFWF maintained a close and continuing relationship with the JDC.
Index Terms:
Education, Jewish
National Council of Jewish Federations and Welfare Funds (CJFWF)
File 294: Organizations: NGOs, National Council of Jewish Federations and Welfare Funds (CJFWF), 1934 - 1936
S.S. Wise appealed to the CJFWF for increased support to the UPA and the JDC in aiding 100,000 Jews to emigrate from Germany, 2/21/36, The CJFWF invited the JDC and the UPA to a joint conference on the 1937 campaign and to appoint a joint committee, 10/9/36-10/19/36, 11/5/36. Correspondence: I. Coons, J.C. Hyman, H.L. Lurie, E.M. Morrissey, B. Renard, Wm. Rosenwald, Wm. J. Schroder, S.S. Wise.
Index Terms:
Coons, I.
Germany
Hyman, Joseph C.
Lurie, H. L.
Morrissey, Evelyn M.
National Council of Jewish Federations and Welfare Funds (CJFWF)
Renard, B.
Rosenwald, William
Schroder, William J.
Wise, Rabbi Stephen S.
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File 295: Organizations: NGOs, National Council of Jewish Federations and Welfare Funds (CJFWF), 1937
An Agreement for 1937 between the JDC, the UPA and the CJFWF was reached on the division of funds raised for overseas use in specified cities, 2/4/37, 2/5/37, 3/13/37; also see: File 294, 12/16/36-12/30/36. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, H.K. Buchman, I. Coons, M.R. Herman, J.C. Hyman, H.L. Lurie, B. Renard, Wm. Rosenwald, Wm. J. Schroder.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, Paul
Buchman, H. K.
Coons, I.
Herman, M. R.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Lurie, H. L.
National Council of Jewish Federations and Welfare Funds (CJFWF)
Renard, B.
Rosenwald, William
Schroder, William J.
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File 296: Organizations: NGOs, National Council of Jewish Federations and Welfare Funds (CJFWF), 1938
An Agreement for 1937 between the JDC and the UPA was reached along the same lines as in 1937, 1/6/38, 1/18/38-3/21/38; also see: File 295, 12/9/37, 12/16/37-12/29/37. J.C. Hyman commented on responsibilities of the CJFWF, 5/5/38, 5/25/38. The CJFWF pressed the JDC and the UPA to conduct a united campaign, 10/25/38, 10/26/38, 11/1/38. The JDC weighed the course to take, 9/28/38, 10/31/38, 11/7/38 Hyman to JDC Officers, 12/6/38; also see above: JDC Executive Committee File 17, 11/28/38. The JDC, the UPA and the CJFWF held joint discussions on a united campaign, 11/22/38, 12/8/38, and agreement was reached 12/9/38, 12/20/38-12/21/38. Correspondence: C. Adler, P. Baerwald, J.C. Hyman, C.M. Morrissey, B. Renard, Lessing J. Rosenwald, Wm. Rosenwald, J. Rubenstein, Wm. J. Schroder, A.H. Silver, J.B. Wise.
Index Terms:
Adler, Cyrus
Baerwald, Paul
Hyman, Joseph C.
Morrissey, Evelyn M.
National Council of Jewish Federations and Welfare Funds (CJFWF)
Renard, B.
Rosenwald, Lessing J.
Rosenwald, William
Rubenstein, J.
Schroder, William J.
Silver, A. H.
Wise, J. B.
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File 297: Organizations: NGOs, National Council of Jewish Federations and Welfare Funds (CJFWF), 1939
The JDC granted $5,000 to the CJFWF for 1939 as a contribution to the costs of its N.Y. operations, after the N.Y. UJA had rejected a similar request for jurisdictional reasons, 6/26/39, 11/17/39, 11/24/39(2). Correspondence: H.K. Buchman, S. Hollander, J.C. Hyman, H.L. Lurie, B. Renard, Wm. Rosenwald.
Index Terms:
Buchman, H. K.
Hollander, S.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Lurie, H. L.
National Council of Jewish Federations and Welfare Funds (CJFWF)
Renard, B.
Rosenwald, William
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File 298: Organizations: NGOs, National Council of Jewish Federations and Welfare Funds (CJFWF), 1940 January-August
Agencies and individuals associated with the CJFWF urged the JDC to reach agreement with the UPA on a united campaign for 1940, see above: File 79, 1/18/40 attachments to letter Schwartz to Solender. The JDC granted $5,000 to the CJFWF as a contribution for 1940, 6/27/40 and File 299 below, 11/1/40 Leavitt to Lurie. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, S.A. Goldsmith, S. Hollander, J.C. Hyman, H.L. Lurie, B. Renard, Wm. Rosenwald.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, Paul
Goldsmith, S. A.
Hollander, S.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Leavitt, M. A.
Lurie, H. L.
National Council of Jewish Federations and Welfare Funds (CJFWF)
Renard, B.
Rosenwald, William
Schwartz, J. J.
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File 299: Organizations: NGOs, National Council of Jewish Federations and Welfare Funds (CJFWF), 1940 September-December
The CJFWF and the JDC representatives met to urge a united campaign for 1941 but a meeting of the minds failed to follow, 12/12/40, 12/17/40. Correspondence: I. Coons, S. Hollander, J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt, H.L. Lurie.
Index Terms:
Coons, I.
Hollander, S.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Leavitt, M. A.
Lurie, H. L.
National Council of Jewish Federations and Welfare Funds (CJFWF)
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Series 42: Organizations: NGOs, National Refugee Service (NRS)
The NRS was created in June 1939 as the successor organization to the NCC (see: Files 275-293), so as to carry on more intensively the range of services required by Nazi victim refugees in the U.S. These services spanned a broad range in relief, rehabilitation, resettlement and integration. From 1939-1945, the NRS was one of the three constituent organizations of the UJA, along with the JDC and the UPA, and it obtained a great share of its funds from that body. Jewish refugee migration to the U.S. in the pre-war years reached a peak of 51,000 persons in 1939, on the momentum of Nazi persecutions and pressures. Following the outbreak of the war, migration to the U.S. was curtailed sharply, dropping to 42,400 persons in 1940 and to 28,800 in 1941. More drastic cuts followed in the wake of Pearl Harbor-to 12,100 persons in 1942 and to 5,600 in 1943. UJA allocations to the NRS followed a broadly comparable pattern, within a descending curve: 1939: $2,600,000.1940: $2,500,000; $1,000,000 (by Greater N.Y. UJA).1941: $2,000,000.1942: $2,000,000.1943: $1,500,000.1944: $1,000,000.1945: $979,000. In 1940-1941, the JDC loaned the NRS some $1,500,000 all told to tide it over periods of income shortfalls from the UJA. The JDC also guaranteed an NRS bank loan of $500,000. Subsequently, the loans were all repaid in full. The NRS officers included: Pres: Wm. Rosenwald 1939-1944, Charles A. Riegelman, 1944-1946. Hon. Pres: Wm. Rosenwald 1944-1946. Chairman of the Board: Joseph P. Chamberlain. Executive Secretary: Wm. Haber, 1939-1941 (February), Albert Abrahamson 1941-1943 (April), and Joseph E. Beck, 1943-1946.In 1946, the NRS merged with the United Service for New Americans, and in 1954 that organization in turn merged with the United HIAS Service (UHS).
Index Terms:
Abrahamson, Albert
Beck, Joseph E.
Chamberlain, J. P.
Haber, William
National Refugee Service (NRS)
Refugees
Riegelman, Charles A.
Rosenwald, William
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File 300: Organizations: NGOs, National Refugee Service (NRS), General, 1939 - 1940
The Baron de Hirsch Fund made a direct gift of $25,000 to the NRS, 2/23/40. The JDC loaned some $700,000 to the NRS in 1940, to tide it over income shortfalls from the UJA, 3/29/40, 11/22/40. Correspondence: I.E. Goldwasser, Wm. Haber, J.C. Hyman, I. Rosen, Wm. Rosenwald. Also see below: File 304, Board of Directors Minutes of Meetings. Files 305-306, Executive Committee Minutes of Meetings, 1939 - 1940.File 303, Fin. Budgets. File 313, Reports, Annual and Quarterly.
Index Terms:
Goldwasser, I. E.
Haber, William
Hyman, Joseph C.
National Refugee Service (NRS)
Rosen, I.
Rosenwald, William
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File 301: Organizations: NGOs, National Refugee Service (NRS), General, 1941 - 1942
The NRS prepared to conduct an independent fund-raising campaign for 1941 in light of the dissolution of the UJA Agreement, 1/13/41, 1/20/41, 2/10/41, 2/28/41 Rosenwald to Hyman. The UJA was reconstituted for 1941 and the NRS was promised a $2,000,000 allocation towards a budget of $4,342,000, 4/4/41. The JDC loaned some $795,000 to the NRS in 1941, to tide it over income shortfalls from the UJA, 5/27/41, 8/25/41, 11/24/41, 12/3/41. The NRS was scheduled to receive a $2,000,000 allocation from the UJA for 1942, 12/23/41. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, S.A. Goldsmith, I.E. Goldwasser, J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt, E.M.M. Morrissey, C.A. Riegelman, C.J. Rosenbloom, Wm. Rosenwald, E.M. Warburg.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, Paul
Goldsmith, S. A.
Goldwasser, I. E.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Leavitt, M. A.
Morrissey, Evelyn M.
National Refugee Service (NRS)
Riegelman, Charles A.
Rosenbloom, C. J.
Rosenwald, William
Warburg, Edward M. M.
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File 302: Organizations: NGOs, National Refugee Service (NRS), General, 1943 - 1945
Activities of the NRS, Facts and Figures: 5/10/43, 9/10/43, 9/14/44. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, J.E. Beck, J.C. Hyman, C.A. Riegelman, Wm. Rosenwald, A.H. Silver.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, Paul
Beck, Joseph E.
Hyman, Joseph C.
National Refugee Service (NRS)
Riegelman, Charles A.
Rosenwald, William
Silver, A. H.
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File 303: Organizations: NGOs, National Refugee Service (NRS), Financial
Annual budgets 1940 - 1945
Index Terms:
National Refugee Service (NRS)
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File 304: Organizations: NGOs, National Refugee Service (NRS), Minutes of Meetings, Board of Directors, 1939 - 1946
Annual (A) and Special Meetings: 7/29/39, 12/2/39, 5/21/40(A), 1/18/41 - 1/19/41; 5/25/41(A), 5/24/42(A), 1/23/43, 1/15/44 - 1/16/44 (A).
Index Terms:
National Refugee Service (NRS)
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File 305: Organizations: NGOs, National Refugee Service (NRS), Minutes of Meetings, Executive Committee, June 1939 - March 1940
9/25/39 (Summary), 10/9/39, 10/23/39, 11/6/39, 11/21/39, 11/28/39, 12/19/39, 1/2/40, 1/23/40, 2/6/40, 3/5/40, 3/19/40.
Index Terms:
National Refugee Service (NRS)
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File 306: Organizations: NGOs, National Refugee Service (NRS), Minutes of Meetings, Executive Committee, 1940 April-December
4/2/40, 4/16/40, 4/30/40, 5/16/40, 6/4/40, 6/18/40, 7/2/40, 7/16/40, 7/30/40, 8/13/40, 9/10/40, 9/24/40, 10/22/40, 11/12/40, 11/26/40.
Index Terms:
National Refugee Service (NRS)
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File 307: Organizations: NGOs, National Refugee Service (NRS), Minutes of Meetings, Executive Committee, 1941
1/7/41, 1/14/41, 1/28/41, 2/11/41, 2/25/41, 3/11/41, 3/25/41, 4/8/41, 4/22/41, 5/6/41, 5/20/41, 6/3/41, 6/10/41, 6/17/41, 7/1/41, 7/15/41, 8/12/41, 8/26/41, 9/9/41, 9/25/41, 10/7/41, 10/21/41, 11/5/41, 11/18/41, 12/16/41, 12/30/41.
Index Terms:
National Refugee Service (NRS)
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File 308: Organizations: NGOs, National Refugee Service (NRS), Minutes of Meetings, Executive Committee, 1942 - 1946
1/27/42, 2/10/42, 3/3/42, 3/17/42, 3/31/42, 4/28/42, 5/19/42, 6/18/42, 7/16/42, 9/10/42, 11/5/42, 12/17/42, 1/23/43, 3/1/43, 4/15/43, 5/20/43, 7/29/43, 9/23/43, 10/20/43, 12/2/43, 1/15/44, 2/17/44, 3/16/44, 5/4/44, 6/15/44, 9/21/44, 11/16/44, 1/21/45, 2/15/45, 2/27/45, 4/19/45, 5/24/45, 6/28/45, 12/13/45, 3/14/46, 6/9/46.
Index Terms:
National Refugee Service (NRS)
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File 309: Organizations: NGOs, National Refugee Service (NRS), Publications: NRS Special Information Bulletin, 1941 - 1946
#1-69 (except #32, 38, 51, 52, 61)
Index Terms:
National Refugee Service (NRS)
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File 310: Organizations: NGOs, National Refugee Service (NRS), Publications: NRS Information Bulletins, various, 1939 - 1946
Information Bulletin, 1939 - 1940: #1-7.Community Bulletin, 1940: #1, 3-6; 1941: #5; 1943: #5; 1944: #1-3; 1945: #1-2.Community Service Bulletin, 1940 - 1941: #1-5, 7-8, 15, 17.News, 1941 - 1946, various
Index Terms:
National Refugee Service (NRS)
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File 311: Organizations: NGOs, National Refugee Service (NRS), Publications: Printed Matter
Brochures, reprints, magazine articles, 1939 - 1945
Index Terms:
National Refugee Service (NRS)
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File 312: Organizations: NGOs, National Refugee Service (NRS), Monthly Activities Reports to the Executive Committee by the Executive Director
1939: July-Aug; 1941: May-September, November-Dec; 1942: January-February, July-Dec; 1943: January-May, July-August, November-Dec; 1944: September
Index Terms:
National Refugee Service (NRS)
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File 313: Organizations: NGOs, National Refugee Service (NRS), Annual, Quarterly and Bi-Monthly Reports
Annual: 1939 - 1943.Quarterly: April 1940 - September 1941. Bi-Monthly: 1939: September/October, November/December
Index Terms:
National Refugee Service (NRS)
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File 314: Organizations: NGOs, National Refugee Service (NRS), Statistical Reports, Various
Monthly Relief Expenditures, January-August 1939.Weekly Report, 6/5-9/39 - 7/24-28/39. Study of Employment Department Activities, 5/6/41. Study of Central Reception and Information Applicants, December 1940, 6/12/41
Index Terms:
National Refugee Service (NRS)
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Series 43: Organizations: NGOs, National War Fund (NWF)
File 315: Organizations: NGOs, National War Fund (NWF)
The NWF was created in 1942, at the initiative of the President's War Relief Control Board, to conduct a single national fundraising campaign per year in support of voluntary war-related appeals. Campaigns were conducted in the fall of 1943 and 1944 via local war-chests and war-funds. Neither the UJA nor the JDC affiliated themselves with the NWF and the JDC received its funds in both years via UJA campaigns. Winthrop W. Aldrich served as President of the NWF. The UJA weighed whether or not to affiliate itself with the NWF, 2/17/43, 2/19/43, 3/15/43 Minutes of Meeting, Memos 3/15/43, 3/16/43, 4/1/43, 4/7/43, 5/5/43. The UJA expressed its readiness to let local welfare funds work out their own arrangements on whether to affiliate with local war chests, 3/26/43, 5/18/43, but it would not affiliate itself, 6/25/43, 9/9/43. Report by CJFWF "Further War Chest Developments", 4/14/43. Correspondence: I. Coons, M.R. Herman, J.C. Hyman, R.O. Loosely, H.L. Lurie, C.A. Riegelman.
Index Terms:
Coons, I.
Herman, M. R.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Loosely, R. O.
Lurie, H. L.
National War Fund (NWF)
Riegelman, Charles A.
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Series 44: Organizations: NGOs, Office of Foreign Relief and Rehabilitation Operations (OFRRO)
File 316: Organizations: NGOs, Office of Foreign Relief and Rehabilitation Operations (OFRRO)
In November 1942, President Roosevelt created the Office of Foreign Relief and Rehabilitation Operations in the State Department and appointed Gov. H.H. Lehman its director. The OFRRO sent a relief mission to North Africa in January 1943 to serve in the newly liberated territories. The organization was dissolved at the creation of UNRRA in November 1943 and the appointment of Gov. Lehman as its Director. The JDC allocated $25,000 as a contribution to refugee relief and rehabilitation in N. Africa, 3/17/43, 4/10/43. The OFRRO used but $5,000 of that sum, 1/13/44, and the remaining $20,000 was subsequently expended in N. Africa - $17,000 in aid of Jewish refugees and $3,000 for non-sectarian relief, 4/20/44, 5/12/44, 9/2/44, 10/13/44. Memo on the relationship between the OFRRO and the JDC based on the N. African experience, 7/29/43. Correspondence: N. Aronovici, P. Baerwald, K. Dayton, J.C. Hyman, H.H. Lehman, C.E. Pickett, G.L. Warren.
Index Terms:
Office of Foreign Relief and Rehabilitation Operations (OFRRO)
Aronovici, Noel
Baerwald, Paul
Dayton, K.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Lehman, Governor H. H.
North Africa
Pickett, Clarence E.
Refugees
Roosevelt, President Franklin D.
Warren, G. L.
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Series 45: Organizations: NGOs, ORT
American ORT Federation (AOF). People's ORT Federation (POF). The POF (subsequently renamed the AOF) was the American branch of the World ORT Union (WOU) and acted for it as the national fund-raising agency in the United States. Between 1933 - 1937, the AOF conducted no fund-raising campaigns of its own and JDC allocations ran as follows: 1933/34: $10,000.1935: $10,000.1936: $140,000.1937: $130,000.JDC allocations were discontinued in 1938 when the AOF began to run independent campaigns and the practice on both sides continued throughout the war years. B. Charney Vladeck served as the POF - AOF President from 1933 until his death in 1939, and he was followed by George Backer who served throughout the war years. Henry Moscowitz acted as Chairman of the Board of Directors until his death in 1936, and was followed by Louis B. Boudin. Backer, Moscowitz and Vladeck also sat on the JDC Executive Committee at one time or another, while Backer served in addition as a JDC Vice-Chairman between 1937 - 1944. For earlier materials, see: Archives 1921 - 1932, Files 98-101a 1919 - 1921, File 87b
Index Terms:
Backer, George
Boudin, Louis B.
Moscowitz, Henry
ORT
Vladeck, B. Charney
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File 317: Organizations: NGOs, ORT, 1933 - 1935
Status of relations between the JDC and the ORT, 6/8/34 Hyman to Saltzstein, 8/28/34, 11/2/34, 1/18/35, 4/17/35. ORT Union report: Extent of the Constructive Work in Europe, December 1935. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, P. Block, L. Bramson, D.A. Brown, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, W. Kleeman, D. Lvovitch, E.M. Morrissey, H. Moscowitz, J.N. Rosenberg, Wm. Rosenwald, A. Syngalowski, B.C. Vladeck.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, Paul
Block, P.
Bramson, L.
Brown, David A.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Kahn, Dr. Bernhard
Kleeman, W.
Lvovitch, D.
Morrissey, Evelyn M.
Moscowitz, Henry
ORT
Rosenberg, James N.
Rosenwald, William
Vladeck, B. Charney
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File 318: Organizations: NGOs, ORT, 1936
The ORT offered to merge its independent fund-raising campaign for $500,000 with the JDC - ORT representatives agreed on $140,000 allocation, 2/14/36, and on Memo of Understanding, 3/12/36 - 3/20/36, 4/2/36 and Press Release 4/21/36. Status of Agreement with the ORT, 11/17/36. ORT Union Reports: Fin. Statement for 1936, undated; November 1935 - August 1936, 9/7/36 - 9/9/36. Also see: File 319, 12/17/37. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, P. Block, L. Bramson, D.A. Brown, H.K. Buchman, I. Coons, J.C. Hyman, A. Kahn, B. Kahn, D. Lvovitch, E.M. Morrissey, H. Moscowitz, B. Renard, J.N. Rosenberg, D.J. Schweitzer, B.C. Vladeck, J.B. Wise.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, Paul
Block, P.
Bramson, L.
Brown, David A.
Buchman, H. K.
Coons, I.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Kahn, Alexander
Kahn, Dr. Bernhard
Lvovitch, D.
Morrissey, Evelyn M.
Moscowitz, Henry
ORT
Renard, B.
Rosenberg, James N.
Schweitzer, D. J.
Vladeck, B. Charney
Wise, J. B.
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File 319: Organizations: NGOs, ORT, 1937
The ORT agreed to accept a $130,000 allocation for 1937 and to refrain from undertaking a separate fund-raising campaign for that year, 3/12/37, 4/21/37, 4/23/37 Hyman to Renard. It was the consensus of the JDC officers that the JDC should shift course on the ORT allocations in 1938, Memo 11/23/37. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, P. Block, I. Coons, J.C. Hyman, A. Kahn, S. Lowenstein, D. Lvovitch, E.M. Morrissey, B.C. Vladeck.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, Paul
Block, P.
Coons, I.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Kahn, Alexander
Lowenstein, Solomon
Lvovitch, D.
Morrissey, Evelyn M.
ORT
Renard, B.
Vladeck, B. Charney
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File 320: Organizations: NGOs, ORT, 1938
The JDC and the ORT agreed that each will conduct its own fund-raising campaign in 1938, 2/17/38. No JDC allocation was granted in 1938, 2/18/38. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, H.K. Buchman, I. Coons, J.C. Hyman, A. Kahn, B. Kahn, M.D. Steuer.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, Paul
Buchman, H. K.
Coons, I.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Kahn, Alexander
Kahn, Dr. Bernhard
ORT
Steuer, M. D.
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File 321: Organizations: NGOs, ORT, 1939
JDC allocations to the ORT, in the years 1921 - 1937, came to $1,186,285, 3/15/39. Correspondence: H. Altschul, P. Baerwald, L.B. Boudin, H.K. Buchman, M.R. Herman, J.C. Hyman, D. Lvovitch, Wm. Rosenwald, D.J. Schweitzer.
Index Terms:
Altschul, H.
Baerwald, Paul
Boudin, Louis B.
Buchman, H. K.
Herman, M. R.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Lvovitch, D.
ORT
Rosenwald, William
Schweitzer, D. J.
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File 322: Organizations: NGOs, ORT, 1940 - 1941
Fin. Statement of Income and Expenditure 1939, 2/7/40. For 1940, the ORT merged its fund-raising campaign in NYC with the UJA but planned to conduct an independent campaign else-where, American ORT Journal March 1940, 4/5/40. Summary of the ORT activities in 1939 and Budget Information for 1940, undated. Report on the AOF by the CJFWF, September 1940. The ORT advanced $20,000 to the JDC to aid vocational training activities in Poland, 10/1/40, 10/8/40. Status of the ORT activities in Europe: 4/12/40, 8/15/40, 2/24/41, 5/21/41. Expenditures abroad by the AOF on behalf of the WOU 1940 and 1941, 2/12/42. Correspondence: F.A. Adlerstein, L.B. Boudin, D.M. Bressler, H.K. Buchman, A. Held, M. Herzfeld, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, M.A. Leavitt, S. Lowenstein, B. Renard, E. Salinger, J.J. Schwartz, M.C. Troper, E.M.M. Warburg.
Index Terms:
Adlerstein, F. R.
Boudin, Louis B.
Bressler, David M.
Buchman, H. K.
Held, Adolph
Herzfeld, M.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Kahn, Dr. Bernhard
Leavitt, M. A.
Lowenstein, Solomon
ORT
Poland
Renard, B.
Schwartz, J. J.
Troper, Morris C.
Warburg, Edward M. M.
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File 323: Organizations: NGOs, ORT, 1942 - 1944
Reports: B. Kahn, "JDC Activities in Training for Crafts and Agriculture", 6/1/43; CJFWF, "AOF", 6/29/43, also see: 5/12/43 - 5/17/43; CJFWF, "The WOU and the AOF", 7/15/43; AOF, "Budget WOU for 1944 and Summary of ORT Activity during 1943", undated; CJFWF, "AOF", May 1944. Correspondence: L.B. Boudin, H.K. Buchman, J.C. Hyman, C.H. Jordan, A. Kahn, B. Kahn, M.J. Karpf, J.B. Lightman, B. Lvovitch, R. Pilpel, Wm. Rosenwald, L.H. Sobel.
Index Terms:
Boudin, Louis B.
Buchman, H. K.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Jordan, Charles H.
Kahn, Alexander
Kahn, Dr. Bernhard
Karpf, M. J.
Lightman, J. B.
Lvovitch, D.
ORT
Pilpel, Robert
Rosenwald, William
Sobel, L. H.
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File 324: Organizations: NGOs, ORT, Publications, 1934 - 1944
Publicity Pamphlets, various, 1934 - 1940.ORT Economic Bulletin, 1940 - 1941. Vol. 1: #1-6 (except 5); Vol. 2: #1-3.ORT Economic Review, 1941 - 1942. Vol. 2: #4-6, Vol. 3: #1.ORT News (Yiddish), February 1944.
Index Terms:
ORT
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Series 46: Organizations: NGOs, OSE
World Union OSE American National Committee OSE, New York OSE-TOZ Central Emergency Committee, New York. The Society OSE, an acronym of "Obsczestvo Sdravoochraneniya Evreyev" - "Jewish Health Protection", was launched in Russia in 1912 to provide Jews with health and hygiene care. After W.W.I., its activities spread to Latvia, Lithuania, Poland (TOZ) and Rumania in 1923 and these branches united to form at Berlin the World Union OSE. Subsequently, sympathizers also opened branches in London, Paris, New York, and other Jewish centers around the world. Upon the rise of Hitler, OSE headquarters were transferred to Paris and remained there until the Nazi occupation of France. Between 1919 - 1924, the JDC financed virtually all OSE activities in Eastern Europe, except in the Soviet Union. Funds from other sources began to flow to the OSE in the years that followed. Between 1922 - 1936, JDC allocations to the OSE and to the TOZ, its Polish affiliate, reached $1,198,104 and covered 28% of their combined budgets, see memo 9/30/37 below. From 1933 - 1940, JDC allocations to OSE-TOZ took the following pattern:(Year: OSE/TOZ/Combined).1933: $13,488/$25,276/$38,764.1934: $11,261/$29,992/$41,253.1935: $10,959/$48,325/$59,284.1936: $21,210/$75,819/$97,029.1937: $30,339/$118,790/$149,129.1938: $31,913/$100,341/$132,254.1939: $87,970/$83,686*/$171,656.1940: $130,500/--/$130,500.Total for all years: $337,640/$482,229/$819,869.The OSE activities in France continued throughout the war years but the records of OSE-TOZ expenditures between 1941 - 1944 and the JDC share of them are available only in local currencies and not in dollars. The JDC funds covered the overwhelming share of all OSE expenditures in Nazi occupied countries. In the U.S., the OSE opened an emergency branch of its European Central Committee at the close of 1941, after communications with France and other occupied countries were cut. The N.Y. OSE Committee received JDC allocations for administration between 1942 - 1944.From 1926 onwards, the OSE in conjunction with the ORT (Joint Committee ORT-OSE) raised funds abroad for its own account, but agreed to refrain from doing so in the U.S. and Canada. Dr. J.J. Golub headed the American National Committee OSE from 1933 - 1937, and was followed by Dr. A.J. Rongy. Albert Einstein served as Honorary Chairman from 1940 onwards. Dr. Golub and Dr. Rongy were both activists in JDC medical programs. For additional materials on OSE-TOZ activities in Europe between 1939 - 1944, see: EUREXCO, Files 189-191. Also see: SM Archives, File 26: OSE General, 1942 - 1945; File 27: OSE Holland, Hungary, Poland, Rumania and Yugoslavia; File 35a: OSE France; Archives 1921 - 1932, Files: OSE 102, 102a.
Index Terms:
Berlin
Einstein, Albert
France
Golub, Dr. J. J.
Latvia
Lithuania
London
Medical
Paris
Poland
Romania
Rongy, Dr. A.J.
Russia
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File 325: Organizations: NGOs, OSE, General, 1933 - 1939
Discussions between the JDC-OSE on the opening of an OSE office in the U.S., 6/15/39 - 8/11/39. Reports: Annual Report OSE-TOZ 1936, 6/11/37; Summary, 25 years of OSE Activity 1912 - 1937 by L. Gourvitch, 10/6/37 - for the full report, see below: File 330. Activities of the OSE Central Board 1934 - 1937, 10/11/37. Summary of Activities OSE-TOZ 1937, undated.* 1st 8 months 1939. Correspondence: J. Brutzkus, H.K. Buchman, I.E. Goldwasser, J.J. Golub, J.C. Hyman, A. Kahn, A.J. Rongy, M.C. Troper.
Index Terms:
Brutzkus, J.
Buchman, H. K.
Goldwasser, I. E.
Golub, Dr. J. J.
Gourvitch, L.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Kahn, Alexander
OSE
Rongy, Dr. A.J.
Troper, Morris C.
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File 326: Organizations: NGOs, OSE, General, 1940
The American Committee OSE, New York, established as an emergency branch of the Central OSE Committee in Europe, and agreed to forego fund-raising in the U.S., 12/18/40, 12/24/40, 12/28/40, 12/31/40; also see below: File 327, Hyman to Leavitt 2/18/41, 3/27/41 and File 328, 7/22/41, 7/23/41, 8/1/41. Reports, General: OSE Activities 1939, 5/23/40. Record of Oral Statement on OSE-TOZ Activity, August 1940. Reports, France: 2/8/40; August 1940 Memorial; 9/19/40; October 1940 and November 1940 both undated, 12/6/40. Correspondence: J. Brutzkus, H.K. Buchman, S. Hayes, L. Gourvitch, H. Katzki, E.M. Morrissey, E. Papanek, A.J. Rongy, J.J. Schwartz, L. Wulman.
Index Terms:
Brutzkus, J.
Buchman, H. K.
France
Gourvitch, L.
Hayes, S.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Katzki, Herbert
Leavitt, M. A.
Morrissey, Evelyn M.
OSE
Papanek, E.
Rongy, Dr. A.J.
Schwartz, J. J.
Wulman, L.
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File 327: Organizations: NGOs, OSE, General, 1941 January-June
OSE Summer Activities in Eastern Europe, 6/18/41. Reports, France: 2/17/41; 2/18/41; 2/20/41; 2/21/41; 3/26/41; Table of Residents Children's Homes, undated (April 1941?); 4/23/41; 5/8/41; 5/29/41; 5/31/41. Correspondence: F.R. Adlerstein, H.K. Buchman, Albert Einstein, Baroness Guinsbourg, L. Gourvitch, J.C. Hyman, H. Katzki, M.A. Leavitt, A. Lourie, E. Papanek, M. Stephany, L. Wulman.
Index Terms:
Adlerstein, F. R.
Buchman, H. K.
Children
Einstein, Albert
France
Gourvitch, L.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Katzki, Herbert
Leavitt, M. A.
OSE
Orphans and Orphanages
Papanek, E.
Stephany, M.
Wulman, L.
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File 328: Organizations: NGOs, OSE, General, 1941 July-December
Reports, France: Budget OSE France 1st 6 months 1942, 12/9/41; Fin. Report Union OSE December 1941. The JDC allocated $4,000 for aid to OSE France, 8/27/41 and attachments. Correspondence: H.K. Buchman, J.J. Golub, L. Gourvitch, R. Pilpel, J.J. Schwartz, M.C. Troper, L. Wulman.
Index Terms:
Buchman, H. K.
France
Golub, Dr. J. J.
Gourvitch, L.
OSE
Pilpel, Robert
Schwartz, J. J.
Troper, Morris C.
Wulman, L.
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File 329: Organizations: NGOs, OSE, General, 1942 - 1944
Reports, France: OSE Activities in the Internment Centers for December 1941 and January 1942, undated; Activities March and April 1942, undated. Liberation of Children, 4/20/42; Activities: April to Mid-May 1942, 5/12/42; May 1942 undated; June 1942, 7/15/42; Rescue Activities of Children in France, 5/22/44. Correspondence: H.D. Biele, J. Brutzkus, H.K. Buchman, L. Gourvitch, J.C. Hyman, H. Katzki, M.A. Leavitt, J.B. Lightman, J. Pat, R. Pilpel, J.J. Schwartz, L.H. Sobel, M. Stephany, L. Wulman.
Index Terms:
Biele, H. D.
Brutzkus, J.
Buchman, H. K.
Children
France
Gourvitch, L.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Katzki, Herbert
Leavitt, M. A.
Lightman, J. B.
OSE
Pat, Jacob
Pilpel, Robert
Schwartz, J. J.
Sobel, L. H.
Stephany, M.
Wulman, L.
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File 330: Organizations: NGOs, OSE Publications
Reports: L. Gourvitch, Twenty-Five Years OSE (1912 - 1937).Publications: Revue OSE: October 1935; February 1937, December 1939, February 1940 American OSE Review, 1942, January-July; 1943, January-July; 1944, Spring and Summer.
Index Terms:
Gourvitch, L.
OSE
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Series 47: Organizations: NGOs, President's Advisory Committee on Political Refugees (PACPR)
File 331: Organizations: NGOs, President's Advisory Committee on Political Refugees (PACPR)
The PACPR was created as a private body, in 1938, by a group of distinguished personalities, with the aim of keeping the President informed on refugee problems. In the first three years, the JDC and Rabbi Stephen Wise shared the costs of administration, which ran to some $12,000 per year. In 1941, Rabbi Wise withdrew his support, owing to a shortage of funds, and thereafter the JDC shouldered the administration costs in full. James G. McDonald served as Chairman. James M. Speers was treasurer and after his death, his son, Wm. E. Speers, succeeded him. Activities ended in 1949.The entire PACPR discussed refugee problems with President Roosevelt, 9/6/41, and forwarded a statement to him, attachment to 1/14/42. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, James G. McDonald, J.M. Speers, Wm. E. Speers, G.L. Warren.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, Paul
McDonald, James G.
Refugees
Roosevelt, President Franklin D.
Speers, James M.
Speers, William E.
Warren, G. L.
Wise, Rabbi Stephen S.
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Series 48: Organizations: NGOs, President's War Relief Control Board
President's Committee on War Relief Agencies (1941 March 13).President's War Relief Control Board (1942 July 25).On 3/13/41, the President's Committee was appointed to study and correlate the fund-raising campaigns of private - foreign war-relief agencies and to weigh their activities vis-a-vis those of the ARC. Committee members Joseph E. Davies, Chairman, Charles P. Taft and Frederick P. Keppel. The membership continued unchanged when the President's Committee became the President's Board on 7/25/42, while its powers were broadened to include among others the registration and licensing of war relief agencies and the regulation and coordination of their fund-raising appeals. The Board was empowered to remain in operation for the duration of the war plus six months, and it liquidated its activities by 3/31/46.Relations with the JDC always remained on a firm and friendly footing. In the later war years, the Board frequently consulted the JDC on the merits of organizations that sought to conduct fund-raising appeals for Jewish war-relief purposes, and it directed a good many who sought a license for fund-raising to coordinate their programs for overseas aid with those of the JDC.
Index Terms:
Davies, Joseph E.
Keppel, Frederick P.
President's Committee on War Relief Agencies
President's War Relief Control Board
Taft, Charles P.
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File 332: Organizations: NGOs, President's War Relief Control Board, 1941 - 1943 June
Interim Report by the President Committee 10/4/41, JDC summary 10/14/41 and Committee Press Release 12/11/41. Davies cited the importance of JDC activities in wartime, 12/16/41 - 12/19/41. Roosevelt established the President's War Relief Control Board, 8/7/42 and attachments. Minutes of discussions by representatives of the UJA and the Board, 11/5/42. Correspondence: J.H. Becker, I. Coons, Joseph E. Davies, H.S. Fox, J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt, E.M. Morrissey, C.A. Riegelman, A.C. Ringland, E.M.M. Warburg, J.C. Wise.
Index Terms:
Becker, J. H.
Coons, I.
Davies, Joseph E.
Fox, H. S.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Leavitt, M. A.
Morrissey, Evelyn M.
President's Committee on War Relief Agencies
President's War Relief Control Board
Riegelman, Charles A.
Ringland, A. C.
Roosevelt, President Franklin D.
Warburg, Edward M. M.
Wise, J. B.
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File 333: Organizations: NGOs, President's War Relief Control Board, 1943 July - 1944
Minutes of discussions by representatives of the UJA and the Board, 2/24/44, 6/28/44. The JDC offered to supplement with its own funds special earmarked contributions for war relief projects by landsmann-schaften, 8/3/44 - 8/14/44, 10/16/44, 10/18/44, 12/7/44. Correspondence: J. Brunot, H.S. Fox, J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt.
Index Terms:
Brunot, J.
Fox, H. S.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Leavitt, M. A.
President's Committee on War Relief Agencies
President's War Relief Control Board
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File 333a: Organizations: NGOs, President's War Relief Control Board, 1945 - 1946
The JDC informed the Control Board that the UJA Agreement was not continued for 1945, 3/6/45. The Control Board demanded that the Agreement be continued, 5/1/45 Minutes and Baerwald Letter to Control Board, 5/1/45, 5/25/45. The UJA Agreement for 1945 was ratified 6/7/45, 6/8/45. The Control Board expressed the intention to close operations by 3/31/46, 10/12/45. Minutes of the meeting 10/19/45 between the Control Board and the UJA et al, inviting views of the registered agencies on the liquidation, 10/25/45, 11/13/45. The JDC expressed its views on the liquidation, 11/20/45. The Control Board issued a Report to the President, March 1946. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, J. Brunot, H.K. Buchman, Joseph E. Davies, J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt, A.C. Ringland, L.E. Sobel, Charles P. Taft.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, Paul
Brunot, J.
Buchman, H. K.
Davies, Joseph E.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Leavitt, M. A.
President's Committee on War Relief Agencies
President's War Relief Control Board
Ringland, A. C.
Sobel, L. H.
Taft, Charles P.
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Series 49: Organizations: NGOs, Refugee Economic Corporation (REC)
The Refugee Economic Corporation (REC) and the Emigre Charitable Fund (ECF) were established in 1934 to aid in the resettlement and rehabilitation of refugees from Nazi Germany (and subsequently from Austria, Czechoslovakia et al). The prime mover in the organization of both, as well as the largest subscriber and the first president as well, was Felix M. Warburg, the Hon. Chairman of the JDC. The REC was programmed to conduct its activities as an investment organization and the ECF as a philanthropic one. For data on the ECF, see: Files 224a-224c.The two organizations worked hand-in-glove. Board meetings of the two coincided most of the time, the officers were usually identical, and subscribers stemmed in considerable degree from the same pool of JDC activists or at least of generous JDC contributors. Moreover, the JDC and the REC/ECF shared the costs of numbers of resettlement projects for the benefit of refugees and cooperated closely. The major countries considered for refugee resettlement and rehabilitation by the REC/ECF included Australia, British Honduras, Costa Rica, Palestine, Philippines and a number of South American lands (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador et al). Charles J. Liebman succeeded Felix Warburg as President of the REC/ECF in 1937 and his tenure extended throughout the lifetime of the organizations.
Index Terms:
Argentina
Australia
Austria
Brazil
British Honduras
Costa Rica
Czechoslovakia
Ecuador
Emigre Charitable Fund (ECF)
Germany
Liebman, Charles J.
Palestine
Philippines
Refugee Economic Corporation (REC)
Refugees
South America
Warburg, Felix M.
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File 334: Organizations: NGOs, Refugee Economic Corporation (REC), General
The REC was incorporated in Delaware 11/26/34, and in N.Y. 7/12/37. Prospectus for Subscription to Common Stock: 8/7/35, 5/31/38, 8/15/41. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, C.J. Liebman, J.N. Rosenberg, F.M. Warburg.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, Paul
Emigre Charitable Fund (ECF)
Liebman, Charles J.
Refugee Economic Corporation (REC)
Rosenberg, James N.
Warburg, Felix M.
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File 334a: Organizations: NGOs, Refugee Economic Corporation (REC), Board of Directors
Minutes of Meetings (Between 12/8/38 - 7/2/40, 12/10/40 - 6/23/41, and 1/20/42 - 12/17/46 Statis. and Fin. data are provided but there are no Minutes of Meetings.).1936: 1/30, 4/9, 5/14, 9/25, 11/23.1937: 1/14, 3/3, 5/13, 6/10, 9/23, 10/25, 11/19, 12/30.1938: 1/24, 3/10, 5/12, 10/13, 12/8.1939: 1/10, 4/11, 6/13, 9/12, 10/10, 11/1, 12/12.1940: 3/12, 5/14, 7/2, 9/12, 10/31, 12/10.1941: 2/18, 4/10, 6/23, 10/21, 12/31.1942: 1/20, 6/30, 9/22.1946: 3/21, 6/18, 10/15, 12/17.1950: 3/9, 4/6, 5/24
Index Terms:
Emigre Charitable Fund (ECF)
Refugee Economic Corporation (REC)
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File 334b: Organizations: NGOs, Refugee Economic Corporation (REC), Directors, Officers, Stockholders
Annual lists
Index Terms:
Emigre Charitable Fund (ECF)
Refugee Economic Corporation (REC)
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File 334c: Organizations: NGOs, Refugee Economic Corporation (REC), Financial
Annual lists of office expenditures.
Index Terms:
Emigre Charitable Fund (ECF)
Refugee Economic Corporation (REC)
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File 334d: Organizations: NGOs, Refugee Economic Corporation (REC), Reports
Annual: 1936, 1937, 1938, 6/1/41, 4/15/42, 1943, 1944, 1946, 6/15/48, 8/31/49.
Index Terms:
Emigre Charitable Fund (ECF)
Refugee Economic Corporation (REC)
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Series 50: Organizations: NGOs, Russian War Relief (RWR)
Russian War Relief (RWR) 1941.American Society for Russian Relief (ASRR) 1945. Jewish Council for Russian War Relief (JCRWR) 1945. Jewish Council for Russian Relief (JCRR) 1945. The RWR was organized in September 1941 to ship medical supplies, food, clothing and related goods for civilian aid in Russia. A roster of prominent Americans joined the Board of Directors among them Edward M.M. Warburg; James N. Rosenberg and Joseph Rosen followed him soon after. After VE Day (May 1945), the RWR changed names, see above, and ended its existence on 12/31/46. Edward C. Carter served as President from start to finish. Early in 1942, the JCRWR was organized in a bid to enlist the interest of the Landsmannschaften and other Jewish groups in Russian war relief. Like the RWR, it changed its name after VE Day, see above. To the RWR, the JCRWR contributed $200,000 in 1942, $1,000,000 in 1943, $2,000,000 in 1944 and $5,072,591 in 1945. James N. Rosenberg served as Co-Chairman of the Advisory Board and resigned at the end of 1946. Between 1942 - 1946, Louis Levine served as Chairman and Albert Einstein as Honorary Co-Chairman. The JCRR continued operations after the ASRR ended its existence. In May 1942, the JDC approved a $5,000 contribution to the RWR by the Agro-Joint, upon the urging of Rosenberg. In August 1942, Rosenberg urged the JDC to grant $50,000 to the RWR as an outright gift, but the JDC took no action on the proposal then or later. In January 1953, Rosenberg set down his thoughts on JDC relations with Russia in the decade preceding, see: File 336. In the matter of the cleavage on Russian relief between Rosenberg and the JDC, see below: Files 430-431.
Index Terms:
American Society for Russian Relief (ASRR)
Carter, Edward C.
Einstein, Albert
Jewish Council for Russian Relief
Jewish Council for Russian War Relief (JCRWR)
Levine, Louis
Medical
Rosen, Joseph A.
Rosenberg, James N.
Russia
Russian War Relief (RWR)
Warburg, Edward M. M.
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File 335: Organizations: NGOs, Russian War Relief (RWR), 1941 - 1944
Fin. Audit of the JCRWR 12/31/42, 2/13/43. Bulletin by the CJFWF on the JCRWR, January 1944. Reports: "Russian War Relief Report", undated (4/1/44); "Soviet Russia Has Set Them Free", undated. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, M.I. Finkelstein, J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt, F. Myers, J.N. Rosenberg, E.M.M. Warburg.
Index Terms:
American Society for Russian Relief (ASRR)
Baerwald, Paul
Finkelstein, M. I.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Jewish Council for Russian Relief
Jewish Council for Russian War Relief (JCRWR)
Leavitt, M. A.
Myers, F.
Rosenberg, James N.
Russia
Russian War Relief (RWR)
Warburg, Edward M. M.
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File 336: Organizations: NGOs, Russian War Relief (RWR), 1945 - 1947; 1953
Summary of meeting between representatives of the JCRR and the JDC, 3/6/45 attachment to 3/23/45. "Report to the Public 1945" attachment to 4/26/46. The JCRR affirmed that its existence will continue after the parent body closed its activities on 12/31/46, 6/7/46.Correspondence: P. Baerwald, E.C. Carter, Albert Einstein, A. Gurin, S.M. Isaacs, L. Levine, J.N. Rosenberg, L.H. Sobel.
Index Terms:
American Society for Russian Relief (ASRR)
Baerwald, Paul
Carter, Edward C.
Einstein, Albert
Gurin, A.
Isaacs, S. M.
Jewish Council for Russian Relief
Jewish Council for Russian War Relief (JCRWR)
Levine, Louis
Rosenberg, James N.
Russia
Russian War Relief (RWR)
Sobel, L. H.
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Series 51: Organizations: NGOs, Unitarian Service Committee (USC)
File 337: Organizations: NGOs, Unitarian Service Committee (USC)
The USC, an auxiliary of the American Unitarian Association, was established in 1940 to help refugees escape from Nazi occupied countries. In the course of W.W. II, it maintained a European Hq. at Lisbon and branch offices first in unoccupied France and subsequently in Switzerland. The Nazi victims it aided were Christians, in the main. In the post-war era, the USC adapted its program to changing needs in social work, and added medical aid, rehabilitation and education most notably. In Germany and Austria, the USC and the JDC cooperated, and relations between them were cordial throughout the years. The JDC granted $15,000 to the USC for its overseas program in 1942, 11/18/42, and it included medical aid in French internment camps in unoccupied France, 6/22/42, 10/9/42, 11/9/42, 1/4/43. Also see: France, USC, File 602. The JDC aided a USC Refresher Course for DP Physicians in Germany, 4/1/49, and a USC dental clinic in Vienna, 2/6/50, 2/10/50. Correspondence: H.L. Brooks, N. Field, I.O. Hay, J.C. Hyman, C.R. Joy, M.C. Troper, L.H. Sobel.
Index Terms:
Austria
Brooks, H. L.
Education, General
Field, N.
France
Germany
Hay, I. O.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Joy, C. R.
Lisbon
Medical
Physicians and Doctors
Refugees
Sobel, L. H.
Switzerland
Troper, Morris C.
Unitarian Service Committee (USC)
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Series 52: Organizations: NGOs, United Galician Jews of American (UGC)
File 338: Organizations: NGOs, United Galician Jews of American (UGC)
United Galician Jews of American (UGC) 1937. American Committee for the Aid of Jews in Galicia 1936. The American Committee was formed in 1936. It became the UGC in 1937, and some 140 Galician landsmannschaften had affiliated themselves with it by October. The UGC expressed the desire to cooperate with the JDC on sundry occasions, and in 1939 besought JDC support in its jurisdictional disputes with the Federation of Polish Jews in America. Contributions in aid of Galician Jews in Poland reached the JDC in 1938/39 and again between 1946 - 1949. In the latter year, the JDC was expelled from Poland as a foreign aid organization, but it returned in 1957 upon the invitation of the Polish Government. The UGC offered the JDC its cooperation in raising funds for constructive projects in Galicia, 3/12/37, 5/21/37, 12/1/37, and reaffirmed the offer, 10/10/39, 2/5/42. The JDC received $8,000 from the UGC in its 1937 campaign - $5,000 directly and $3,000 from affiliated landsmannschaften for specific activities, 4/13/38, 4/19/38. The UGC offered a $5,000 contribution to the WUZET if the JDC would match the sum, 8/1/39, 8/2/39. The UGC contributed some $26,000 in 1947, 5/12/47, 5/22/47, $2,500 in 1948, 1/9/48, and $5,000 in 1949, 1/7/49, all in aid of children's homes. Correspondence: H.K. Buchman, L. Flashenberg, H. Frankel, N.M. Gilmovsky, I. Giterman, J.C. Hyman, A. Kahn, B. Kahn, S. Low, J.J. Schwartz, B. Smolar, L.H. Sobel, H.B. Sussman, S. Tarshansky, M.C. Troper, F.M. Warburg.
Index Terms:
American Committee for the Aid of Jews in Galicia
Buchman, H. K.
Children
Flashenberg, L.
Frankel, H.
Galicia
Gilmovsky, N. V.
Giterman, I.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Kahn, Alexander
Kahn, Dr. Bernhard
Low, S.
Orphans and Orphanages
Poland
Schwartz, J. J.
Smolar, B.
Sobel, L. H.
Sussman, H. B.
Tarshansky, S.
Troper, Morris C.
United Galician Jews of American (UGC)
Warburg, Felix M.
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Series 53: Organizations: NGOs, United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA)
File 339: Organizations: NGOs, United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA)
The UNRRA was created on 11/9/43 when representatives of 44 nations signed the agreement establishing the agency. UNRRA's aim was to grant emergency aid to war victims and to help liberated peoples in regaining strength and stability. In Europe, its main operations went into effect only after VE Day (May 1945), and in Asia after VJ Day (August 1945). Gov. H.H. Lehman served as Director-General. The member governments of UNRRA attended to its financing. To meet operating costs, governments whose territories had escaped invasion were invited to contribute 1% of their national income for the year ending 6/30/43. To meet administrative costs, all member governments were expected to contribute. Up to 11/30/44, appropriations for operating expenses reached $1,217,092,000, and the lion's share stemmed from the U.S. Relations between the UNRRA and the JDC were cooperative on the whole. The JDC dealt directly with UNRRA officials as well as via the American Council of Voluntary Agencies of which it was a member. In 1944, trained staff members qualified to serve in liberated countries were in short supply. In midyear, the JDC loaned 10 of its staff members for service on UNRRA's Balkan Unit. Following the liberation of France, UNRRA, in turn, loaned the JDC some of its staff members who were awaiting reassignment in that country. Also see above: OFFRO, File 316. J.L. Trobe was selected to head the JDC unit on loan to UNRRA and to serve as the liaison between the two agencies, 6/14/44, 11/1/44. UNRRA and JDC relationships, 10/17/44. Report: UNRRA, Organization, Aims, Progress, December 1944. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, Albert Einstein, J.C. Hyman, L. Iberg, H.H. Lehman, J.L. Magnes, R.B. Resnick, J,J. Schwartz, L.H. Sobel, G.L. Warren.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, Paul
Einstein, Albert
France
Hyman, Joseph C.
Iberg, L.
Lehman, Governor H. H.
Magnes, J. L.
Resnick, R. B.
Schwartz, J. J.
Sobel, L. H.
Trobe, J. L.
United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA)
Warren, G. L.
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Series 54: Organizations: NGOs, United Palestine Appeal (UPA)
The UPA was established in 1936 to raise funds for the Keren Hayesod and the Jewish National Fund. Subsequently, the Mizrachi Palestine Fund was added. From 1936 - 1938, the UPA conducted independent campaigns, but from 1939 - 1944 it merged forces with the JDC in the United Jewish Appeal (UJA). The two agencies negotiated campaign agreements but they covered only a single campaign each and called for annual renegotiation. In addition, for the 1937 and 1938 campaigns, the UPA and the JDC reached limited agreements in a number of cities and towns on the division of funds collected for overseas use. In 1934 and 1935, the JDC and the American Palestine Campaign (APC) had conducted joint drives. For materials on those campaigns, see above: APC, File 214. Thereafter, the APC merged with the UPA. For additional materials, see above: Files 75-84.
Index Terms:
United Palestine Appeal (UPA)
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File 340: Organizations: NGOs, United Palestine Appeal (UPA), 1936 - 1940
On the UPA and the JDC: 2/5/36, 3/2/36 - 3/4/36, 3/23/36, 3/25/36, 4/7/36, 3/24/37, 4/27/38, 5/26/38. Agreements: 1937, JDC campaign UPA and CJFWF on division of funds in selected communities for overseas use, 1/29/37 attachment to 2/4/37. 1939 campaign, see above: File 78, 11/22/38 - 12/9/38. 1940 campaign, see above: File 80, 2/8/40, 3/9/40, 3/11/40. 1941 campaign, 11/19/40 - 11/28/40, 12/27/40 Silver to Perlman, also see above: Files 82-84.Fin. Data and Reports: UPA Expend. in Palestine 10/1/32 - 3/31/36, May 1936; Collections in JDC Campaigns 1926 - 1937 and comments by E.M. Morrissey, 8/9/37; Statement of UPA Income and Expenditures 1936 - 1937, 4/20/38; UPA Collections 1/1/38 - 6/30/38; UPA Budgetary Analysis 1939, March 1939; UPA Budgetary Analysis 1940, undated. JDC cleared $170,000 in collections 1933 - 1938 by Zionist groups in Poland 6/6/39 attachment to 6/19/39.Reports: UPA New York City by CJFWF, July 1937. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, I. Coons, M.R. Herman, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, E.M. Morrissey, H. Montor, J.N. Rosenberg, Wm. Rosenwald, J. Rubenstein, J.J. Schwartz, A.H. Silver, M. Simon, S.S. Wise.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, Paul
Coons, I.
Herman, M. R.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Kahn, Dr. Bernhard
Montor, H.
Morrissey, Evelyn M.
Palestine
Poland
Rosenberg, James N.
Rosenwald, William
Rubenstein, J.
Schwartz, J. J.
Silver, A. H.
Simon, M.
United Palestine Appeal (UPA)
Wise, Rabbi Stephen S.
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File 341: Organizations: NGOs, United Palestine Appeal (UPA), 1941 - 1944
On the UPA and the UJA: 1/6/41 attachment to 1/23/41, 1/13/41, 2/13/41, 6/25/43, 7/21/43, 6/16/44.Agreements: The UJA Agreements for 1942, 1943 and 1944, see above: File 84. Fin. Data and Reports: Estimates of 1940 fundraising in the U.S. by Palesinian agencies and by the JDC, 1/18/41; the UPA 1942 budget (January 1942); Income and Expend. of major agencies supported by the UJA 10/1/41 - 4/1/42, 6/1/42; Preliminary Statement on Budgets of Agencies in Palestine supported by the UJA, 1/14/43; allotments received by the UPA 1939 - 1942 from UJA fund-raising, October 1943, Appendix. Brief Statements on the UPA Activities: 9/28/42, 10/2/42, 7/7/43, 2/2/44, 4/10/44.Reports: The UPA by the CJFWF. Correspondence: F.R. Adlerstein, P. Baerwald, H.K. Buchman, I. Coons, H. Dalsheimer, J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt, H.L. Lurie, H. Montor, C.J. Rosenblum, Wm. Rosenwald.
Index Terms:
Adlerstein, F. R.
Baerwald, Paul
Buchman, H. K.
Coons, I.
Dalsheimer, H.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Leavitt, M. A.
Lurie, H. L.
Montor, H.
Palestine
Rosenblum, C. J.
Rosenwald, William
United Palestine Appeal (UPA)
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Series 55: Organizations: NGOs, United Rumanian Jews of America (URJ)
File 342: Organizations: NGOs, United Rumanian Jews of America (URJ)
The URJ was a landsmannschaften Organization seeking to promote the interests of Rumanian Jews abroad. Their activities partook of a political character, largely. In December 1943, they contributed $1,000 to the JDC in aid of Rumanian Jews and token sums on two earlier occasions. In 1945, the contributions grew to $3,500 and in 1946 to some $15,800. In March 1949, Jewish aid programs in Rumania reached an abrupt end when the Government of that country expelled the JDC as a foreign organization. The JDC was invited to return at the close of 1967. Correspondence, memos, addenda. Correspondence: A. Berkowitz, J. Brunot, J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt, H. Montor, S. Rosman, L.H. Sobel, C. Sonnenreich, S. Tarshansky.
Index Terms:
Berkowitz, A.
Brunot, J.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Leavitt, M. A.
Montor, H.
Romania
Rosman, S.
Sobel, L. H.
Sonnenreich, C.
Tarshansky, S.
United Rumanian Jews of America (URJ)
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Series 56: Organizations: NGOs, U.S. Committee for the Care of European Children
The Committee was organized in June 1940 as a central coordinating non-sectarian body to aid in providing temporary asylum in the U.S. for European refugee children. At the outset, the Committee focused upon evacuations from Great Britain, but by December 1940 evacuations were extended to France and subsequently to Spain and Portugal. The JDC worked hand-in-glove with the Committee in the evacuation of these children and it bore a share of the costs. In May 1943, the two agencies signed an agreement for the evacuation to the U.S. of 1,000 refugee children, whereby the JDC shouldered 45% of the costs of transportation and of maintenance for one year following the date of arrival in the U.S. The JDC made no contributions to Committee operations. Jewish children formed the overwhelming majority of the evacuations. For additional materials, see: France, Files 610-611. The Committee carried on its activities throughout the war, Eleanor Roosevelt serving as Hon. President, Marshall Field as President and Robert Lang as Executive Dir. (the latter joined the armed forces in November 1943). The Committee's activities were restricted to refugee children bound for the United States. Those bound for Latin America, Palestine and the Far East remained a direct responsibility of the JDC. For its relations with the European-Jewish Children's Aid, see: German-Jewish Children's Aid, Files 237-239.
Index Terms:
Children
Field, M.
France
Lang, Robert
Latin America
Palestine
Portugal
Refugees
Roosevelt, Eleanor
Spain
U.S. Committee for the Care of European Children
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File 343: Organizations: NGOs, U.S. Committee for the Care of European Children, June 1940 - June 1941
The Committee brought to U.S. 36 Jewish refugee children from Austria, 8/23/40, 8/24/40, 8/27/40 Hyman to Baerwald, 9/4/40, and 111 children from OSE institutions in France mostly, who arrived on the SS Mouzinho 4/21/41 - 6/20/41. Also see: File 344, 8/6/41. Correspondence: H.K. Buchman, A. Einstein, H.W. Emerson, M. Field, Wm. Haber, J.C. Hyman, H. Katzki, M.A. Leavitt, E.M. Morrissey, J.N. Rosenberg, Wm. Rosenwald, M.C. Troper.
Index Terms:
Austria
Baerwald, Paul
Buchman, H. K.
Children
Einstein, Albert
Emerson, Sir Herbert W.
Field, M.
France
Haber, William
Hyman, Joseph C.
Katzki, Herbert
Leavitt, M. A.
Morrissey, Evelyn M.
Rosenberg, James N.
Rosenwald, William
Troper, Morris C.
U.S. Committee for the Care of European Children
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File 344: Organizations: NGOs, U.S. Committee for the Care of European Children, 1941 July - 1942
The Committee sponsored 45 refugee children arriving on the SS Mouzinho, 8/29/41, 9/18/41, 11/10/41; 51 on the SS Serpa Pinta, 9/10/41, cable, 9/18/41, 10/14/41; 50 on the SS Serpa Pinta, 5/5/42, 6/25/42, 7/1/41; and 38 on the SS Nyassa, 8/3/42, 8/7/42. The Committee proposed sponsoring 1,000 refugee children, jointly with the JDC, at a cost estimated at $950,000, 9/4/42, 9/8/42, 9/26/42 - 10/9/42. The Committee opened a fundraising campaign for $5,208,250, towards which the JDC pledged $2,000,000, 11/5/42. The Nazi occupation of Vichy France on 11/11/42 halted migration from there and the Committee turned to Spain and Portugal for refugee children, 11/24/42, 12/1/42, 12/8/42. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, I. Coons, M. Field, J.C. Hyman, H. Katzki, R. Lang, M.A. Leavitt, J.C. McDonald, M.C. Troper, P.F. Warburg, G.L. Warren.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, Paul
Children
Coons, I.
Field, M.
France
Hyman, Joseph C.
Katzki, Herbert
Lang, Robert
Leavitt, M. A.
McDonald, James G.
Portugal
Refugees
Spain
Troper, Morris C.
U.S. Committee for the Care of European Children
Warburg, Paul Felix
Warren, G. L.
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File 345: Organizations: NGOs, U.S. Committee for the Care of European Children, 1943 - 1945
In 1943, the Committee brought over 125 refugee children on 7 sailings of the SS Serpa Pinto, 9/15/43 and attachments. JDC allocations for child care apart from those linked to Committee activities, 3/10/43, 4/8/43 Montor letter insert, 4/15/43 extract draft bulletin, 4/22/43 Wise to Canter, 6/25/43, 3/20/44, 7/20/44. Report by R. Lang to Committee Board of Directors 5/12/43. The JDC reaffirmed to the U.S. State Department its 1942 offer of joint sponsorship with the Committee for bringing 5,000 refugee children from France, 11/30/43 and attachments. The JDC agreed to underwrite up to $2,000,000 of the estimated costs, and the U.S. Government announced its readiness to accept up to 5,000 children, 1/7/44 Memo. The National War Fund withheld support of the project, 5/12/44. The JDC reaffirmed its guarantee to cover 4/9th of the estimated costs, 6/8/44 J.C. Hyman memo, 7/27/44. The JDC guaranteed maintenance costs of up to 1,000 refugee children who may be admitted to Cuba, 5/16/44, and the Cuban Government agreed to admit that number, 6/8/44. List of refugee children from France who reached Spain and Portugal between March-September 1944, 9/20/44 and attachments, and those who left for the U.S. and Palestine, 1/25/45, 7/21/45. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, J.E. Beck, J.C. Hyman, H. Katzki, R. Lang, M.A. Leavitt, E.M.M. Morrissey, J. W. Pehle, R. Pilpel, B. Renard, C. Riegelman, J.J. Schwartz, M.R. Springer, J.B. Wise.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, Paul
Beck, Joseph E.
Children
Cuba
France
Hyman, Joseph C.
Katzki, Herbert
Lang, Robert
Leavitt, M. A.
Montor, H.
Morrissey, Evelyn M.
Palestine
Pehle, J. W.
Pilpel, Robert
Portugal
Refugees
Renard, B.
Riegelman, Charles A.
Schwartz, J. J.
Spain
Springer, M. R.
U.S. Committee for the Care of European Children
Wise, J. B.
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Series 57: Organizations: NGOs, World Jewish Congress (WJC)
The WJC was organized at Geneva, Switzerland, on 8/8/36, as a voluntary association of Jewish organizations and communities in various countries. Until the outbreak of W.W. II, the WJC viewed itself mainly as a political body on the international scene, charged with defending the rights and interests Jews held in common. It engaged in no social welfare activities. In those years, relations between the WJC and the JDC were cool but correct. But as W.W. II unfolded, several sources of friction arose between the two bodies. The WJC embarked on extensive fund-raising campaigns in Latin American countries starting in 1940, and it raised vehement objections in public whenever the JDC sought to raise funds in any one of those countries during the later years of the war. In its fund-raising campaigns, the WJC expanded its objectives to cover not only political protection activities but relief and rescue operations. The JDC maintained that the latter merely duplicated on a small scale some of the activities it itself was conducting on a great scale. The JDC charged that the WJC in its publicity repeatedly claimed sole credit for relief and rescue activities that in fact were conducted mainly or entirely by the JDC. In those publicity claims, the JDC role received scant mention or none at all. After the outbreak of war, the WJC moved its headquarters from Geneva to New York, but it continued to maintain a small office in Geneva. Over the years 1936 - 1944, Rabbi Stephen S. Wise served as Chairman of the WJC Executive Committee, Dr. Nahum Goldmann as Chairman of the Administrative Committee, and Louis Lipsky as Chairman of the Administrative Council.
Index Terms:
Geneva
Goldmann, Dr. Nahum
Latin America
Lipsky, Louis
Switzerland
Wise, Rabbi Stephen S.
World Jewish Congress (WJC)
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File 346: Organizations: NGOs, World Jewish Congress (WJC), 1932 - 1940
The AJC refused to participate in the formation of the WJC 5/12/36, 5/25/36. J.N. Rosenberg expressed opposition to the formation and to JDC participation in it, 5/12/36, 5/26/36, 5/27/36 Rosenberg to Lowenstein, 5/29/36, 6/9/36 Rosenberg to Wise, 6/10/36 Rosenberg to Hyman. C. Adler stated that the JDC, the B'nai B'rith, the Jewish Labor Committee and the National Council of Jewish Women among others had declined to participate in the new organization, 5/25/36. On the WJC and the JDC, see: 6/8/36, 6/23/36, 9/28/39 - 10/5/39, 10/19/39, 2/2/40, 2/5/40 Hyman to Holzer, 3/14/40, 8/21/40, 9/3/40, 12/2/40, 12/4/40 Hyman to Nathan, 12/27/40, 12/31/40.Correspondence: C. Adler, F.W. Borchard, H.K. Buchman, M.D. Goldsmith, J. Helman, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, N. Laski, J.B. Lightman, L. Lipsky, E.M. Morrissey, J.N. Rosenberg, J.J. Schwartz, A. Silberschein, A. Tartakower, M.C. Troper, S.S. Wise, M.D. Waldman.
Index Terms:
Adler, Cyrus
Borchard, F. W.
Buchman, H. K.
Goldsmith, M. D.
Helman, J.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Kahn, Dr. Bernhard
Laski, N.
Lightman, J. B.
Lipsky, Louis
Lowenstein, Solomon
Morrissey, Evelyn M.
Rosenberg, James N.
Schwartz, J. J.
Silberschein, A.
Tartakower, A.
Troper, Morris C.
Waldman, M. D.
Wise, Rabbi Stephen S.
World Jewish Congress (WJC)
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File 347: Organizations: NGOs, World Jewish Congress (WJC), 1941 - 1943
On the WJC and the JDC, see: 1/6/41, 1/23/41, 3/24/41 comments by B. Kahn, 4/4/41, 4/14/41, 5/19/41 and attachments, 2/9/42, 2/16/42, 3/11/42, 7/7/42, 7/28/42, 10/13/42, 10/19/42, 11/18/42, 11/27/42, 3/25/43, 3/31/43. Summary of WJC publication, "One Year of Social Relief Work of the WJC" by A. Tartakower, 1/2/41. WJC holds Inter-American Conference in Baltimore, 12/2/41, 12/31/41, 1/7/42. Balance Sheet, WJC Relief Department 1/1/42 - 7/1/43, 10/15/43, 11/12/43. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, M.W. Beckelman, I. Coons, A. D'Esaguy, N. Goldmann, S. Hayes, J.C. Hyman, A. Kahn, B. Kahn, M.A. Leavitt, A.H. Lieberman, R. Pilpel, B. Smolar, L.H. Sobel, A. Tartakower, M.D. Waldman, S.S. Wise.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, Paul
Beckelman, M. W.
Coons, I.
Goldmann, Dr. Nahum
Hayes, S.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Kahn, Alexander
Kahn, Dr. Bernhard
Leavitt, M. A.
Lieberman, A. H.
Pilpel, Robert
Smolar, B.
Sobel, L. H.
Tartakower, A.
Waldman, M. D.
Wise, Rabbi Stephen S.
World Jewish Congress (WJC)
d'Esaguy, A.
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File 348: Organizations: NGOs, World Jewish Congress (WJC), 1944; 1945
On the WJC and the JDC, see: 1/5, 3/16, 4/10, 6/14, 6/21, 7/7 Hyman to Wise, 7/17, 7/31, 8/8, 8/22, 8/24 Hyman to Lightman, 8/24 Rosenwald to Lurie, 10/30 attachment to 11/2, 10/31, 11/24, 12/1 Biele to Gurfinkle, 12/1 Kahn to WJC and attachments, 12/8. Preliminary Draft of Report presenting JDC position on WJC, 5/18/44. Survey Analysis of Proceedings of War Emergency Conf. of WJC 11/26 - 11/30, by Louis Shub. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, H.D. Biele, P. Dreyfus, B.B. Goldman, O. Gurfinkle, J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt, J.B. Lightman, R. Pilpel, G.D. Pinsky, Wm. Rosenwald, L. Shub, L.H. Sobel, A. Tartakower, S.S. Wise.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, Paul
Biele, H. D.
Dreyfus, P.
Goldman, Blanche B.
Gurfinkle, O.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Kahn, Dr. Bernhard
Leavitt, M. A.
Lightman, J. B.
Lurie, H. L.
Pilpel, Robert
Pinsky, G. D.
Rosenwald, William
Shub, Louis
Sobel, L. H.
Tartakower, A.
Wise, Rabbi Stephen S.
World Jewish Congress (WJC)
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Series 58: Organizations: NGOs, Zionist Organization of America (ZOA)
File 349: Organizations: NGOs, Zionist Organization of America (ZOA)
The ZOA was established in 1917 as a merger of several Zionist groups. Other Zionist groups remained independent of the ZOA or subsequently made themselves independent, e.g. the Revisionists. .After Hitler rose to power, the ZOA and the JDC were often at odds on the issue of Jewish fund-raising in the U.S. for overseas use. The ZOA maintained that Palestine rated the highest priority, while the JDC stressed that the needs of persecuted Jews in central and eastern Europe needed to be weighted along with those in Palestine, the more so since the funds available fell far short of the needs. The creation of the UJA in 1939 progressively lessened the level of frictions between the ZOA and the JDC. For earlier materials, see: Archives 1921 - 1933, File 97.On the JDC and the ZOA: 11/12/34 - 12/14/34, 8/6/35, 7/3/35, 11/20/35 - 12/2/35, 12/24/36, 7/3/40, 11/8/40 - 11/22/40. Correspondence: C. Adler, D.A. Brown, I. Coons, M. Hexter, J.C. Hyman, M.J. Karpf, E.I. Kaufmann, M.A. Leavitt, J.B. Lightman, M.C. Troper, J.B. Wise.
Index Terms:
Adler, Cyrus
Brown, David A.
Coons, I.
Hexter, M. B.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Karpf, M. J.
Kaufmann, E. I.
Leavitt, M. A.
Lightman, J. B.
Palestine
Troper, Morris C.
Wise, J. B.
Zionist Organization of America (ZOA)
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Subcollection 2: Organizations
Record Group 2.1: Relations with U.S. Government
File 192: Organizations: U.S. Government, General, 1941 - 1946
Memos of discussions on a range of problems with U.S. Government officials in Washington and with Red Cross officials, by M.A. Leavitt, J.C. Hyman, J.J. Schwartz, and E.M.M. Warburg, 5/16/41, 12/4/41, 2/9/42, 3/4/42, 8/26/42, 2/18/43, 6/7/43, 10/25/44, 8/30/45, 8/27/46, 10/23/46.
Index Terms:
Hyman, Joseph C.
Leavitt, M. A.
Schwartz, J. J.
U.S. Government
Warburg, Edward M. M.
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File 193: Organizations: U.S Government, State Department, General, 1930 - 1944
The U.S. Embassy in Berlin stated it will render all proper assistance should the need arise (following Hitler's rise to power) to aid the JDC European Office in Berlin, 3/23/33, 3/27/33, 4/4/33. The JDC officially registered with the State Department under the Neutrality Act to permit the remittance of relief funds for use in countries at war, 9/13/39 -12/20/39. Correspondence: C. Adler, P. Baerwald, I. Coons, P.E. Hoffman, J.C. Hyman, M.J. Kohler, E.D. Kuppinger, M.A. Leavitt, Breckinridge Long, H.L. Lurie, E.M. Morrissey, Robert D. Murphy, J.P. Nathan, Wm. Phillips, J.N. Rosenberg, F.M. Warburg, Sumner Welles, C.W. Yost.
Index Terms:
Adler, Cyrus
Baerwald, Paul
Berlin
Coons, I.
Hoffman, P. E.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Kohler, M. J.
Kuppinger, E. D.
Leavitt, M. A.
Long, Breckinridge
Lurie, H. L.
Morrissey, Evelyn M.
Murphy, Robert D.
Nathan, J. P.
Phillips, William
Rosenberg, James N.
U.S. Government
Warburg, Felix M.
Welles, Sumner
Yost, C. W.
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File 194: Organizations: U.S. Government, State Department, Reports, 1939 September - 1940 February
The JDC submitted monthly reports to the State Department under the provisions of the Neutrality Act between September 1939 - August 1942. Thereafter, the War Relief Control Board administered this activity. The State Department in turn issued periodic lists of organizations registered under the Act and the files contain those issued on the following dates: 9/14/39, 1/30/40, 4/27/40.
Index Terms:
U.S. Government
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File 195: Organizations: U.S. Government, State Department, Reports, 1940 March - 1942 August
The JDC submitted monthly reports to the State Department under the provisions of the Neutrality Act between September 1939 - August 1942. Thereafter, the War Relief Control Board administered this activity. The State Department in turn issued periodic lists of organizations registered under the Act and the files contain those issued on the following dates: 9/14/39, 1/30/40, 4/27/40.
Index Terms:
U.S. Government
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File 196: Organizations: U.S. Government, Treasury Department, 1943
In June 1943, the U.S. Treasury Department issued Public Circular #22 ordering all persons subject to U.S. jurisdiction to file an inventory of assets owned by them in foreign countries as of 5/31/43. The JDC thereupon submitted a Census of Property in Foreign Countries including detailed property reports for individual JDC offices abroad.
Index Terms:
U.S. Government
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File 197: Organizations: U.S. Government, Office of Censorship, 1944
Correspondence and addenda.
Index Terms:
U.S. Government
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File 198: Organizations: U.S. Government, War Refugee Board (WRB), 1944
On 1/22/44, the U.S. Government created a special agency, the WRB, to aid in the tasks of rescue from Nazi occupied countries. It remained in operation until 9/15/45. In 1944, Ira A. Hirschmann was appointed the WRB representative in Turkey. For additional materials on the WRB and its operation, see: SM Archives, File 22. Preliminary report by I.A. Hirschmann on WRB activities in Turkey from 6/8/44 - 8/19/44 attachment to 9/11/44. See also: AR4564.4660, 4661 for most 1944 WRB material.
Index Terms:
Hirschmann, Ira A.
Turkey
U.S. Government
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Record Group 2.2: NGOs, Non-Governmental Organizations
File 199: Organizations: NGOs, General
Important International Jewish Organizations, November 1933 attachment to Aide Memoire 11/3/33.World Refugee Organizations, JDC Paris, July 1937.The Jewish Organizations, The Hague 1939, pamphlet. American Philanthropies 1914 - 1938 (non-Jewish), JDC NY, 1/26/42.Possibilities for the Selection of Persons for Overseas Settlements From Among the Population in Central and Eastern Europe and Among the Refugees in the European Countries of Refuge, by Dr. Bernhard Kahn, 1/8/40. The report is a roundup of key personnel and organizations participating in Jewish refugee activities in European countries.
Index Terms:
Kahn, Dr. Bernhard
Paris
Refugees
World Refugee Organizations
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Series 1: Organizations: NGOs, Alliance Israelite Universelle, Paris
File 200: Organizations: NGOs, Alliance Israelite Universelle, Paris, 1939 - 1944
The Alliance was established at Paris in 1860 to aid in defending civil rights of Jews everywhere against discrimination. By the 1890's, Jewish education became its principal activity; most notably in the Turkish Empire and North Africa, where it supported a network of Jewish schools. The Nazi occupation of France in W.W.II. cut communications between the Alliance and its schools in North Africa and the Near East. In the U.S., the Friends of the Alliance had formed small branches in earlier years, to aid in supporting Alliance schools, but their efforts came to little until the fall of France. In 1941, and running throughout the war years, the Friends collected small sums which the JDC forwarded on their behalf to Alliance schools in Iran, Palestine, Syria and Tangiers. From September 1943 until the close of 1944, the JDC forwarded allocations of its own to the schools in Teheran in the sum of $1,000 per month. It also sent $1,000 per month for school feeding at the Tangiers school. In 1944, the JDC forwarded $40,250 in support of the Alliance schools in Morocco and Tunis. On the Alliance and the JDC, see: 3/18/41, 4/17/42, 12/24/42, 1/21/44, 2/4/44, 3/24/44.Reports on Alliance Schools: Tangiers 7/14/43, 9/26/44; Iran 7/3/43, 7/21/43, 11/30/43; Rabat 2/15/43. Correspondence: R. Blank, H.K. Buchman, J. Cohen, H. Gamse, M. Gottschalk, F.E. Hahn Jr., J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, N. Katz, H. Katzki, M.A. Leavitt, E.M. Morrissey, M.C. Troper, H. Viteles.
Index Terms:
Alliance Israelite Universelle
Blank, R.
Buchman, H. K.
Cohen, J.
Education, Jewish
France
Gamse, H.
Gottschalk, Max
Hahn, F. E. Jr.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Iran
Kahn, Dr. Bernhard
Katz, Nathan
Katzki, Herbert
Leavitt, M. A.
Morocco
Morrissey, Evelyn M.
North Africa
Palestine
Paris
Syria
Tangiers
Troper, Morris C.
Tunis
Viteles, Harry
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Series 2: Organizations: NGOs, Alvin Corporation
In 1939, the Alvin Corporation (President: Dr. Alvin Johnson, President of the New School for Social Research) established a small non-sectarian refugee settlement near Wilmington, N.C. (Van Eden), to engage in truck and dairy farming. The initial capital was $65,000. Dr. Johnson raised one-half of it from private investors and the REC/ECF contributed the other half; management was conducted jointly. The undertaking had its ups and downs, but it was not a success, notwithstanding the long and devoted efforts expended by Dr. Johnson and the REC/ECF. Within a few years, most of the settlers abandoned the undertaking when they found themselves unable to make ends meet without periodic money transfusions from the REC/ECF.
Index Terms:
Alvin Corporation
Johnson, Dr. Alvin
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File 200a: Organizations: NGOs, Alvin Corporation, 1938 - 1940
Index Terms:
Alvin Corporation
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File 200b: Organizations: NGOs, Alvin Corporation, 1941
Index Terms:
Alvin Corporation
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File 200c: Organizations: NGOs, Alvin Corporation, 1942 - 1950
Index Terms:
Alvin Corporation
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Series 3: Organizations: NGOs, AMBIJAN (American Committee for Settlement of Jews in Birobidjan)
File 201: Organizations: NGOs, AMBIJAN, 1933 - 1950
In 1928 the Soviet Government set aside the territory of Birobidjan in eastern Siberia as an autonomous region for Jewish settlement, and in 1934 labeled it a "Jewish autonomous territory." In the latter year, the American Committee for the Settlement of Jews in Birobidjan (AMBIJAN) was organized to promote the settlement of Jews in that territory and notably of non-Russian Jews. Earlier, the JDC had taken a negative position to the new region, yet the need to find new homes for Jewish refugees prompted it to restudy resettlement prospects there. But the projects proposed by AMBIJAN came to nothing over the years, and the JDC held aloof, then and later. For additional materials also see: Archives 1921 - 1933, Files 513-514a. Correspondence, memos, reports, addenda. Relations between the AMBIJAN and the JDC: 2/18/35, 4/5/35, 4/30/35, 5/6/35, 10/4/35, 8/11/35, 9/21/36, 3/10/37, 6/7/37, 12/21/39, 5/10/44, 5/11/44, 5/17/44, 10/12/45, 3/28/47 - 8/8/47, 9/2/47.Reports: AMBIJAN, by CJFWF, 7/30/36, January 1945.Correspondence: C. Adler, S. Arons, P. Baerwald, J. Billikopf, H.K. Buchman, J.M. Budish, W.W. Cohen, J.C. Hyman, A. Kahn, M.A. Leavitt, H.L. Lurie, E.M. Morrissey, R. Pilpel, J.A. Rosen, J.N. Rosenberg, L.H. Sobel.
Index Terms:
AMBIJAN (American Committee for Settlement of Jews in Birobidjan
Adler, Cyrus
Arons, S.
Baerwald, Paul
Billikopf, Jacob
Birobidjan
Buchman, H. K.
Budish, J. M.
Cohen, W. W.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Kahn, Alexander
Leavitt, M. A.
Lurie, H. L.
Morrissey, Evelyn M.
Pilpel, Robert
Refugees
Rosen, Joseph A.
Rosenberg, James N.
Siberia
Sobel, L. H.
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Series 4: Organizations: NGOs, American Committee for Christian Refugees
American Christian Committee for German Refugees (1934). American Committee for Christian German Refugees (1937). American Committee for Christian Refugees (1944). The Committee was established in 1934, by the National Conference on Jews and Christians to aid Christian refugees in need who fled Germany. Beneficiaries were Protestants, in the main, since a comparable organization for Catholic refugees was formed soon after. The Committee underwent a number of name changes in the years that followed, as outlined above. The Committee received funds from churches and individuals at first, and then from labor groups as well. Between 1934 - 1941, the Committee found itself pinched for funds at times, and the JDC came to its rescue every year with loans. The loans were all repaid. Between 1942 - 1944, the pinch relaxed when the National War Fund became the predominant source of funds. In those years, the Committee aided Christian refugees in Shanghai, as well as in Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti and Venezuela, via JDC representatives and committees on the spot. The relationship between the JDC and the Committee was a cordial and a continuing one over the years.
Index Terms:
American Christian Committee for German Refugees
American Committee for Christian German Refugees
American Committee for Christian Refugees
Cuba
Dominican Republic
Germany
Haiti
Refugees
Shanghai
Venezuela
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File 202: Organizations: NGOs, American Committee for Christian Refugees, 1934 - 1938
Minutes: 3/16/34, 6/1/34, 11/5/34, 5/16/35. Treasurer's Report for 1934, 1/29/35, 2/21/35. Narrative report on status of non-Jewish German refugees, F. Ritchie, 10/5/35.Publications: "Plight of the Refugees Coming Out of Germany", April 1934; "Twelve Questions Answered", November 1935; "National Appeal of the Committee", 10/6/36.. Correspondence: R.A. Ashworth, S.P. Cadman, I. Coons, J.C. Hyman, H.S. Leiper, James G. McDonald, F. Ritchie.
Index Terms:
American Christian Committee for German Refugees
American Committee for Christian German Refugees
American Committee for Christian Refugees
Ashworth, R. A.
Cadman, S. P.
Coons, I.
Germany
Hyman, Joseph C.
Leiper, H. S.
McDonald, James G.
Refugees
Ritchie, F.
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File 203: Organizations: NGOs, American Committee for Christian Refugees, 1939 - 1947
Activities of the Committee by F.R. Adlerstein, 11/1/40. The Committee agreed to reimburse JDC Committees in Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti and Venezuela for expenditures in aid of Christian refugees, 2/11/43, 5/19/43 (2), 6/7/43 and attachments. Publications: "Modern Christian - German Martyrs", July 1937; "Something Worse than Murder is Happening Now While You Read", January 1940; "American Committee for Christian Refugees", February 1940; "Our Story for 1940", February 1941; "Toward a New Life", 1945. Correspondence: F.R. Adlerstein, A. Benneyan, O. Gurfinkel, J.C. Hyman, C. Jordan, H. Katzki, J.B. Lightman, R. Pilpel, F. Ritchie, L.R. Robinson, J. Siebold, J.M. Speers, K.B. Woodruff.
Index Terms:
Adlerstein, F. R.
American Christian Committee for German Refugees
American Committee for Christian German Refugees
American Committee for Christian Refugees
Benneyan, A.
Cuba
Dominican Republic
Gurfinkel, O.
Haiti
Hyman, Joseph C.
Jordan, Charles H.
Katzki, Herbert
Lightman, J. B.
Pilpel, Robert
Refugees
Ritchie, F.
Robinson, L. R.
Siebold, J.
Speers, James M.
Venezuela
Woodruff, K. B.
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Series 5: Organizations: NGOs, American Committee for Emigre Scholars, Writers and Artists
File 203a: Organizations: NGOs, American Committee for Emigre Scholars, Writers and Artists
The Committee was created in March, 1945 to aid refugee scholars, writers and artists in finding places in American life. Aid granted by the Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced German Scholars ended in 1945, and by the NRS and the American Christian Committee for Refugees in 1946. In 1948/9, the Refugee Assistance Fund granted $3,500 in aid of a budget of some $30,000, and the Committee placed 44 scholars in teaching or research posts, and granted 9 scholarships for graduate studies. Reports: 1/15/49, 1949-1950 (March);Placement Reports: 1946/47-1949.
Index Terms:
American Committee for Emigre Scholars, Writers and Artists
Refugees
Scholars and Teachers
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Series 6: Organizations: NGOs, American Federation of Jews from Central Europe
File 204: Organizations: NGOs, American Federation of Jews from Central Europe
The Federation was established in 1941 with the aim of safeguarding in the United States the rights and interests of Jewish refugees from central Europe, and notably those seeking American citizenship. During the war years, the Federation often called upon the JDC for information bearing on refugees. In 1945, the JDC contributed $1,500 to the Federation to aid it in collecting evidence of assets belonging to former Jewish congregations and organizations in Germany. In 1948, the JDC contributed $6,000 to help in establishing the Individual Claims Organization, known thereafter as the United Restitution Office (URO). The URO aided Nazi victims in pressing their identification claims in Germany under Military Government Law, and the JDC allocation was transmitted via the Federation. JDC allocations also followed in 1949 and 1950. The Jewish Agency and the British Board of Deputies were co-contributors to the URO. Circular letters #13, 21-55 (some missing) on refugee problems, 1942-1944. Narrative reports: May-July 1943, June-October 1944. Correspondence: N. Aronovici, P. Baerwald, R. Callman, E. Fraenkel, M.B. Hexter, J.C. Hyman, H. Muller, E. Rock, H.E. Simon, L.H. Sobel, N. Stein.
Index Terms:
American Federation of Jews from Central Europe
Aronovici, Noel
Baerwald, Paul
Callman, R.
Fraenkel, E.
Germany
Hexter, M. B.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Muller, H.
Refugees
Rock, E.
Simon, H. E.
Sobel, L. H.
Stein, N.
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Series 7: Organizations: NGOs, American Friends Service Committee (AFSC)
The Friends are a Christian organization which has extended refugee relief over the years on non-sectarian principles. Collaboration between the Friends and the JDC has been close and cordial and dated back to W.W.I. Between 1920-1922, the JDC allocated $450,000 to the Friends for feeding programs in Germany and Russia, and most notably for children. For additional data, see: Archives 1921-1932, File 91b.Following the rise of the Nazis, collaborations began afresh between the Friends and the JDC in dealing first with the plight of German Jews and later with Jews from Austria, Czechoslovakia and France. The collaboration was closest wherever relief activities could be conducted to the best effect under non-Jewish auspices, e.g. in Nazi occupied countries and in concentration camps. JDC allocations of $5,000 for 1933/34 were followed by $100,000 for 1939-40, and $9,500 for 1944, and went for the aid of persecutees, most notably those labeled by the Nazis as non-Aryan Christians. After the outbreak of war, close collaboration continued in unoccupied France and subsequently in Spain. Also see: 3/21/41 below, and Cuba, File 518.Clarence E. Pickett served as Executive Secretary between 1930-1950, and was succeeded by Lewis Hoskins.
Index Terms:
American Friends Service Committee (AFSC)
Austria
Children
Czechoslovakia
France
Germany
Hoskins, Lewis
Pickett, Clarence E.
Refugees
Spain
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File 205: Organizations: NGOs, American Friends Service Committee (AFSC), 1933 - 1939 June
The JDC allocated $2,500 each for 1933 and 1934 to aid AFSC relief activities, 11/29/33, 4/12/34. The AFSC requested $500,000 to aid its activities in Germany, 1/20/39. The JDC allocated to the AFSC $100,000 for 1939 and 1940, 1/20/39-2/14/39, 4/19/39, also see: File 206 below, 8/31/39, 11/9/39 Hyman to Pickett, 11/24/39, 9/24/40. Statements of activities by the AFSC: attachment to 10/31/33, 11/13/33 memo, 4/25/34, 6/12/34, 3/24/39, 6/28/39.Publications: "Creative Experience in International Relations", 1935;"Annual Report 1938". Correspondence: C. Adler, P. Baerwald, W.R. Hughes, J.C. Hyman, A. Jaretzki, Jr., B. Kahn, H. Katzki, G.L. MacMaster, J.G. McDonald, E.M. Morrissey, C.E. Pickett, M.C. Troper, J.G. Vail, F.M. Warburg.
Index Terms:
Adler, Cyrus
American Friends Service Committee (AFSC)
Baerwald, Paul
Germany
Hughes, W. R.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Jaretzki, A.
Kahn, Dr. Bernhard
Katzki, Herbert
MacMaster, G. L.
McDonald, James G.
Morrissey, Evelyn M.
Pickett, Clarence E.
Troper, Morris C.
Vail, J. G.
Warburg, Felix M.
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File 206: Organizations: NGOs, American Friends Service Committee (AFSC), 1939 July - 1940
The Nazi Government invited the AFSC to distribute relief in Poland to Poles only, but the Friends refused unless it were non-sectarian, 10/26/39 memo by I. Rosen. Statements of activities by the AFSC: 7/1/39 attachment to 7/29/39, 9/1/39, 8/21/40.Publications: "Refugee Facts", 1940; "AFSC Bulletins on Relief in France" #1-18, 8/1/40-12/12/40 (some omissions). Also see: Italy, File 719, 7/22/40, 7/23/40. Correspondence: Wm. Eves, M. Frawley, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, H.E. Kershner, M.A. Leavitt, J.J. Schwartz, M.C. Troper.
Index Terms:
American Friends Service Committee (AFSC)
Eves, William
France
Frawley, M.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Kahn, Dr. Bernhard
Kershner, H. E.
Leavitt, M. A.
Poland
Refugees
Rosen, I.
Schwartz, J. J.
Troper, Morris C.
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File 207: Organizations: NGOs, American Friends Service Committee (AFSC), 1941 - 1942
American Friends Service Committee (AFSC) Report on the Friends' activities in Italy, 1/4/41.Publications: "Latin American Refugee Fund", 1942; "Annual Report 1942": "Bulletins on Relief in France" #20-46, 1/21/41-10/16/42 (some omissions). Correspondence: F.R. Adlerstein, P. Baerwald, J.C. Hyman, C.H. Jordan, M.A. Leavitt, R. Pilpel, M.P. Schauffler, M.C. Troper, J.G. Vail, H. Wriggins.
Index Terms:
Adlerstein, F. R.
Baerwald, Paul
France
Hyman, Joseph C.
Jordan, Charles H.
Latin America
Leavitt, M. A.
Pilpel, Robert
Schauffler, M. P.
Troper, Morris C.
Vail, J. G.
Wriggins, H.
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File 208: Organizations: NGOs, American Friends Service Committee (AFSC), 1943 - 1944
The JDC agreed to shoulder two-thirds of the administrative costs of the Friends' office in Madrid, 3/29/44, 4/4/44.Publications: "Under the Red and Black Star", 2/25/43; "Recent Relief Programs of the American Friends in Spain and France", August 1943; "Bulletins on Relief in France", #48-53, 1/8/43-2/17/44; "General Relief Bulletin", #1-14, 2/1/43-3/27/44 (some omissions). Correspondence: P. Baerwald, D. Blickenstaff, H.K. Buchman, L.O. Heath, J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt, R. McClelland, C.E. Pickett, M.P. Schauffler, J.G. Vail, H. Wriggins.
Index Terms:
American Friends Service Committee (AFSC)
Baerwald, Paul
Blickenstaff, D.
Buchman, H. K.
France
Heath, L. O.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Leavitt, M. A.
Madrid
McClelland, R.
Pickett, Clarence E.
Schauffler, M. P.
Spain
Vail, J. G.
Wriggins, H.
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File 209: Organizations: NGOs, American Friends Service Committee (AFSC), 1945 - 1953
"Brotherhood in Action-a Record of the Cooperation of the JDC and the AFSC", by F.F. Sandmel, attachment to 10/17/45.Reports: Spain-Activities of the Madrid Office During 1944, 2/28/45; Periodic Summary No. 5, December 1946; Annual Report 1946. Correspondence: D. Blickenstaff, L.K. Cleveland, M.A. Leavitt, C.E. Pickett, J.F. Rich.
Index Terms:
American Friends Service Committee (AFSC)
Blickenstaff, D.
Cleveland, L. K.
Leavitt, M. A.
Madrid
Pickett, Clarence E.
Rich, J. F.
Sandmel, F. F.
Spain
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Series 8: Organizations: NGOs, American Jewish Committee (AJC)
File 210: Organizations: NGOs, American Jewish Committee (AJC)
The AJC was founded in 1906 with the aim of safeguarding the civil, religious and legal rights of Jews wherever they were in jeopardy and to aid in combating the effects upon them of discrimination and persecution. In October 1914, the impact of World War I upon the Jews of Eastern Europe impelled the AJC to organize the American Jewish Relief Committee (AJRC), which became, in the war years, the major Jewish fund-raising agency in the U.S. The AJRC, together with the Central Relief Committee (CRC) and the People's Relief Committee (PRC) came to form the three constituent organizations of the JDC. Over the years the AJC and the JDC maintained a consultative and coordinating relationship but not a financial one. Leading AJC personalities and leading JDC personalities were often one and the same, in earlier years most notably. Louis Marshal, the AJC president from 1912 until his death in 1929, and Cyrus Adler, who followed him and served until his own death in 1940, were major JDC activists. In the course of W.W. II, the Executive Vice-Presidents of the two agencies often attended each other's Executive Committee meetings as guests, and consultations were frequent on topics of mutual interest, e.g., refugees. Correspondence, memos, reports and addenda. Correspondence: F.R. Adlerstein, H.D. Biele, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, M.A. Leavitt, J.B. Lightman, Wm. Rosenwald, H. Schneiderman, M.D. Waldman.
Index Terms:
Adler, Cyrus
Adlerstein, F. R.
American Jewish Committee (AJC)
Biele, H. D.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Kahn, Dr. Bernhard
Leavitt, M. A.
Lightman, J. B.
Refugees
Rosenwald, William
Schneiderman, H.
Waldman, M. D.
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Series 9: Organizations: NGOs, American Jewish Conference
File 211: Organizations: NGOs, American Jewish Conference
The Conference was founded in 1943 to make recommendations on the rescue of European Jewry, on the post-war needs of Jews in overseas countries and on implementing the rights of Jews pertaining to Palestine. The Conference held sessions in August/September 1943 and December 1944. The JDC did not affiliate itself on the ground that the Conference was a political organization, while the AJC withdrew its affiliation. The Conference discontinued its activities following the establishment of Israel. On the JDC and the Conference: 5/4/43-5/11/43 Baerwald to Levy, 5/12/43-5/17/43, 5/19/43, 8/2/43, 8/5/43, 8/12/43, 8/29/43 memo, 9/17/43, 10/27/43-11/14/43, 11/16/43-12/14/43, 1/24/44, 3/16/44, 8/31/44, 11/24/44, 12/22/44, 8/13/45. Call for the organization of the Conference and the Rules of Election, 4/23/43. Statement by the AJC upon its withdrawal from the Conference, 10/29/43. Publication: "The Conference Record" -1944: June, July, August, November, December -1945: March. Report on the Conference by the CJFWF, 8/18/43. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, J.H. Becker, B.A. Grebiner, I. Goldstein, S. Hollander, J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt, A.P. Lefton, A.H. Lieberman, J.M. Proskauer, J.N. Rosenberg, L.H. Sobel.
Index Terms:
American Jewish Conference
Baerwald, Paul
Becker, J. H.
Goldstein, I.
Grebiner, B. A.
Hollander, S.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Leavitt, M. A.
Lefton, A. P.
Lieberman, A. H.
Palestine
Proskauer, J. M.
Rosenberg, James N.
Sobel, L. H.
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Series 10: Organizations: NGOs, American Jewish Congress (Congress)
The Congress was established in 1917 with the aim of protecting Jewish rights the world over. In August 1936, the Congress became a prime mover in the organization of the World Jewish Congress (WJC). Up to that point, relations between the Congress and the JDC were cool but correct, but thereafter the same sources of friction developed as between the WJC and the JDC; see below: WJC, Files 346-348. For materials on earlier years, see: Archives 1921-1932, File 91b.Bernard Deutsch was President of the Congress from 1929-1935, and Stephen S. Wise from 1925-1929, and 1935-1945.
Index Terms:
American Jewish Congress (Congress)
Deutsch, Bernard
Wise, Rabbi Stephen S.
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File 212: Organizations: NGOs, American Jewish Congress (Congress), 1930 - 1939 October
On the Congress and the JDC: 6/14/35, 5/18/36-6/29/36, 12/22/36-12/24/36, 5/12/38, 10/31/38, 11/2/38, 12/8/38. The JDC response to the call by the Congress for an Emergency Conference, 9/21/39-10/25/39. Minutes of meetings between the JDC and the Congress representatives, 10/26/39, 10/31/39.Correspondence: F.R. Adlerstein, P. Baerwald, J.H. Becker, N.C. Belth, I. Coons, J.C. Hyman, L. Lipsky, J.N. Rosenberg, J.J. Schwartz, S.S. Wise.
Index Terms:
Adlerstein, F. R.
American Jewish Congress (Congress)
Baerwald, Paul
Becker, J. H.
Belth, N. C.
Coons, I.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Lipsky, Louis
Rosenberg, James N.
Schwartz, J. J.
Wise, Rabbi Stephen S.
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File 213: Organizations: NGOs, American Jewish Congress (Congress), 1939 November - 1945
On the Congress and the JDC: 12/1/39, 12/20/39, 2/2/40, 11/27/42, 3/16/43, 8/31/45-11/30/45. Congress memo calling for the broadening of the JDC's base of representation, and the JDC response thereto, 11/10/39-12/23/39.Publication: "Institute of Jewish Affairs", 1941. Correspondence: F.R. Adlerstein, P. Baerwald, H.K. Buchman, J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt, J.J. Schwartz, L.H. Sobel, S.S. Wise.
Index Terms:
Adlerstein, F. R.
American Jewish Congress (Congress)
Baerwald, Paul
Buchman, H. K.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Leavitt, M. A.
Schwartz, J. J.
Sobel, L. H.
Wise, Rabbi Stephen S.
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Series 11: Organizations: NGOs, American Palestine Campaign (APC)
File 214: Organizations: NGOs, American Palestine Campaign (APC)
The APC was established in 1931 as the fund-raising arm in the United States of the Jewish Agency for Palestine. Subsequently, it performed the same function for the Central Bureau for the Settlement of German Jews in Palestine. In 1934 and 1935, the JDC and the APC joined their fund-raising forces to form the UJA and negotiated annual agreements to embody the terms. Thereafter, the APC merged with the UPA. For UPA materials, see below: Files 340-341.Joint Campaign for 1934 discussed, 7/7/33-April 1934; also see: File 75, For the 1935 Campaign, see: File 76. Correspondence: C. Adler, P. Baerwald, I. Coons, J.C. Hyman, H. Katzki, L. Lipsky, H. Montor, S.S. Wise.
Index Terms:
Adler, Cyrus
American Palestine Campaign (APC)
Baerwald, Paul
Coons, I.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Katzki, Herbert
Lipsky, Louis
Montor, H.
Palestine
Wise, Rabbi Stephen S.
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Series 12: Organizations: NGOs, American Red Cross (ARC)
The ARC, a semi-governmental organization operating under a charter issued by the U.S. Congress, has extended emergency relief over the years on non-sectarian grounds. Collaboration between the ARC and the JDC dated back to the aftermath of W.W. I and was close and cordial. See: Archives 1921-1932, File 92. Collaboration began afresh following the Nazi invasion of Poland. In 1940, a special JDC allocation of $50,000 went to the ARC for the distribution of medical supplies among Polish Jews, but the Mediterranean shipping lane to Poland was cut in mid-year after Italy entered the war. In 1942, the ARC provided large quantities of food to the JDC-supported kitchen in Shanghai which fed many of the 21,000 refugees stranded in that city. In the course of the war, the JDC made large grants to the International Red Cross (IRC) at Geneva for aid to Nazi refugees in Europe and the Far East; see below: File 216, 2/23/44, and SM Archives, File 23. For other materials, also see above: File 192
Index Terms:
American Red Cross (ARC)
Geneva
Medical
Poland
Refugees
Shanghai
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File 215: Organizations: NGOs, American Red Cross (ARC), 1938 - 1940 May
On the ARC and the JDC: 9/25/39, 10/17/39, 10/23/39, 10/24/39, 11/25/39, 1/2/40, 2/23/40, 2/26/40, 3/4/40, 4/24/40, 4/26/40 Hyman to Davis, Minutes of Meeting of JDC administration Committee, 5/1/40, JDC Executive Committee, 5/22/40, JDC administration Committee, 5/22/40. Memo Levy to Regional Officers, 5/29/40. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, H.K. Buchman, Norman H. Davis, R. Gutstadt, J.C. Hyman, H. Katzki, H.L. Lurie, H. Maizlish, J.N. Rosenberg, J.J. Schwartz, M.C. Troper.
Index Terms:
American Red Cross (ARC)
Baerwald, Paul
Buchman, H. K.
Davis, Norman H.
Gutstadt, R.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Katzki, Herbert
Lurie, H. L.
Maizlish, H.
Rosenberg, James N.
Schwartz, J. J.
Troper, Morris C.
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File 216: Organizations: NGOs, American Red Cross (ARC), 1940 June - 1945
On the ARC and the JDC: 6/6/40, 6/10/40, 6/21/40, 12/17/41, 7/22/42, 8/28/42, 1/4/44, 1/24/44, 2/2/44, 2/23/44, 7/25/44.Publication: War Relief Abroad, 9/1/39-6/30/41. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, H.K. Buchman, Norman H. Davis, J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt, E.M. Morrissey, E.J. Swift, E.M.M. Warburg, J.B. Wise.
Index Terms:
American Red Cross (ARC)
Baerwald, Paul
Buchman, H. K.
Davis, Norman H.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Leavitt, M. A.
Morrissey, Evelyn M.
Swift, E. J.
Warburg, Edward M. M.
Wise, J. B.
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Series 13: Organizations: NGOs, B'nai Brith
File 217: Organizations: NGOs, B'nai Brith
The B'nai Brith, the oldest and largest Jewish fraternal and service organization in the U.S. (1843), has raised funds for Jewish victims of suffering abroad throughout its history. After 1933, it identified itself with efforts to alleviate the plight of Jewish refugees from central and eastern Europe but without restricting its efforts to any single large-scale program. The JDC aided the B'nai Brith in transmitting relief funds to Germany via its clearance arrangement. Over the years, the B'nai B'rith and the JDC maintained a consultative and coordinating relationship, most notably on problems bearing on refugees and fund-raising. The B'nai B'rith conducted its own fund-raising campaigns, and from the 1930's onwards, participated in joint fund-raising efforts with the AJC on behalf of their respective anti-defamation programs. Correspondence, memos, reports, addenda. Correspondence: F.A. Adlerstein, Alfred M. Cohen, I. Coons, E. Grusd, C. Horowitz, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, M.A. Leavitt, I.M. Rubinow, E.M.M. Warburg, J.B. Wise.
Index Terms:
Adlerstein, F. R.
B'nai Brith
Cohen, Alfred M.
Coons, I.
Germany
Grusd, E.
Horowitz, C.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Kahn, Dr. Bernhard
Leavitt, M. A.
Refugees
Rubinow, I. M.
Warburg, Edward M. M.
Wise, J. B.
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Series 14: Organizations: NGOs, Comite d'Entente
The formation of a Comite d'Entente was proposed in 1937, upon the initiative of Felix Warburg, to promote close cooperation and exchanges of information between Jewish philanthropic agencies dealing with world Jewish problems, and most notably in emigration and resettlement matters. Political organizations were not invited. The Comite held two meetings - in July and November /December 1937, and the participants included the JDC, the ICA, the HICEM, the Reichsvertretung der Juden in Deutschland, the Hilfsverein der Juden in Deutschland, the REC and the Refugees Committee London. Nothing more came of the plan.
Index Terms:
Comite d'Entente
Immigration and Emigration
London
Warburg, Felix M.
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File 218: Organizations: NGOs, Comite d'Entente, 1937
Minutes of the first meeting, 7/21/37-7/22/37.
Index Terms:
Comite d'Entente
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File 219: Organizations: NGOs, Comite d'Entente, 1937 - 1938
Minutes of the second meeting, 11/30/37-12/1/37. Reports on German-Jewish immigrants in Argentina, Brazil, Columbia, Peru and Uruguay and on activities in Poland, 12/11/37. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, M. Gottschalk, J.C. Hyman, N. Katz.
Index Terms:
Argentina
Baerwald, Paul
Brazil
Columbia
Comite d'Entente
Gottschalk, Max
Hyman, Joseph C.
Katz, Nathan
Peru
Poland
Uruguay
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Series 15: Organizations: NGOs, Coordinating Foundation
File 220: Organizations: NGOs, Coordinating Foundation
The Foundation was established in England on 8/1/39, as a secretariat agency, to aid private organizations in finding overseas territories suitable for refugee settlement. Discussions in earlier years (e.g. 1936) for setting up a Central Coordinating Committee in London came to nothing. Discussions leading to the organization of the Foundation began in April 1939. The JDC agreed to provide $1,000,000 in the hope that British and continental groups would participate as well. The hope was never realized. Differences of opinion between the U.S. and the British representatives impeded progress and agreement was reached only at the end of July. For data on the progress of those discussions, see: File 18, 6/5/39, 6/16/39, 7/17/39. The materials in this file deal with the discussions leading up to the establishment of the Foundation, April-July 1939. For the activities of the Foundation thereafter, see: DORSA Archives, Files 58-59.Note: Activities got under way in London in mid-August 1939, but the direction of them was switched to New York following the outbreak of war two weeks later. Also see below: IGCR, Files 255-256.JDC Executive Committee Minutes: 6/5/39, 6/16/39, 7/17/39. Minutes of the Inter-Organizational Steering Committee on the organization of the Foundation, 6/17/39. Establishment of the Foundation announced in London, 7/19/39. The JDC authorized payments to the Foundation of up to $1,000,000, 7/20/39 Minutes, Board of Directors. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, J.P. Chamberlain, A. Held, J.C. Hyman, A. Jaretzki Jr., H.L. Linder, J.M. Proskauer, J.N. Rosenberg, L.L. Strauss, M.M. Warburg.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, Paul
Chamberlain, J. P.
Coordinating Foundation
Held, Adolph
Hyman, Joseph C.
Jaretzki, A.
Linder, H. L.
London
Proskauer, J. M.
Refugees
Rosenberg, James N.
Strauss, L. L.
Warburg, Max M.
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Series 16: Organizations: NGOs, Council on Refugee Aid
File 221: Organizations: NGOs, Council on Refugee Aid
The Council, a non-sectarian group, was organized in 1941 at the call of a committee of notables headed by Eleanor Roosevelt, to launch a national program of education and publicity on refugee problems and needs. Refugee service agencies aided in the organization. Allen Wardwell was named Chairman of the Organizing Committee, and Paul Baerwald served as one of its active members. At the end of 1941, the Council transferred the direction of the national program to the American Committee for Christian Refugees and the American Friends Service Committee, acting jointly. Correspondence, minutes, reports, addenda. Correspondence: F. Aydelotte, P. Baerwald, Wm. Haber, J.C. Hyman, C.E. Pickett, Eleanor Roosevelt, R. Veatch.
Index Terms:
Aydelotte, F.
Baerwald, Paul
Baerwald, Paul
Haber, William
Hyman, Joseph C.
Pickett, Clarence E.
Refugees
Roosevelt, Eleanor
Roosevelt, Eleanor
Veatch, R.
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Series 17: Organizations: NGOs, Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars, N.Y.
Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced German Scholars, N.Y. (1933).Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars, N.Y. (1938). The Committee was formed in May 1933, upon the initiative of Felix Warburg, to aid displaced German scholars in obtaining university or other academic posts. Between 1933-1945 the Committee aided 288 scholars in obtaining such posts, and the majority gained permanent appointments in the U.S. They stemmed from Germany to begin with, and in later years also from Austria, Czechoslovakia, France, Belgium and Holland. Many were scholars of distinction and a number enjoyed international standing. In 1944, 15 beneficiaries were listed in the current Who's Who in America and 38 in American Men of Science. In 1943-1944, the Committee also aided 44 younger artists, writers and scholars of exceptional promise in gaining a foothold needed for professional advancement. In the 1940s, in addition, the Committee provided research fellowships to a select number of distinguished scholars, 58 years old or over, whose proximity to the age of retirement added to the difficulties of gaining appointments to university staffs. In earlier years, the beneficiaries were of Jewish descent in overwhelming degree (80-85%), and they predominated even after the Nazi annexations of Austria and Czechoslovakia and the fall of France. The funds expended by the Committee stemmed from Jewish sources, the JDC included, almost exclusively. But by unanimous agreement, the Committee decisions were non-sectarian and no distinctions were drawn between Jewish and non-Jewish scholars. Between 1933-1938, Committee expenditures reached $375,000 all told. Of that sum, $60,000 came from the JDC, $230,000 from the New York Foundation (established by Felix Warburg), $30,000 from the Hofheimer Foundation, and the rest from private contributors mostly. The JDC also advanced funds to the Committee to tide it over financially slack periods. The loans were all repaid. Between 1939-1941, needs soared and the bulk of the funds required stemmed from the National Coordinating Committee (NCC) or its successor organization, the National Refugee Service (NRS) and the Rosenwald Family Association. It should be noted that the JDC was the major contributor to the activities of the NCC (1934-1938, $450,000). The Committee officers were - Chairman: Dr. Livingston Farrand (President of Cornell University) from 1933 until his death in 1939; Secretary: Dr. Stephen Duggan (he succeeded Dr. Ferrand as Chairman); Treasurer: Fred M. Stein. For additional materials, see: NCC, Files 275-293; NRS, Files 300-314; Germany, Files 647-650; Venezuela, File 1,141.Also see: "The Rescue of Science and Learning - the Story of the Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars," by Stephen Duggan and Betty Drury, 214 pp, Macmillan, 1948.
Index Terms:
Austria
Belgium
Czechoslovakia
Drury, Betty
Duggan, Dr. Stephen
Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars, N.Y.
Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced German Scholars, N.Y.
Farrand, Dr. Livingston
France
Germany
Holland
Scholars and Teachers
Stein, Fred M.
Warburg, Felix M.
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File 222: Organizations: NGOs, Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars, N.Y., 1933 - 1937
Lists of displaced German scholars compiled by: Emergency Committee 1933, undated; B. Kahn, 8/15/33. Minutes of Meetings of Executive. Committee: 11/16/37. Annual Reports: 1/1/34, 2/1/35, 3/1/36, 5/1/37. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, E.M. Berliner, Wm. E. Dodd, James Franck, J.C. Hyman, A. Johnson, B. Kahn, J.B. Lightman, E.R. Murrow, E. Seligman, F.M. Stein, J. Whyte.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, Paul
Berliner, E. M.
Dodd, William E.
Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars, N.Y.
Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced German Scholars, N.Y.
Franck, James
Hyman, Joseph C.
Johnson, Dr. Alvin
Kahn, Dr. Bernhard
Lightman, J. B.
Murrow, E. R.
Scholars and Teachers
Seligman, Eustace
Stein, Fred M.
Whyte, J.
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File 222a: Organizations: NGOs, Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars, N.Y., 1938 - 1939 March
Minutes of Meetings or Agendas of Executive Committee: 1/5/38, 5/11/38, 6/6/38, 1/12/39, 2/3/39, 2/21/39, 3/23/39. Annual Reports: 12/1/38. Table of Committee Grantees, 2/14/38, 4/28/38. Correspondence: J. Billikopf, B. Drury, S. Duggan, B. Flexner, J.C. Hyman, H. Shapley, F.M. Stein.
Index Terms:
Billikopf, Jacob
Drury, Betty
Duggan, Dr. Stephen
Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars, N.Y.
Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced German Scholars, N.Y.
Flexner, B.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Scholars and Teachers
Shapley, H.
Stein, Fred M.
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File 222b: Organizations: NGOs, Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars, N.Y., 1939 April - June
Minutes of Executive Committee: 4/3/39, 5/9/39, 5/31/39. Minutes of Meeting of Emergency Committee and Foundations interested in refugee scholars, 4/28/39. Table of Committee Grantees, 5/3/39. Correspondence: A. Compton, B. Drury, S. Duggan, M. Fainberg, F.M. Stein.
Index Terms:
Compton, A.
Drury, Betty
Duggan, Dr. Stephen
Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars, N.Y.
Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced German Scholars, N.Y.
Fainberg, M.
Refugees
Scholars and Teachers
Stein, Fred M.
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File 222c: Organizations: NGOs, Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars, N.Y., 1939 July - October
Minutes of Meetings of Executive Committee: 7/12/39, 9/21/39, 10/6/39, 10/9/39. Table of Committee Grantees, 7/12/39.
Index Terms:
Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars, N.Y.
Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced German Scholars, N.Y.
Scholars and Teachers
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File 222d: Organizations: NGOs, Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars, N.Y., 1939 November - 1940 March
Minutes of Meetings of Executive Committee: 11/21/39*, 11/30/39, 1/16/40*. Table of Committee Grantees 1933-1939, undated. Report of Visit to Colleges and Universities October 1939-January 1940 by Felix W. Knauth, 2/5/40. Correspondence: S. Duggan, B. Drury, F.W. Knauth, A.V. Pope.
Index Terms:
Drury, Betty
Duggan, Dr. Stephen
Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars, N.Y.
Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced German Scholars, N.Y.
Knauth, F. W.
Pope, A. V.
Scholars and Teachers
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File 222e: Organizations: NGOs, Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars, N.Y., 1940 April - May
Minutes of Meetings of Executive Committee: 4/10/40, 5/23/40. Meetings of Sub-Committee, 4/18/40. Map listing institutions in receipt of Committee grants, 4/3/40.
Index Terms:
Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars, N.Y.
Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced German Scholars, N.Y.
Scholars and Teachers
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File 222f: Organizations: NGOs, Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars, N.Y., 1940 June - September
Minutes of Meetings of Executive Committee: 6/27/40, 8/1/40, 9/4/40, 9/12/40*, 9/26/40.Meetings of Sub-Committee: 6/17/40, 9/26/40.Annual Report: 1940 (Galley Proof only), 6/1/40. Correspondence: A.E. Cohn, S. Duggan, C.J. Liebman, H. Shapley, F.M. Stein.
Index Terms:
Cohn, A. E.
Duggan, Dr. Stephen
Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars, N.Y.
Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced German Scholars, N.Y.
Liebman, Charles J.
Scholars and Teachers
Shapley, H.
Stein, Fred M.
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File 222g: Organizations: NGOs, Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars, N.Y., 1940 October - 1941 March
Minutes of Meetings of Executive Committee: 10/28/40*, 11/25/40, 1/13/41, 2/20/41, 3/27/41. .Meetings of Sub-Committee: 11/1/40, 3/14/41. Memo on National Research Associates, 10/28/40, 11/1/40.Correspondence: B. Drury, C.J. Liebman, Wm. Rosenwald, H. Shapley, F.M. Stein.
Index Terms:
Drury, Betty
Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars, N.Y.
Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced German Scholars, N.Y.
Liebman, Charles J.
Rosenwald, William
Scholars and Teachers
Shapley, H.
Stein, Fred M.
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File 222h: Organizations: NGOs, Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars, N.Y., 1941 April - October
Minutes of Meetings of Executive Committee: 4/17/41, 10/20/41.Meetings of Sub-Committee: 5/20/41, 6/17/41, 8/5/41, 10/9/41, 10/20/41.Annual Report: 6/1/41. Table of Committee Grantees, 9/24/41.Correspondence: S. Duggan, C.J. Liebman, H. Shapley.
Index Terms:
Duggan, Dr. Stephen
Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars, N.Y.
Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced German Scholars, N.Y.
Liebman, Charles J.
Scholars and Teachers
Shapley, H.
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File 222i: Organizations: NGOs, Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars, N.Y., 1941 December - 1942 April
Minutes of Meetings of Executive Committee: 3/5/42*, 4/9/42.Meetings of Sub-Committee: 12/4/41, 12/23/41, 2/9/42, 3/10/42, 4/7/42, 4/9/42. Annual Report: 1/31/42. Committee Applications for Funds to: Rosenwald Family Association, 2/10/42; N.Y. Foundation, 4/1/42.Memo: "Citizen Status of our Scholars," attach. to 12/22/41. Correspondence: S. Duggan, Wm. Rosenwald.
Index Terms:
Duggan, Dr. Stephen
Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars, N.Y.
Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced German Scholars, N.Y.
Rosenwald, William
Scholars and Teachers
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File 222j: Organizations: NGOs, Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars, N.Y., 1942 May - October
Minutes of Meetings of Executive Committee: 5/12/42.Minutes of Sub-Committee: 5/5/42, 6/9/42, 7/9/42, 9/23/42(2), 10/13/42(2). Correspondence: C.J. Liebman, F.M. Stein.
Index Terms:
Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars, N.Y.
Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced German Scholars, N.Y.
Liebman, Charles J.
Scholars and Teachers
Stein, Fred M.
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File 222k: Organizations: NGOs, Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars, N.Y., 1942 November - 1943 March
Minutes of Meetings of Executive Committee: 3/23/43. Meetings of Sub-Committee: 11/10/42, 12/22/42, 2/9/43. Fellowship Grants: 11/10/42 Part II, 11/18/42, 11/25/42, 12/8/42 Part II, 3/23/42 Part II. Correspondence: Wm. Rosenwald, H. Shapley, F.M. Stein.
Index Terms:
Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars, N.Y.
Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced German Scholars, N.Y.
Rosenwald, William
Scholars and Teachers
Shapley, H.
Stein, Fred M.
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File 222l: Organizations: NGOs, Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars, N.Y., 1943 April - June
Meetings of Sub-Committee: 4/6/43, 5/18/43, 6/9/43. Fellowship Grants: Sub-Committee Meetings Part II plus Fellowship Applications, 4/6/43, 5/18/43, 6/9/43. Correspondence: S. Duggan, F.M. Stein.
Index Terms:
Duggan, Dr. Stephen
Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars, N.Y.
Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced German Scholars, N.Y.
Scholars and Teachers
Stein, Fred M.
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File 222m: Organizations: NGOs, Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars, N.Y., 1943 July - 1944 March
Minutes of Meetings of Executive Committee: 12/1/43. Meetings of Sub-Committee: 7/28/43, 9/22/43. Fellowship Grants: Sub-Committee Meetings Part I plus Fellowship Applications, 7/28/43, 9/22/43, November 1943. Table of Committee Grantees: Agenda 12/1/43.
Index Terms:
Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars, N.Y.
Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced German Scholars, N.Y.
Scholars and Teachers
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File 222n: Organizations: NGOs, Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars, N.Y., 1944 April -1945
Minutes of Meetings of Executive Committee: 9/21/44, 11/1/44, 11/20/44. Meetings of Sub-Committee: 5/2/44, 6/15/44, 7/5/44, 9/21/44, 11/1/44. Fellowship Grants: Sub-Committee Meetings Part II 5/2/44 plus Fellowship Applications 4/9/44; Meetings Part II plus Fellowship Applications of same date, 6/15/44, 9/21/44, 11/1/44, 11/20/44. Memos: Personal Data on Older Scholars, 6/14/44. Correspondence: S. Duggan, C.J. Liebman.
Index Terms:
Duggan, Dr. Stephen
Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced ForeignScholars, N.Y.
Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced German Scholars, N.Y.
Liebman, Charles J.
Scholars and Teachers
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Series 18: Organizations: NGOs, Emergency Committee to Save the Jewish People of Europe
File 223: Organizations: NGOs, Emergency Committee to Save the Jewish People of Europe
The Committee was established in June 1943 with the aim of mobilizing public opinion in support of Jewish rescue operations. Its activities were strictly promotional. The Committee pressed the JDC for large allocations on several occasions for conducting rescue operations, but it never succeeded in meeting legal or political requirements essential to the conduct of such operations. As time passed, American-Jewish organizations in the great majority responded negatively to the Committee, more and more.On the JDC and the Committee: 12/22/43, 2/11/44, 2/17/44, 6/8/44-6/30/44, 7/3/44, 7/17/44, 7/26/44-8/2/44, 8/5/44, 8/30/44, 12/18/44, 12/26/44, 1/2/45, 1/25/45.Report: On the Committee by the CJFWF, 1/12/44 and Supplement December 1944. Correspondence: J. Brunot, H.K. Buchman, J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt, J.W. Pehle, G.W. Rabinoff, Wm. Rosenwald, U.S. Schwartz, J.J. Smertenko, L.H. Sobel.
Index Terms:
Emergency Committee to Save the Jewish People of Europe
Brunot, J.
Buchman, H. K.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Leavitt, M. A.
Pehle, J. W.
Rabinoff, G. W.
Rosenwald, William
Schwartz, U. S.
Smertenko, J. J.
Sobel, L. H.
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Series 19: Organizations: NGOs, Emergency Rescue Committee (ERC)
File 224: Organizations: NGOs, Emergency Rescue Committee (ERC)
The ERC was established in June 1940, following the fall of France, with the object of rescuing via emigration so-called political and intellectual anti-Nazi refugees. By the close of 1941, the ERC had raised over $340,000 and aided some 1,200 persons to emigrate. To aid the ERC, the JDC granted it $5,000 in 1940 and $10,000 in 1941. The relationship with the JDC was cordial and continuing. In 1942, the ERC merged with the International Relief Association to form the International Rescue and Relief Committee. Dr. Frank Kingdon served as Chairman throughout. Correspondence: M. Adams, P. Baerwald, J.C. Hyman, F. Kingdon, D.F. Seiferheld.
Index Terms:
Adams, M.
Baerwald, Paul
Emergency Rescue Committee (ERC)
Hyman, Joseph C.
Immigration and Emigration
Kingdon, Dr. Frank
Kingdon, Dr. Frank
Refugees
Seiferheld, D. F.
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Series 20: Organizations: NGOs, Refugee Assistance Fund (RAF)
Emigre Charitable Fund (ECF) (1934). Refugee Assistance Fund (RAF) (1947). The Emigre Charitable Fund (ECF) and the Refugee Economic Corp (REC) were established in 1934 to aid in the resettlement and rehabilitation of refugees from Nazi Germany. The ECF was created as a philanthropic institution, and its allocations were granted for social and humanitarian reasons and not on business or investment grounds as in the case of the REC. The two organizations worked hand-in-glove. For materials on the REC, see: Files 334-334d.
Index Terms:
Emigre Charitable Fund (ECF)
Germany
Refugee Assistance Fund (RAF)
Refugees
File 224a: Organizations: NGOs, Refugee Assistance Fund (RAF), General, 1935; 1938-1942; 1947-1950
Summary of activities 5/26/41. Thumbnail resumes of activities, 2/7/47, 10/22/47. Report by the CJFWF, 8/17/48-11/16/48. Memo of activities, 12/13/48. Correspondence: A. Gurin, E.H. Komlos, C.J. Liebman, L.L. Strauss.
Index Terms:
Emigre Charitable Fund (ECF)
Gurin, A.
Komlos, E. H.
Liebman, Charles J.
Refugee Assistance Fund (RAF)
Strauss, L. L.
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File 224b: Organizations: NGOs, Refugee Assistance Fund (RAF), Contributions, 1941; 1946 - 1948
Lists of contributors; 1941 (May), 1948, 8/24/48.
Index Terms:
Emigre Charitable Fund (ECF)
Refugee Assistance Fund (RAF)
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File 224c: Organizations: NGOs, Refugee Assistance Fund (RAF), Board of Trustees, 1934 - 1950
Minutes of Meetings: 8/22/34, 6/13/35, 8/13/35, 1/30/36, 4/9/36, 5/14/36, 11/23/36, 1/22/37, 3/3/37, 5/13/37, 9/23/37, 11/19/37, 12/30/37, 3/10/38, 5/23/38, 10/13/38, 10/20/38, 12/8/38, 1/10/39, 4/11/39, 10/10/39, 12/12/39, 5/20/40, 2/1/41, 4/28/41, 12/31/41, 2/18/42, 3/9/50, 4/13/50.Between 9/23/37-12/30/37, and 1/10/39-5/20/40, Statis. and Fin. data are provided but there are no Minutes of Meetings.
Index Terms:
Emigre Charitable Fund (ECF)
Refugee Assistance Fund (RAF)
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File 224d: Organizations: NGOs, Refugee Assistance Fund (RAF), Resettlement Projects for German Refugees, 1938 - 1939
1. General. 2. Individual Countries. In 1938, the ECF granted $25,000 to the Walter Hines Page School for International Relations at Johns Hopkins Univ. for the preparation of studies on resettlement prospects for German refugees in overseas lands. The studies were conducted under the direction of Dr. Isaiah Bowman, President of J.H. Univ. who ranked as the foremost American geographer. Many resettlement studies were prepared by specialists and the major focus rested on overseas countries that were underdeveloped and underpopulated. Broadly speaking, the studies fell into three categories: 1) South and Central America, 2) Africa and Asia, 3) Australia and New Zealand. For German refugee resettlement in South America, see: listings for individual countries there. For Australia, see: Files 438-438i. In a number of other countries resettlement projects were launched or projected, but the outbreak of W.W.II brought them to a standstill and they were never reborn in post-war days; see: British Honduras Files 451a-451b; Costa Rica Files 504a-504c; Philippines File 787a. Studies based on Africa and Asia (Palestine excepted) and notably those in tropical regions held no appeal for German refugees and gained but scant consideration by the ECF/REC. Data on those projects is included in File 224d(2). For data on projects in the U.S., see: Files 200a-200c, and 258a.
Index Terms:
Australia
Central America
Emigre Charitable Fund (ECF)
New Zealand
Refugee Assistance Fund (RAF)
Refugees
South America
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Series 21: Organizations: NGOs, American Federation for Polish Jews
Federation of Polish Jews in America (Federation) (1908).American Federation for Polish Jews 1940.The Federation was established in 1908, and in subsequent years it come to focus upon promoting the welfare of Jews in Poland. Up to 1936, income stemmed from dues and contributions in the main, and its activities were basically political in character. In 1935, the Federation created a fund-raising arm (American Committee for the Relief of Jews in Poland) to conduct independent campaigns for Polish relief, after the JDC had rejected four demands for specific commitments by the Federation. The JDC maintained that the Federation proposals for Polish relief were ineffectual attempts at duplicating its own activities of many years standing in that country. Moreover, the JDC claimed that its own fund-raising was weakened because the Federation solicited the established JDC circle of contributors for funds and failed to develop meaningful sources of its own. Between 1936-1943, the JDC and the Federation were continually at odds on these points. In 1939, the CJFWF advised its constituent members to grant their contributions for Polish relief to the JDC and not to the Federation. In 1940, the Federation became the American Federation for Polish Jews. In the summer of 1945, the Federation proposed a cooperative arrangement with the JDC for the distribution in Poland of relief funds raised by it. A JDC-Federation Agreement was reached at the end of October, see: File 232. But early in 1946, complaints from many UJA communities reached the JDC, that in its campaigning the Federation was violating the Agreement in spirit and in letter. Moreover, the Federation had failed to live up to its obligation to transfer funds to the JDC for distribution in Poland. In April 1946, the JDC abrogated the Agreement and it was never reinstated. Benjamin Winter served as National Chairman of the Federation between 1923-1943, and was followed by Joseph Tannenbaum as President. Z. Tygel served as Executive Director from 1923-1940 and was followed first by Henry Szoszkies and then by Morris Blumenstock.
Index Terms:
American Federation for Polish Jews
Blumenstock, Morris
Federation of Polish Jews in America (Federation)
Poland
Szoszkies, Henry
Tannenbaum, Joseph
Tygel, Z.
Winter, Benjamin
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File 225: Organizations: NGOs, American Federation for Polish Jews, 1933 - 1935
On the JDC and the Federation: 3/14/33, 6/6/34, 3/13/35, 3/18/35, 3/21/35, 4/3/35, 4/16/35, 4/22/35, 5/10/35, 6/13/35, 7/3/35, 9/4/35, 12/27/35 (2). The Federation stated it will run an independent fund-raising campaign if the JDC failed to accept its proposals, 4/22/35, 5/9/35. The Federation organized a fundraising arm (American Committee for the Relief of Jews in Poland), 12/17/35. Publications: Yearbook #2, "Poilische Yiden", June 1934, edited by Z. Tygel. Correspondence: C. Adler, P. Baerwald, I. Coons, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, E.M. Morrissey, Z. Tygel, B. Winter.
Index Terms:
Adler, Cyrus
American Federation for Polish Jews
Baerwald, Paul
Coons, I.
Federation of Polish Jews in America (Federation)
Hyman, Joseph C.
Kahn, Dr. Bernhard
Morrissey, Evelyn M.
Tygel, Z.
Winter, Benjamin
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File 226: Organizations: NGOs, American Federation for Polish Jews, 1936
On the JDC and the Federation: 3/18/36, 3/25/36, 3/27/36, 4/3/36, 5/18/36, 8/28/36, 11/18/36. Report on the Federation by the CJFWF, 8/13/36. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, J. Billikopf, I. Coons, S.A. Goldsmith, J.C. Hyman, B. Renard, W.J. Schroder, Z. Tygel, B. Winter, J.B. Wise.
Index Terms:
American Federation for Polish Jews
Baerwald, Paul
Billikopf, Jacob
Coons, I.
Federation of Polish Jews in America (Federation)
Goldsmith, S. A.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Renard, B.
Schroder, William J.
Tygel, Z.
Winter, Benjamin
Wise, J. B.
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File 227: Organizations: NGOs, American Federation for Polish Jews, 1937
On the JDC and the Federation: 2/1/37, 2/27/37, 3/29/37, 4/5/37, 4/20/37 Hyman to Kahn, 4/23/37, 4/28/37, 5/10/37, 6/4/37, 11/5/37, 12/2/37 attachment to 12/7/37, 12/15/37, 12/24/37, 12/30/37. Discussions on the Federation between S. Untermyer and the JDC, 4/23/37, 6/14/37 (2), 6/15/37, 6/17/37. Publicity statement by the JDC on Federation activities, 5/5/37 and responses thereto, 5/6/47 and attachments. Rebuttal by B. Winter 5/6/37 and Rebuttal Publicity Release, 5/7/37. Publications: "American Committee Appeal for the Jews in Poland" February 1936-1937; "Polish Jews Fifth Year Book" June 1937.Reports: Bulletin on the Federation by the CJFWF, 4/12/37. Correspondence: C. Adler, P. Baerwald, N.C. Belth, H.K. Buchman, I. Coons, S. Dingol, Albert Einstein, S.A. Goldsmith, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, S.C. Lamport, L. Rittenberg, Z. Tygel, S. Untermyer, P.F. Warburg, B. Winter, J.B. Wise.
Index Terms:
Adler, Cyrus
American Federation for Polish Jews
Baerwald, Paul
Belth, N. C.
Buchman, H. K.
Coons, I.
Dingol, S.
Einstein, Albert
Federation of Polish Jews in America (Federation)
Goldsmith, S. A.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Kahn, Dr. Bernhard
Lamport, S. C.
Poland
Rittenberg, L.
Tygel, Z.
Untermyer, S.
Warburg, Paul Felix
Winter, Benjamin
Wise, J. B.
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File 228: Organizations: NGOs, American Federation for Polish Jews, 1938
On the JDC and the Federation: 1/14/38, 1/27/38, 1/28/38, 2/1/38 (2), 2/8/38 Hyman to Taylor, 3/9/38 and attachments, 3/25/38 Hyman to Sobeloff, 3/30/38, 4/11/38, 4/12/38, 6/14/38, 6/16/38, 8/26/38-9/16/38, 10/21/38-11/1/38. Handwritten note by Sholem Asch supporting JDC policies vis-a-vis the Federation, 9/23/38 attachment to 10/3/38. Correspondence: Sholem Asch, H.K. Buchman, M.M. Cohn, J.C. Hyman, A. Kahn, I. Sobeloff, M.C. Troper, Z. Tygel.
Index Terms:
American Federation for Polish Jews
Asch, Sholem
Buchman, H. K.
Cohn, M. M.
Federation of Polish Jews in America (Federation)
Hyman, Joseph C.
Kahn, Alexander
Sobeloff, I.
Troper, Morris C.
Tygel, Z.
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File 229: Organizations: NGOs, American Federation for Polish Jews, 1939
On the JDC and the Federation: 3/10/39 Buchman to Schanfarber, 10/13/39 Hyman memo, 10/17/39, 10/20/39, 11/3/39, 11/22/39 Buchman to Sobeloff. Discussions of Federation policies between: B. Kahn and H. Szoszkies (Polish-Jewish leader), 7/3/39; Fed. and JDC representatives, 11/22/39 memo. The CJFWF advised the welfare funds not to contribute to the Federation campaign, 11/14/39. Correspondence: H.K. Buchman, M.M. Fertig, J.C. Hyman, J.J. Schwartz, I. Sobeloff, Z. Tygel.
Index Terms:
American Federation for Polish Jews
Buchman, H. K.
Federation of Polish Jews in America (Federation)
Fertig, M. M.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Kahn, Dr. Bernhard
Schwartz, J. J.
Sobeloff, I.
Szoszkies, Henry
Tygel, Z.
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File 230: Organizations: NGOs, American Federation for Polish Jews, 1940
On the JDC and the Federation: 1/16/40, 2/26/40, 2/27/40, 3/20/40, 3/28/40, 5/30/40, 6/10/40, 8/30/40, 9/5/40, 10/8/40 Leavitt to Hayes, 10/23/40 Leavitt to Hayes, 11/27/40. The CJFWF compares expenditures in Poland for 1939 by the Federation and the JDC, May 1940. Policy discussions between representatives of the JDC and the Federation, 10/11/40. Correspondence: H.K. Buchman, M.M. Fertig, N.V. Gilmovsky, L. Gould, S. Hayes, J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt, J.L. Levy, K. Peiser, J.J. Schwartz, H. Szoszkies, Z. Tygel.
Index Terms:
American Federation for Polish Jews
Buchman, H. K.
Federation of Polish Jews in America (Federation)
Fertig, M. M.
Gilmovsky, N. V.
Gould, L.
Hayes, S.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Leavitt, M. A.
Levy, J. L.
Peiser, K.
Poland
Schwartz, J. J.
Szoszkies, Henry
Tygel, Z.
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File 231: Organizations: NGOs, American Federation for Polish Jews, 1941 - 1944
On the JDC and the Federation: 1/23/41, 2/19/41, 4/14/41, 6/13/41, 5/18/42, 6/19/42 memo for A. Lieberman, 7/13/42, 7/23/42, 8/6/42, 2/9/43, 5/2/44, 10/23/44, 11/22/44, 12/11/44. Brief memos on the Federation by the CJFWF 9/26/41, 2/24/42, 11/14/44. Comments on Federation practices 10/15/41, 11/10/41, 1/26/42. Memo for JDC speech to the Federation Convention by A. Lieberman, 6/19/42. Table of JDC appropriations for Poland 1933-1942, 8/4/42. Correspondence: H.K. Buchman, I. Coons, S.A. Goldsmith, J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt, B. Renard, B. Winter.
Index Terms:
American Federation for Polish Jews
Buchman, H. K.
Coons, I.
Federation of Polish Jews in America (Federation)
Goldsmith, S. A.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Leavitt, M. A.
Lieberman, A. H.
Poland
Renard, B.
Winter, Benjamin
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File 232: Organizations: NGOs, American Federation for Polish Jews, 1945 - 1950
The JDC and the Federation reached agreement, whereby the Federation would turn over to the JDC 75% of its campaign funds for Polish Jews, and would consult with it on its own campaign timing and methods so as to avoid interference with the UJA Campaigns, 10/23/45, 10/29/45, 11/30/45. The JDC agreed to set up a special Committee on Poland and to forward its recommendations for action to its administration Committee, 10/23/45.The Federation turned over to the JDC 20,000 food packages, at a cost of $80,000, for distribution in Poland, 11/21/45. The UJA complained that Federation fund-raising interfered with its own campaign, 1/7/46-2/14/46. The JDC abrogated the Agreement with the Federation, citing repeated violations of it by the Federation in spirit and in letter, 4/1/46. The CJFWF Report on the Federation and a statement by the Federation in rebuttal of letter dated 4/1/46 cited above, both attached to letter 10/21/46. The JDC response to the Federation rebuttal, 11/1/46, 11/29/46. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, H.K. Buchman, S. Federman, A. Gurin, S. Hayes, J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt, J. Lightman, H. Montor, E.A. Norma, R. Pilpel, J.J. Schwartz, L. Sobel. J. Tenenbaum.
Index Terms:
American Federation for Polish Jews
Baerwald, Paul
Buchman, H. K.
Federation of Polish Jews in America (Federation)
Federman, S.
Gurin, A.
Hayes, S.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Leavitt, M. A.
Lightman, J. B.
Montor, H.
Norma, E. A.
Pilpel, Robert
Poland
Schwartz, J. J.
Sobel, L. H.
Tenenbaum, J.
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Series 22: Organizations: NGOs, European-Jewish Children's Aid
German-Jewish Children's Aid (1933).European-Jewish Children's Aid (1942).The Children's Aid was organized in N.Y. at the close of 1933 and incorporated in April 1934. Solomon Lowenstein was the first Chairman. He was succeeded by Blanche B. Goldman in 1938, Allan M. Stroock in 1941 and Herman W. Block in 1943. Paul Felix Warburg served as treasurer, J.C. Hyman as Secretary and Cecilia Razovsky as Executive Director. As a first project the Children's Aid prepared to bring 250 German refugee children under 16 into the U.S. for schooling, and the U.S. Labor Department agreed to admit them under the permanent immigration quota. In 1934, a guarantee fund of $27,000 to assure that the children would not become public charges was provided by private foundations mainly (Baron de Hirsch, Hofheimer and New York) and by Jewish organizations, and $10,000 for administration expenses was contributed by the three foundations. Transportation costs were met by individual subscriptions. It was early in 1937 before the 250 children were all placed. The agency brought in 120 children more in that year, and these were placed on schedule. In 1938, the authorized number of new arrivals was raised to 240. By mid-1939, only 44 of them had come in, owing to hitches in U.S. immigration procedures. Immigration started up again in December 1939 and ran on until the end of 1941. All told, 588 refugee children were brought in and placed under the program. In January 1938, the National Council of Jewish Women undertook to raise $250,000 over a three year period, to cover the national administration costs of the Children's Aid. Operational responsibility remained with the Children's Aid. At the end of 1940, the National Refugee Service agreed to shoulder responsibility for the national administration costs of the Children's Aid. In November 1941, the U.S. Committee for the Care of European Children and the Children's Aid also made a fin. arrangement, see below: File 237, Minutes 11/27/41. For additional materials on the U.S. Committee, see: Files 343-345.At the end of 1942, the German-Jewish Children's Aid became the European-Jewish Children's Aid. The Minutes of the Meetings listed in the files below provide the best running account over the years of the activities of the Children's Aid, and the shifts that occurred. Some Minutes are missing, notably in the war years.
Index Terms:
Block, Herman W.
Children
European-Jewish Children's Aid
German-Jewish Children's Aid
Goldman, Blanche B.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Immigration and Emigration
Lowenstein, Solomon
Razovsky, Cecilia
Refugees
Stroock, Allan M.
Warburg, Paul Felix
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File 233: Organizations: NGOs, European-Jewish Children's Aid, General, 1933 - 1934
Project to bring in 250 refugee children: 1/3/34, 4/5/34, 4/6/34, 4/18/34, 4/24/34, 5/3/34(2) Messersmith to Baerwald, 6/20/34, 7/14/34, 7/16/34, 8/16/34, 8/23/34, 8/30/34, 9/4/34, 9/5/34, 9/16/34, 9/17/34, 10/27/34, 12/4/34, 12/31/34(2). Minutes of Meetings: 1/3/34, 4/18/34, 4/23/34, 5/23/34, 6/20/34, 6/29/34, 7/24/34, 9/6/34, 11/8/34, 12/13/34. Correspondence: J.P. Chamberlain, B. Kahn, J.C. Hyman, M.J. Kohler, S. Lowenstein, G. Messersmith, C. Razovsky, D.J. Schweitzer.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, Paul
Chamberlain, J. P.
Children
European-Jewish Children's Aid
German-Jewish Children's Aid
Hyman, Joseph C.
Kahn, Dr. Bernhard
Kohler, M. J.
Lowenstein, Solomon
Messersmith, G.
Razovsky, Cecilia
Refugees
Schweitzer, D. J.
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File 234: Organizations: NGOs, European-Jewish Children's Aid, General, 1935 - 1937
Reports and Memos: Statement Regarding German-Jewish Children to be Brought to the U.S., January 1935; 3/8/35. Projects for bringing in refugee children: 5/6/35, 9/4/35-9/18/35, 12/30/35, 10/23/36, 4/6/37, 5/12/37, 12/7/37.Minutes of Meetings: 5/9/35, 6/6/35, 9/19/35, 12/17/35, 2/13/36, 4/16/36, 6/11/36, 11/20/36, 5/13/37, 6/25/37, 11/4/37. Correspondence: B.B. (M.L.) Goldman, L. Hahn-Warburg, J.C. Hyman, S. Lowenstein, E.M. Morrissey, C. Razovsky.
Index Terms:
Children
European-Jewish Children's Aid
German-Jewish Children's Aid
Goldman, Blanche B.
Hahn-Warburg, L.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Lowenstein, Solomon
Morrissey, Evelyn M.
Razovsky, Cecilia
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File 235: Organizations: NGOs, European-Jewish Children's Aid, General, 1938 - 1939
Projects for bringing in refugee children: 1/20/38, 1/28/38, 2/12/38-2/23/38 Hyman to Goldsmith, 2/25/38, 2/28/38, 3/28/38, 6/20/38, 8/2/38, 9/30/38, 6/15/39, 6/23/39 Hyman to Pickett, 7/3/39, 7/5/39, 7/24/39(2), 8/1/39, 10/4/39, 12/28/39. Congressional Hearings on the Admission of German Refugee Children April 21-24, 1939.Minutes of Meetings: 1/20/38, 2/28/38, 4/21/38, 6/3/38, 7/12/38, 9/7/38, 11/10/38, 1/13/39, 2/25/39, *3/9/39, 5/4/39, 7/13/39, *7/24/39, 10/3/39, 12/11/39.Note: Meetings preceded by an asterisk pertain to subCommittee meetings. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, B.B. (M.L.) Goldman, S.A. Goldsmith, J.C. Hyman, H. Katzki, E.M. Morrissey, C. Razovsky, A.M. Warren.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, Paul
Children
European-Jewish Children's Aid
German-Jewish Children's Aid
Goldman, Blanche B.
Goldsmith, S. A.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Katzki, Herbert
Morrissey, Evelyn M.
Pickett, Clarence E.
Razovsky, Cecilia
Refugees
Warren, A. M.
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File 236: Organizations: NGOs, European-Jewish Children's Aid, General, 1940
Projects for bringing in refugee children: 1/31/40, 3/15/40, 7/16/40, 8/23/40, 8/24/40, 9/3/40, 11/12/40.Minutes of Meetings: 4/12/40, 5/2/40, 6/11/40, 6/27/40. Correspondence: Wm. Haber, P.E. Hoffman, J.C. Hyman, L. Marcuse, C. Razovsky, K. Rosenheim.
Index Terms:
Children
European-Jewish Children's Aid
German-Jewish Children's Aid
Haber, William
Hoffman, P. E.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Marcuse, L.
Razovsky, Cecilia
Refugees
Rosenheim, K.
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File 237: Organizations: NGOs, European-Jewish Children's Aid, General, 1941 - 1942
Projects for bringing in refugee children: 5/13/41, 5/20/41, 6/10/41, 7/16/41, 8/19/41.Minutes of Meetings: 1/3/41, 2/27/41, 5/13/41(2), 6/11/41, 9/30/41, 10/9/41, 11/27/41, 9/30/42(2), 11/18/42. Correspondence: J.C. Hyman, L. Marcuse, C. Razovsky, C.A. Riegelman, A.M. Stroock.
Index Terms:
Children
European-Jewish Children's Aid
German-Jewish Children's Aid
Hyman, Joseph C.
Marcuse, L.
Razovsky, Cecilia
Refugees
Riegelman, Charles A.
Stroock, Allan M.
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File 238: Organizations: NGOs, European-Jewish Children's Aid, General, 1943 - 1944
Relations between the U.S. Committee and the Children's Aid, 6/1/43.Minutes of Meetings: 3/16/43.Report: Review of the European-Jewish Children's Aid by Elsa Castendyck, December 1943 and Summary 5/10/44. Correspondence: M. Field, J.C. Hyman, L. Marcuse, C.A. Riegelman.
Index Terms:
Children
European-Jewish Children's Aid
Field, M.
German-Jewish Children's Aid
Hyman, Joseph C.
Marcuse, L.
Riegelman, Charles A.
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File 239: Organizations: NGOs, European-Jewish Children's Aid, Financial
Loeb and Troper Audits. Annual or Semi-Annual: May 1934-June 1935 (July-December); 1936; 1939; 1940 (July-December); 1942; 1943; 1944.
Index Terms:
European-Jewish Children's Aid
German-Jewish Children's Aid
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Series 23: Organizations: NGOs, Greater N.Y. Committee for Aid of German Refugees
File 240: Organizations: NGOs, Greater N.Y. Committee for Aid of German Refugees
The Committee was organized in October 1934 (Chairman: David Sulzberger) to coordinate the activities of local organizations providing aid to German refugees. The necessary funds came via the JDC and from private foundations, among them the N.Y. Foundation, the Baron de Hirsch Fund, the Hofheimer Foundation and the Rosenwald Foundation. JDC leaders were usually key personalities in those funds. By mid-1936, refugee needs in the N.Y. area had expanded to the point where a special Committee, the Allocations Committee (AC) of the National Coordinating Committee (NCC) (Chairman: Eustace Seligman) was created to administer the funds and to widen the base of national support. The AC was incorporated in 1938 and renamed the NCC Fund Inc. JDC aid to the Committee was channelled via the NCC. On the organization and activities of the Committee: 7/11/34, 9/20/34, 10/3/34, 10/9/34, 11/1/34, 12/4/34, 12/17/34, 4/22/35, 5/13/35, 5/22/35, 10/1/35, 11/15/35, 12/18/35-12/24/35, 1/7/36, 1/16/36, 6/5/36-6/23/36. For materials on the years 1937-1938, see: ORG., NCC, Files 277-279, NCC Fund, File 281. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, D.M. Bressler, J.C. Hyman, S. Lowenstein, D.H. Sulzberger.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, Paul
Bressler, David M.
Greater N.Y. Committee for Aid of German Refugees
Hyman, Joseph C.
Lowenstein, Solomon
Refugees
Seligman, Eustace
Sulzberger, David H.
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Series 24: Organizations: NGOs, Hadassah (Women's Zionist Organization of America)
In 1935, Hadassah launched its support of Youth Aliyah which called for the transportation to Palestine of teen-aged refugees from Germany, Austria and Poland and the placing of them in agricultural settlements and vocational schools for a two-year course of study. Hadassah shouldered the costs of support and schooling in Palestine, while in most instances the JDC, via HICEM, shouldered the costs of transportation in whole or in great part. Between 1935-1944, Hadassah contributed about $4,000,000 for the support and schooling of some 10,000 refugee teen-agers in Palestine. In 1951, the JDC and the Hadassah shared in the upkeep costs of Youth Aliyah homes in France. Relations between the JDC and Hadassah date back to 1918. For earlier materials, see: Archives 1921-1932, Files 95, 276-278; Archives 1919-1921, Files 177b-181; Archives 1914-1918, Files 58, 124.
Index Terms:
Austria
Education, Vocational and Trade
France
Germany
Hadassah (Women's Zionist Organization of America)
Palestine
Poland
Refugees
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File 241: Organizations: NGOs, Hadassah, 1934 - 1942
Relationship of the JDC with Hadassah, 12/16/38, 1/17/39, 4/27/39, 6/11/43. Reports: Hadassah, by the CJFWF, March 1937, July 1939, September 1940, 12/9/41. Publications: Hadassah News Letter April 1935, February 1936, November 1936, January 1937, May-June 1941. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, H.K. Buchman, H.E. Epstein, R.L. Halprin, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, M.A. Leavitt, F.M. Warburg.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, Paul
Buchman, H. K.
Epstein, H. E.
Hadassah (Women's Zionist Organization of America)
Halprin, R. L.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Kahn, Dr. Bernhard
Leavitt, M. A.
Warburg, Felix M.
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File 242: Organizations: NGOs, Hadassah, 1943 - 1952; 1955
Relationship of the JDC with Hadassah: 2/24/43, 11/12/46, 2/13/47, 3/1/50, 2/20/51, 3/2/51, 3/19/51, 7/2/51. Publications: Medical Reference Board of Hadassah by Dr. E.M. Bluestone, October 1943. Facts About the Hadassah Medical Organization in Palestine, January 1944, attachment to 2/9/44. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, M.W. Beckelman, H.K. Buchman, J.C. Hyman, H. Katzki, M. Laub, J. Magnes, H. Montor.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, Paul
Beckelman, M. W.
Buchman, H. K.
Hadassah (Women's Zionist Organization of America)
Hyman, Joseph C.
Katzki, Herbert
Laub, M.
Magnes, J. L.
Medical
Montor, H.
Palestine
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Series 25: Organizations: NGOs, Hebrew Free Loan Society, New York
File 243: Organizations: NGOs, Hebrew Free Loan Society, New York
The Hebrew Free Loan Society, a non-sectarian organization, was organized in 1892 to provide the needy with small interest-free loans (usually up to $500, for a six-month period). Jacob H. Schiff and Felix M. Warburg were among its early sponsors. In 1935, the Society agreed to grant up to $10,000 in loans to needy German refugees in Greater N.Y., and the JDC underwrote up to 75% of whatever losses were incurred. The JDC and the JDC Foundation agreed to sub-divide those losses in the ratio of one-third to two-thirds. In 1937, the Society, the JDC and the JDC Foundation agreed to a second $10,000 allotment for refugee loans upon the same terms. In 1940, the JDC and the JDC Foundation transferred their liability for the loans to the National Refugee Service. On the status of the JDC guarantee: 6/15/34, 10/31/35, 10/23/36, 11/5/36, 11/6/36, 12/3/37, 2/25/38, 12/8/39, 7/11/40, 7/26/40, 8/2/40, 10/1/40, 2/4/41. For additional materials, see below: Files 397-398 Correspondence: P. Baerwald, A. Gribetz, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, A.A. Landesco, J.B. Lightman, C. Razovsky, I. Rosen.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, Paul
Gribetz, A.
Hebrew Free Loan Society
Hyman, Joseph C.
Kahn, Dr. Bernhard
Landesco, A. A.
Lightman, J. B.
Razovsky, Cecilia
Refugees
Rosen, I.
Warburg, Felix M.
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Series 26: Organizations: NGOs, HIAS (Hebrew Sheltering and Immigrant Aid Society)
The HIAS was established in New York in 1909. In 1927, the HIAS, the ICA (Jewish Colonization Association) and the Emig-Direkt (Association for Jewish Emigration) jointly created the HICEM (HIAS-ICA-Emig-Direkt Association), to aid in preparing refugees for emigration and in helping them to settle in lands other than the U.S., (where HIAS alone was authorized to operate). Emig-Direkt withdrew in 1934. HICEM raised no funds of its own. Until the outbreak of World War II, the ICA and the HIAS shouldered the costs of administration. Thereafter, the HIAS shouldered them in full, because war-time currency restrictions kept the ICA, a British corporation, from transferring its funds abroad. Between 1933-1940, the ICA, the HIAS, the British Council for German Jewry and the JDC covered all transportation costs and landing fees expended by the HICEM in aid of German refugees from Europe. War-time currency restrictions (July 1940) cut off the flow of funds from the ICA and the British Council, and the JDC shouldered those costs in full or in overwhelming degree until 1944. The JDC made no allocations to the HIAS for its own use. The following table presents the contributions to the HICEM by the JDC and the HIAS in the years of heaviest expenditure, 1939-1943. The JDC contributions went for the transportation, covered transportation costs of refugees from elsewhere. The HIAS contributions covered refugees everywhere and included those coming from Eastern Europe and settling in Latin America. Contributions to HICEM.JDC (Transportation).1939: $454,257; 1940: $313,800; 1941: $563,000; 1942: $600,000; 1943: $432,435.HIAS (Administration/Transportation).1939: $90,000/$50,000; 1940: $147,000/$73,000; 1941: $154,292/$61,028; 1942: $151,779/$90,444; 1943: $198,500/$61,000.Until 1940, relations were cordial between the HIAS and the JDC. In that year, the HIAS, which was not a UJA beneficiary, campaigned for a special Transportation Fund for East-European refugees to be administered by the HICEM. For several years, confusion reigned among many Jewish contributors on the distinction between the HIAS and the HICEM. HICEM activities were often credited to the HIAS and the role of the JDC in providing the major share of the HICEM funds was too often ignored or downgraded, a condition that led to misunderstandings, on occasion. Between 1933-1945, Abraham Herman was President of the HIAS and Isaac L. Asofsky was Executive Director. Max Gottschalk was President of the HICEM from 1939-1945 For earlier materials on HIAS, see: Archives, 1921-1932, Files 95a, 103; 1919-1921, File 77h; 1914-1918, File 59.
Index Terms:
Asofsky, Isaac L.
Gottschalk, Max
HIAS (Hebrew Sheltering and Immigrant Aid Society)
Herman, Abraham
Immigration and Emigration
Latin America
Refugees
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File 244: Organizations: NGOs, HIAS, 1933 - 1939
Relationship of the JDC with the HIAS and the HICEM: 4/9/34, 6/7/34, 10/10/34, 4/9/36, 10/28/36, 1/8/37, 9/2/37, 6/21/38 (Memo), 9/20/38 (Hyman to Lieberman), 10/5/39. Correspondence: I.L. Asofsky, H.K. Buchman, A. Copeland, M.D. Goldsmith, M. Gottschalk, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, A.H. Lieberman, B. Renard, Wm. Rosenwald, J.J. Schwartz, L.L. Strauss, M.C. Troper, J.B. Wise.
Index Terms:
Asofsky, Isaac L.
Buchman, H. K.
Copeland, A.
Goldsmith, M. D.
Gottschalk, Max
HIAS (Hebrew Sheltering and Immigrant Aid Society)
Hyman, Joseph C.
Kahn, Dr. Bernhard
Lieberman, A. H.
Renard, B.
Rosenwald, William
Schwartz, J. J.
Strauss, L. L.
Troper, Morris C.
Wise, J. B.
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File 245: Organizations: NGOs, HIAS, 1940
Relationship of the JDC with the HIAS and the HICEM: 2/14/40 (Memo: by Hyman), 3/6/40 (I. Rosen to Blumenthal), 3/25/40, 5/13/40, 8/15/40, 8/20/40, 8/23/40, 8/28/40, 8/29/40 (Minutes of Meeting), 9/9/40 (Sub-Committee discussions), 9/16/40, 9/27/40, 11/16/40, 11/18/40, 11/22/40 (Statement), Division of responsibility outlined between the JDC, the HIAS and the NRS in transportation matters in re refugees, 3/13/40 (Memo), and between the HIAS and the NRS, 8/5/40, 8/15/40 (Greenleigh to Hyman). The JDC, the HIAS and the HICEM issued a statement defining their mutual relationship, 9/24/40. Also see: 11/1/40, 11/7/40. Fin. Statements: HIAS, Income and Expenses 1939 and Budget for 1940, 4/5/40; HICEM France as of 9/30/40.Reports: HIAS by CJFWF, July 1940; HICEM activities 1/1/40-9/30/40, October 1940; Transmigration Service and its Relationships to the HICEM, the HIAS and the NRS, 11/23/40.Publications, HIAS: HIAS Activities in the U.S. and Overseas Countries, including the President's Message, undated; Rescue through Emigration, undated (1940). Correspondence: I.L. Asofsky, P. Baerwald, M.E. Bernstein, H.K. Buchman, I.E. Goldwasser, M. Gottschalk, Wm. Haber, M.R. Herman, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, M.A. Leavitt, E.M. Morrissey, I. Rosen, Wm. Rosenwald.
Index Terms:
Asofsky, Isaac L.
Baerwald, Paul
Bernstein, M. E.
Buchman, H. K.
France
Goldwasser, I. E.
Gottschalk, Max
Greenleigh, A. D.
HIAS (Hebrew Sheltering and Immigrant Aid Society)
Haber, William
Herman, M. R.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Immigration and Emigration
Kahn, Dr. Bernhard
Leavitt, M. A.
Morrissey, Evelyn M.
Refugees
Rosen, I.
Rosenwald, William
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File 246: Organizations: NGOs, HIAS, 1941 - 1942
Relationship of the JDC with the HIAS and the HICEM: 1/29/41, 3/18/41, 5/6/41, 7/10/41, 8/5/41, 8/6/41, 9/16/41, December 1941 (?) (Relation of HIAS to UJA), 2/6/42, 4/15/42, 5/7/42, 5/21/42, 7/7/42, 10/30/42, 12/31/42 (Hyman to Lieberman). HIAS statement on emigration activity in 1940 by the HIAS, the HICEM and the JDC, 2/6/42.Fin. Statements, HICEM: 12/31/41 and last quarter 1942.Reports: HIAS, by CJFWF, March 1941, undated, HICEM activities in Europe, 1/1/42-9/30/42. Rescue News, HIAS Publication: 6/24/42, 11/23/42, 12/23/42. Correspondence: I.L. Asofsky, P. Baerwald, M.W. Beckelman, H.K. Buchman, I. Coons, J.J. Goldstein, M. Gottschalk, A.D. Greenleigh, M.R. Herman, J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt, L. Oungre, B. Renard, Wm. Rosenwald.
Index Terms:
Asofsky, Isaac L.
Baerwald, Paul
Beckelman, M. W.
Buchman, H. K.
Coons, I.
Goldstein, J. J.
Gottschalk, Max
Greenleigh, A. D.
HIAS (Hebrew Sheltering and Immigrant Aid Society)
Herman, M. R.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Immigration and Emigration
Leavitt, M. A.
Lieberman, A. H.
Oungre, Louis
Renard, B.
Rosenwald, William
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File 247: Organizations: NGOs, HIAS, 1943 - 1944 April
Relationship of the JDC with the HIAS and the HICEM: 1/28/43, 5/12/43, 8/10/43, 2/17/44, 3/27/44. Reports: HIAS by CJFWF, June 1943. David Schweitzer becomes the HICEM special representative in the Middle East, 3/27/44.Publications: "Rescue News", 1/25/43, 3/18/43, 5/12/43, 7/9/43, September 1943. Correspondence: I.L. Asofsky, H.K. Buchman, I.M. Dijur, A. Herman, J.C. Hyman, H. Katzki, M.A. Leavitt, R. Pilpel, Wm. Rosenwald, L.H. Sobel, M.C. Troper.
Index Terms:
Asofsky, Isaac L.
Buchman, H. K.
Dijur, I. M.
HIAS (Hebrew Sheltering and Immigrant Aid Society)
Herman, Abraham
Hyman, Joseph C.
Katzki, Herbert
Leavitt, M. A.
Pilpel, Robert
Rosenwald, William
Schweitzer, D. J.
Sobel, L. H.
Troper, Morris C.
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File 248: Organizations: NGOs, HIAS, 1944 May - 1945
Relationship of the JDC with the HIAS and the HICEM: 5/26/44, 12/4/44, 1/29/45, 3/11/45. The HICEM disbanded when ICA withdrew from proposed reorganization, and the HIAS took over its functions in Europe, 10/22/45-11/6/45.Reports: HIAS, undated (June 1944?), HIAS, semi-annual report 11/1/44-6/30/44, undated, HIAS in 1945, 3/10/46. Correspondence: I.L. Asofsky, M. Gottschalk, J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt, A.H. Lieberman, R. Pilpel, J.J. Schwartz, L.H. Sobel.
Index Terms:
Asofsky, Isaac L.
Gottschalk, Max
HIAS (Hebrew Sheltering and Immigrant Aid Society)
Hyman, Joseph C.
Leavitt, M. A.
Lieberman, A. H.
Pilpel, Robert
Schwartz, J. J.
Sobel, L. H.
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Series 27: Organizations: NGOs, High Commission for Refugees
In October 1933, the League of Nations established the "High Commission for Refugees Coming from Germany," at the behest of western governments and major Jewish organizations, and named James G. McDonald of New York as the High Commissioner. His task was to seek international collaboration for solving the economic, financial and social problems of the refugees. The seat of the High Commission was in Lausanne at first, but it was transferred to London in October 1934.The High Commission, unlike other League Commissions, was made autonomous and not responsible to the League Council, in an effort to avoid offending the German Government, which was a League member at the time. Moreover, the League provided no funds for a budget, and merely advanced a one-time loan of SFr. 25,000 for start-up administrative expenses. In consequence, Jewish organizations covered over 75% of the administration expenses for the first two years. The High Commission consisted of two bodies: A Governing Body on which 13 governments, the U.S. included, were represented, and an Advisory Council consisting of the major international private agencies, Jewish and non-Jewish, which worked with refugees. The JDC was a member of the Advisory Council and to wards the administrative expenses of the High Commissioner it allocated $31,250 in 1934 and $25,000 in 1935. In 1935-1935, the High Commission achieved but little. McDonald, convinced that his efforts were useless without the backing of the League, resigned at the close of 1935. His successor was Sir Neill Malcolm. He was granted a temporary appointment in February 1936, after Germany had left the League, and in September he was reappointed until the end of 1938. Under Malcolm, the League shouldered direct responsibility for the High Commission and covered its budget. But its scope was limited to legal and political aspects of refugee activities, while the economic aspects were left to the private organizations entirely. On 9/30/38, the League Assembly merged the Nansen Office for Refugees with the Office of the High Commission, and on 1/1/39 appointed Sir Herbert Emerson to a five-year term with a new title: "High Commissioner for Refugees Under the Protection of the League of Nations". At the same time, he also served as Director of the Inter-Governmental Committee on Refugees. Practical results from the entire effort were on the small scale side. The High Commissioner did secure legal status for stateless refugees and aided in coordinating the activities of private Jewish agencies working in the refugee field.
Index Terms:
Emerson, Sir Herbert W.
Germany
High Commission for Refugees
London
Malcolm, Sir Neill
McDonald, James G.
Refugees
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File 249: Organizations: NGOs, High Commission for Refugees, General, 1933 - 1934 May
The JDC named B. Kahn as its representative on the Adivisory Council, 4/2/34(2), 4/22/34. Meeting of the Governing Body London, 1/31/34, 2/3/34 and Report of the Second Meeting of the Governing Body London, May 2-4, 1934. Meeting between JDC leaders and High Commissioner, 3/19/34. Fin. Audit of the High Commission, 4/21/34. Correspondence: C. Adler, N. Bentwich, E.R. Embree, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, N. Laski, J.C. McDonald, J.N. Rosenberg, F.M. Warburg.
Index Terms:
Adler, Cyrus
Bentwich, N.
High Commission for Refugees
Hyman, Joseph C.
Kahn, Dr. Bernhard
Laski, N.
London
McDonald, James G.
Rosenberg, James N.
Warburg, Felix M.
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File 250: Organizations: NGOs, High Commission for Refugees, General, 1934 June-December
Evaluation of the High Commission by J.C. Hyman, 7/17/34. Criticisms of the High Commission, 10/16/34. Meeting of the Advisory Council 6/18/34(2). Meeting of Special Committee on Emigration Possibilities, 7/19/34 attachment to 8/10/34.Reports: Experts Committee on Academic and Kindred Refugees from Germany, 7/4/34-7/5/34, 7/7/34; Third Meeting of the Governing Body London, 11/1/34-11/2/34, 11/21/34, 12/3/34. Fin. Audit of the High Committee 4/11/34-9/29/34, 10/8/34 attachment to 10/12/34. Correspondence: J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, J.G. McDonald, A. Wurfbain.
Index Terms:
Germany
High Commission for Refugees
Hyman, Joseph C.
Immigration and Emigration
Kahn, Dr. Bernhard
London
McDonald, James G.
Refugees
Wurfbain, A.
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File 251: Organizations: NGOs, High Commission for Refugees, General, 1935
Statements by J. McDonald at Meetings of the Permanent Committee of the Governing Body London, 2/12/35, 10/16/35. Meetings: Experts Committee on Academic and Kindred Refugees from Germany, 7/13/35; Advisory Council, 7/15/35; Fourth Meeting of the Governing Body, 7/17/35; Advisory Council, 10/15/35. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, J.G. McDonald, A. Wurfbain.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, Paul
Germany
High Commission for Refugees
Hyman, Joseph C.
Kahn, Dr. Bernhard
London
McDonald, James G.
Refugees
Wurfbain, A.
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File 252: Organizations: NGOs, High Commission for Refugees, General, 1936 - 1937
Letter of resignation as High Commissioner by J.G. McDonald, 1/15/36. Meeting of the High Commissioner with JDC and other private Jewish organizations, 10/29/36. Reports submitted to the League of Nations by: the High Commissioner, 9/1/36 and 9/1/37; the Sixth Committee, 10/9/36. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, N. Bentwich, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, N. Katz, N. Malcolm.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, Paul
Bentwich, N.
High Commission for Refugees
Hyman, Joseph C.
Kahn, Dr. Bernhard
Katz, Nathan
Malcolm, Sir Neill
McDonald, James G.
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File 253: Organizations: NGOs, High Commission for Refugees, General, 1938 - 1943
League Conference for the adoption of a convention governing the status of refugees from Germany, Seven Meetings 2/7/38-2/10/38. Convention on the status of refugees from Germany, 2/10/38. Reports to the League Assembly submitted by the High Commissioner, 7/24/39, August 1943. Correspondence: N. Bentwich, N. Katz, M.A. Leavitt, J.J. Schwartz, M.C. Troper.
Index Terms:
Bentwich, N.
Germany
High Commission for Refugees
Katz, Nathan
Leavitt, M. A.
Refugees
Schwartz, J. J.
Troper, Morris C.
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File 254: Organizations: NGOs, High Commission for Refugees, Liaison Committee of the High Commissioner, 1937 - 1939
The Liaison Committee of the (private) Organizations Dealing with Refugees Coming from Germany was established in 1937. Some 20 organizations were represented on it, including the JDC. Nathan Katz, Secy-General of the JDC EUREXCO, was elected Secretary. Thumbnail sketches of personalities identified with the Liaison Committee by J.C. Hyman, 6/13/38.Minutes of Meetings: 9/22/37, *12/13/37-12/14/37, *9/14/38, 12/19/38, 2/21/39. Note: The meetings preceded by an asterisk are followed by summary reports on them by N. Bentwich. Correspondence: S. Adler-Rudel, J.C. Hyman, N. Katz.
Index Terms:
Adler-Rudel, S.
Bentwich, N.
Germany
High Commission for Refugees
Hyman, Joseph C.
Katz, Nathan
Refugees
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Series 28: Organizations: NGOs, Inter-Governmental Committee on Refugees (IGCR)
In April 1938, President Roosevelt invited 32 governments to consult with U.S. representatives on refugee problems at Evian, France. The conferees met in July 1938 (Chairman: Myron C. Taylor), and set up the IGCR so as to facilitate the emigration of refugees from Germany and Austria. The Evian Conference was held at government level while voluntary agencies working with refugees were permitted to present their cases only before a special sub-Committee, or by submitting memoranda. The IGCR established its seat in London. The first director, George Rublee, resigned in February 1939, and was followed by Sir Herbert Emerson who was serving as the High Commissioner for Refugees at the League of Nations. Up to mid-1943, practical achievements by the IGCR were limited, and fell far short of expectations. Only President Trujillo of the Dominican Republic had come forward to accept Jewish refugees under the auspices of the IGCR. But in August 1943, the IGCR mandate was greatly enlarged so that it could cope with post-war problems. In 1946, the Allied Governments granted it $25,000,000 for the aid of DP's; nine-tenths of the sum was earmarked for Jewish victims, and the administration of it was entrusted to the JDC and the Jewish Agency. In 1947, the IGCR was merged with the IRO. For additional materials, see: Coordinating Foundation, File 220 Italy, File 716 Archives DORSA, Files 45a-45b (1938-1941) Switzerland, File 989.
Index Terms:
Austria
Dominican Republic
Emerson, Sir Herbert W.
Evian
France
Germany
Immigration and Emigration
Inter-Governmental Committee on Refugees (IGCR)
London
Refugees
Roosevelt, President Franklin D.
Rublee, George
Trujillo, President
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File 255: Organizations: NGOs, Inter-Governmental Committee on Refugees (IGCR), 1938 - 1939; 1943 - 1945
President Roosevelt appointed Paul Baerwald to the American Advisory Committee that was charged with aiding in the preparations for the Evian Conf., 4/18/38, 4/21/38. Memo telling of Jewish organizations interest in Evian Conf., 7/6/38. Discussion between JDC representatives and Evian Committee in London, Memo September 1938. Report by Emerson on activities of the IGCR and its reorganization, 7/25/44 attachment to 8/8/44. The IGCR Report of its Fourth Plenary Session 8/15/-17/44, attachment to 11/21/44. The IGCR agreed to shoulder $525,000 of certain JDC obligations in occupied countries for 3rd quarter 1944, and the JDC to act as its agent in the administration, 7/22/44-8/7/44. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, N. Bentwich, A.G. Brotman, H.W. Emerson, A. Greenleigh, J.C. Hyman, A. Jaretzki Jr., B. Kahn, N. Katz, M.A. Leavitt, J.W. Pehle, Franklin D. Roosevelt, J.J. Schwartz, M.C. Troper, G.L. Warren.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, Paul
Bentwich, N.
Brotman, A. G.
Emerson, Sir Herbert W.
Evian
Greenleigh, A. D.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Inter-Governmental Committee on Refugees (IGCR)
Jaretzki, A.
Kahn, Dr. Bernhard
Katz, Nathan
Leavitt, M. A.
London
Pehle, J. W.
Roosevelt, President Franklin D.
Schwartz, J. J.
Troper, Morris C.
Warren, G. L.
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File 256: Organizations: NGOs, Inter-Governmental Committee on Refugees (IGCR), Evian Conference, 1938 July 6-15
Verbatim reports of meetings #1-4 (English) and #6 (French). The fifth meeting was private and the sixth meeting was the last. Among others, the JDC, the ORT, the OSE, the WJC and the Reichsvertretung der Juden in Deutschland submitted memoranda to the Conference on the activities of their respective organizations.
Index Terms:
Evian
Inter-Governmental Committee on Refugees (IGCR)
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Series 29: Organizations: NGOs, Jewish Agency for Palestine (JA)
The JA was founded in 1922 and enlarged in August 1929 to include non-Zionist members as well, among them Louis Marshall, who was elected Chairman of the Executive Committee and Felix Warburg Chairman of the administration Committee Relations between the Zionist and Non-Zionist members of the JA weathered rough sailing from time to time. In May 1942, non-Zionist participation in the JA came to a standstill for the duration of the war, when the Zionists adopted a program calling for a Jewish commonwealth in Palestine. In its activities, the JA organized the movement and absorption of immigrants to Palestine, fostered settlement on the land, aided in the development of the Jewish economy and promoted educational and social services. After the rise of Hitler, the JA shouldered responsibility for the Youth Aliyah transfers of children from Nazi Germany to Palestine. Between 1933-1940, the JDC via the HICEM was a major contributor to the transportation costs and landing fees of Jewish refugees moving to Palestine from Germany, and shouldered those costs in full or in overwhelming degree after the outbreak of the war. See: HIAS, Files 244-248. In the course of the war, the JDC also granted direct allocations to the JA to cover emergency costs of refugees who came to Palestine. See below: Palestine, File 748.For earlier materials, see: Archives 1921-1933, File 96(6).
Index Terms:
Children
Germany
Jewish Agency for Palestine (JA)
Palestine
Refugees
Warburg, Felix M.
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File 257: Organizations: NGOs, Jewish Agency for Palestine (JA)
Relations between the JDC and the JA: 4/4/39, 7/18/40, 7/24/40, 8/4/41 and attachments. The JA launched a $1,000,000 loan fund in the U.S. to be repaid out of the UPA share of UJA funds, 7/24/40 Hyman Notes. "Proposed Resolutions Indicating Program of Action by American Jewry on Certain Specified Matters", 6/23/42-8/28/42. Correspondence: J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, M.A. Leavitt, S. Mayer, H. Montor, E.M. Morrissey, J.N. Rosenberg, M.C. Troper, F. Ullman, E.M.M. Warburg, M.D. Waldman, M.W. Weisgal.
Index Terms:
Hyman, Joseph C.
Jewish Agency for Palestine (JA)
Kahn, Dr. Bernhard
Leavitt, M. A.
Mayer, S.
Montor, H.
Morrissey, Evelyn M.
Rosenberg, James N.
Troper, Morris C.
Ullman, F.
Waldman, M. D.
Warburg, Edward M. M.
Weisgal, M. W.
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File 258: Organizations: NGOs, Jewish Agency for Palestine (JA)
Relations between the JDC and the JA: 5/14/43, 6/29/43-7/9/43, 8/23/43, 2/10/44 and attachment-2/11/44(2), 2/18/44, 2/28/44, 3/20/44, 3/23/44, 6/13/44-6/28/44, 8/5/44, 9/20/44, 9/25/44, 10/9/44, 10/18/44, 10/19/44, 11/7/44, 12/20/44. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, Ch. Barlas, J.C. Hyman, H. Katzki, M.A. Leavitt, J.L. Magnes, C. Passman, R. Resnick, J.J. Schwartz, M.M. Warburg.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, Paul
Barlas, Charles
Hyman, Joseph C.
Jewish Agency for Palestine (JA)
Katzki, Herbert
Leavitt, M. A.
Magnes, J. L.
Passman, C.
Resnick, R. B.
Schwartz, J. J.
Warburg, Max M.
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Series 30: Organizations: NGOs, Jewish Agricultural Society (JAS)
File 258a: Organizations: NGOs, Jewish Agricultural Society (JAS)
In 1938/39, the REC advanced $11,416 to the JAS to aid in the making of farm loans to Jewish refugee farmers in the U.S. In 1942, the REC advanced $1,334 more. Over 92% of the funds were repaid in the course of the years (see: 1/16/48).
Index Terms:
Jewish Agricultural Society (JAS)
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Series 31: Organizations: NGOs, Jewish Colonization Association (ICA)
The ICA was established in London in 1891 by Baron Maurice de Hirsch to aid the impoverished Jews of Eastern Europe. The founding capital amounted to $40,000,000. In the course of decades, the JDC and the ICA cooperated closely in two areas, most notably, emigration and reconstruction. In 1919, they founded the United Evacuations Committee (Along with Emig-Direct) to aid Jewish refugees stranded in European ports. In 1924, they created the American Joint Reconstruction Foundation, which conducted its activities in Paris until the fall of France in June 1940. For data on the Foundation, see below: Files 394-403. For earlier materials, see: Archives 1921-1932, Files 147-160. Between 1933-1940, the JDC, the ICA, the HIAS and the CBF/ British Council for German Jewry agreed to cover the transportation costs of Nazi victims incurred by the HICEM, an organization aiding in the emigration of Jewish refugees. For additional data, see below: Emigration, Files 363-367.Following the outbreak of W.W. II, the ICA, as a British corporation, witnessed its funds blocked by Britain's currency restrictions. In consequence, it became financially immobilized for the duration and was unable to contribute to the activities of the HICEM and of the Reconstruction Foundation. Sir Leonard Cohen served as President of the ICA from 1929-1934, Sir Osmond d'Avigdor Goldsmid from 1934-1940, and Leonard Montefiore from 1940-1944. Louis Oungre served as General Manager.
Index Terms:
Cohen, Sir Leonard
France
Immigration and Emigration
Jewish Colonization Association (ICA)
London
Montefiore, Leonard
Oungre, Louis
Paris
Reconstruction
Refugees
d'Avigdor Goldsmid, Sir Osmond E.
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File 259: Organizations: NGOs, Jewish Colonization Association (ICA)
The ICA participation in the program of German aid, 8/21/35, 12/3/36. The ICA trade schools and vocational courses aided in Poland, 12/16/37. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, O.E. d'Avigdor Goldsmid, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, L. Oungre, R. Pilpel, D.J. Schweitzer, M.C. Troper, F. Warburg.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, Paul
Education, Vocational and Trade
Hyman, Joseph C.
Jewish Colonization Association (ICA)
Kahn, Dr. Bernhard
Oungre, Louis
Pilpel, Robert
Poland
Schweitzer, D. J.
Troper, Morris C.
Warburg, Felix M.
d'Avigdor Goldsmid, Sir Osmond E.
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File 260: Organizations: NGOs, Jewish Colonization Association (ICA), HICEM
The correspondence between P. Baerwald and Sir Osmond d'Avigdor Goldsmid in the years between 1933-1939 form the bulk of the materials. The correspondence focuses on relationships with the HICEM and on the migration problems of Jewish refugees. Correspondence: C. Adler, P. Baerwald, B. Flexner, Sir Osmond d'A Goldsmid, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, M.C. Troper, F.M. Warburg.
Index Terms:
Adler, Cyrus
Baerwald, Paul
Flexner, B.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Jewish Colonization Association (ICA)
Kahn, Dr. Bernhard
Refugees
Troper, Morris C.
Warburg, Felix M.
d'Avigdor Goldsmid, Sir Osmond E.
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File 261: Organizations: NGOs, Jewish Colonization Association (ICA), Annual Reports, 1931, 1932, 1933
Index Terms:
Jewish Colonization Association (ICA)
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File 262: Organizations: NGOs, Jewish Colonization Association (ICA), Annual Reports, 1934, 1935, 1937
Index Terms:
Jewish Colonization Association (ICA)
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Series 32: Organizations: NGOs, Jewish Labor Committee (JLC)
The JLC was organized in 1934 (Chairman: B.C. Vladeck) as the representative of organized Jewish labor in affairs of Jewish interest. Until W.W. II, the JLC conducted special campaigns from time to time in aid of Jewish labor groups in Poland, and in 1937 it contributed $32,500 to the JDC, $20,000 of it earmarked for that purpose, and the rest free of restriction. .After war broke out, the JLC enlarged its fund-raising and contributed to the aid of Jewish labor groups in Nazi occupied countries, Poland and France most notably. It also aided refugee members of labor groups in Portugal, Shanghai and Japan, and contributed heavily to the transportation costs of Jewish labor leaders journeying from Eastern Europe to the U.S. via Siberia. JLC budgets expanded from $350,000 in 1941 to some $1,000,000 in 1945. About 60-70% of the funds were earmarked for overseas aid. In the first post-war years, the JLC continued to aid Jewish labor organizations and groups in France and Poland, most notably. Some of these labor organizations which conducted social welfare programs for refugees complained that the JDC was doing but little to help them. In many instances, they did receive sizeable subsidies from local Jewish communal organizations, but overlooked the fact that the budgets of the latter organizations were heavily subsidized by the JDC. The relationship between the JDC and JLC was a cordial and continuing one over the years, and particularly until the end of W.W. II. A number of JLC leaders served at the JDC as well, most notably Alexander Kahn. B. Charney Vladeck headed the JLC until his death in 1938 and was succeeded by Adolph Held, 1938-1968. Isaiah Minkoff served as Executive Secy. from 1939-1941 and was followed by Jacob Pat, 1941-1963.
Index Terms:
France
Held, Adolph
Japan
Jewish Labor Committee (JLC)
Kahn, Alexander
Minkoff, Isaiah
Pat, Jacob
Poland
Portugal
Refugees
Shanghai
Siberia
Vladeck, B. Charney
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File 263: Organizations: NGOs, Jewish Labor Committee (JLC), 1934; 1937; 1939 - 1941
On the JDC and the JLC: 10/17/39, 10/27/39, 12/5/39, 1/16/40, 4/26/40, 11/28/40, 12/16/40, 3/27/41, 5/13/41. Purposes of the JLC, 12/31/37, 3/14/39. Publications: "Facts and Opinions", monthly in Yiddish, December 1941. "In Defense of Human Rights" (January 1941). Correspondence: I.L. Asofsky, M. Beckelman, H.K. Buchman, S.A. Goldsmith, A. Held, J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt, J. Pat, B. Renard, J.J. Schwartz.
Index Terms:
Asofsky, Isaac L.
Beckelman, M. W.
Buchman, H. K.
Goldsmith, S. A.
Held, Adolph
Hyman, Joseph C.
Jewish Labor Committee (JLC)
Leavitt, M. A.
Pat, Jacob
Renard, B.
Schwartz, J. J.
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File 264: Organizations: NGOs, Jewish Labor Committee (JLC), 1942 - 1944
On the JDC and the JLC: 4/29/43, 10/13/43, 1/26/44, 9/21/44, 10/4/44. Publications: "The Jewish Labor Committee, What it Does and What it Stands For", 1942. "Facts and Opinions", monthly in Yiddish, 1942: January, February, March, April (excerpts), May. JLC Newsletter "The Voice of the Unconquered", 1944: June, July, August, September, December. Reports: JLC by the CJFWF, August 1944. Correspondence: H.K. Buchman, A. Held, J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt, H.L. Lurie, C. Passman, J. Pat, A.C. Ringland.
Index Terms:
Buchman, H. K.
Held, Adolph
Hyman, Joseph C.
Jewish Labor Committee (JLC)
Leavitt, M. A.
Lurie, H. L.
Passman, C.
Pat, Jacob
Ringland, A. C.
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File 265: Organizations: NGOs, Jewish Labor Committee (JLC), 1945 - 1954
On the JDC and the JLC: 3/20/46, 4/10/46, 3/3/47, 3/14/47 Joslow to Sobel, 4/18/47, 7/17/47, 11/17/47, 3/17/48, 3/11/49, 3/28/49, 4/4/49, 4/27/49, 5/27/49, 5/28/49, 6/15/49, 6/27/49, 10/28/49, 9/28/51. Publications: "Facts and Opinions", Yiddish monthly: 1947, March; 1948, Dec; 1949, February, Dec; 1950, June, Oct; 1951 Dec; 1952, Jan; 1953, March; "JLC Newsletter", English bi-monthly: 1949, January-February, March-April, September-October. Correspondence: M.B. Beckelman, H.K. Buchman, M.S. Goldstein, A. Gurin, J.C. Hyman, H.J. Joslow, A. Kahn, M. Laub, M.A. Leavitt, A.H. Lieberman, J. Pat, I. Rosen, J.J. Schwartz, L.H. Sobel, R.L. Stein, B. Tabachinsky, B. Ulin.
Index Terms:
Beckelman, M. W.
Buchman, H. K.
Goldstein, M. S.
Gurin, A.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Jewish Labor Committee (JLC)
Joslow, H. J.
Kahn, Alexander
Laub, M.
Leavitt, M. A.
Lieberman, A. H.
Pat, Jacob
Rosen, I.
Schwartz, J. J.
Sobel, L. H.
Stein, R. L.
Tabachinsky, B.
Ulin, B.
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Series 33: Organizations: NGOs, Jewish Telegraphic Agency (JTA; ITA)
File 266: Organizations: NGOs, Jewish Telegraphic Agency (JTA; ITA)
The JTA, established in 1917, distributes to its subscribers a Daily Bulletin of news of Jewish interest. In 1940, it launched an affiliate, the Overseas News Agency (ONA), to maintain contact with the non-Jewish press in the U.S., Canada and overseas lands. To aid in the creation and operation of the ONA, the JDC allocated $16,666 in 1940 and the AJC added a matching sum. JDC special grants to the JTA (including ONA), but excluding subscriptions and special services ran as follows: 1940: $21,667.1941: $10,000.1942: $10,000.1943: $10,000.1944: $10,000.Between 1939-1944, George Backer served as President of the JTA, Jacob Blaustein as Chairman of the Executive Committee, and Jacob Landau as Managing Editor. Tabulation of JDC payments to the JTA 1937-1940, 2/18/41. The JTA reports on its activities (including ONA), 2/6/42, 2/28/42. A JDC memo on the JTA, 4/6/42. A JTA Statement of Income and Expenditures 1942, attachment to 5/4/43. Correspondence: F.R. Adlerstein, J. Blaustein, J.C. Hyman, J. Landau, R. Pilpel, B. Smolar, L.H. Sobel, J.J. Schwartz, L.S. Strauss, M.C. Troper, M.D. Waldman.
Index Terms:
Adlerstein, F. R.
Backer, George
Blaustein, Jacob
Hyman, Joseph C.
Jewish Telegraphic Agency (JTA; ITA)
Landau, Jacob
Pilpel, Robert
Schwartz, J. J.
Smolar, B.
Sobel, L. H.
Strauss, L. L.
Troper, Morris C.
Waldman, M. D.
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Series 34: Organizations: NGOs, Joint Emergency Committee on European Jewish Affairs (JEC)
File 267: Organizations: NGOs, Joint Emergency Committee on European Jewish Affairs (JEC)
The JEC was organized in March 1943 "to coordinate activities to save as many Jews in Europe as possible from the Nazi extermination program." The JEC included representatives of the American Jewish Committee, American Jewish Congress, B'nai Brith, Jewish Labor Committee, American Committee of Zionist Emergency Affairs, Synagogue Council of America, Union of Orthodox Rabbis, American Section of Agudath Israel and United Palestine Appeal. The JDC was not a JEC member but was represented by an observer. Informally, it also provided the JEC with information and data on programs of immediate aid that could be undertaken. In April 1943, the JEC submitted to the Bermuda Conference an appeal for the Rescue of Jews from Nazi Occupied Europe. For additional materials on the Bermuda Conference, see below: Refugees, File 410. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, J.C. Hyman, J.B. Wise, S.S. Wise.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, Paul
Hyman, Joseph C.
Joint Emergency Committee on European Jewish Affairs (JEC)
Wise, J. B.
Wise, S. S.
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Series 35: Organizations: NGOs, Miscellaneous
File 268: Organizations: NGOs, Miscellaneous Organizations
1. Agudas Israel World Organization, 1936-1944. 2. Alliance American Lithuanian Jews, 1941-1945. 3. American Committee for Hungarian War Refugees, 1941.4. American Philanthropic Fund (Rosenwald Estate), 1938-1945 Between 1941-1945 the American Philanthropic Fund granted a number of allocations based on JDC recommendations. The most notable came in 1944, a $100,000 grant to the American Friends Service Committee in aid of refugee transportation. Also see below: File 283, Rosenwald Family Capital Outlay Fund.5. Anti-Defamation League of B'nai Brith, 1941.6. Assembly Hebrew Orthodox Rabbis of American and Canada, 1936.7. Bureau of Jewish Social Research-Council of Jewish Federations and Welfare Funds, 1931-1933.8. Central Conference of American Rabbis, 1935-1940.8a. Federal Council of the Churches of America, 1933-1934.9. International Migration Service, 1934-1944.10. United Fund for Refugee Children, 1940-1941.11. Self-Help of Emigres from Central Europe, 1937-1939
Index Terms:
Agudas Israel World Organization
Alliance American Lithuanian Jews
American Committee for Hungarian War Refugees
American Philanthropic Fund (Rosenwald Estate)
Anti-Defamation League of B'nai Brith
Assembly Hebrew Orthodox Rabbis of America and Canada
Bureau of Jewish Social Research-Council of Jewish Federations and Welfare Funds
Central Conference of American Rabbis
Federal Council of the Churches of America
International Migration Service
Refugees
Self-Help of Emigres from Central Europe
United Fund for Refugee Children
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File 269: Organizations: NGOs, Miscellaneous Publications on Jewish Organizations
1. The Jewish Organizations' ABC, 1939. (German).2. American Jewish Committee report on organizations, 1939. A compilation of data, in capsule form, of 63 organizations "whose announced intention is to serve the cause of democracy in one way or another and about which there have been inquiries." Some Jewish organizations were included.3. Prominent agencies in relief, rehabilitation and emigration, Memo by J.C. Hyman.
Index Terms:
Hyman, Joseph C.
Immigration and Emigration
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Series 36: Organizations: NGOs, National Budget Committee for War Appeals (NBCWA)
Community Chests and Councils (CCC).After Pearl Harbor the CCC, the national association of local community funds, began to promote war chest campaigns - central fund-raising efforts covering all war-connected drives and overseas relief appeals. To regulate those campaigns the CCC, in July 1942, set up a National Budget Committee for War Appeals (Chairman: Gerard Swope) composed of leaders prominent in a variety of fields. The NBCWA was called upon to frame a general list of approved war appeals, to organize a national war chest campaign and to fix quotas. In the course of 1942, ten Jewish welfare funds agreed to participate in local Jewish war chest campaigns. The CJFWF and the UJA and its three constituent members divided sharply in their responses. All acknowledged that serious problems would crop up whatever the decision, since local war chests were emerging as a major factor in philanthropy. The CJFWF recommended participation in war chests to its member agencies while the UPA expressed opposition. The UJA and the JDC took no general stand and left decision-making to individual communities. Also see: ORG., National War Fund, File 315.
Index Terms:
National Budget Committee for War Appeals (NBCWA)
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File 270: Organizations: NGOs, National Budget Committee for War Appeals (NBCWA), 1941 - 1942 September
CJFWF Bulletins and Statements: Status of War Chest Plans, 6/10/41; Preliminary Statement of War Chest Developments, 6/17/42; $85,000,000 Goal for War Appeals", 7/17/42; 1942 Campaigns, Results, Characteristics and Prospects, 7/22/42; War Chest Developments, 7/31/42; Pros and Cons of Welfare Fund Affiliations with War Chests, 8/7/42. Baerwald accepts membership on the Executive Committee of the Nat'l Council but ad personam and not on behalf of the JDC or the UJA, 7/17/42, Swope to Baerwald and Wise to Burns. Report: The NBCWA for the 1942 Campaign, 9/16/42. Correspondence: A. Abrahamson, P. Baerwald, A.L. Burns, I. Coons, J.C. Hyman, H.L. Lurie, H. Montor, C.A. Riegelman, Wm. Rosenwald, A.H. Silver, I. Sobeloff, J.B. Wise.
Index Terms:
Abrahamson, Albert
Baerwald, Paul
Burns, A. L.
Coons, I.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Lurie, H. L.
Montor, H.
National Budget Committee for War Appeals (NBCWA)
Riegelman, Charles A.
Rosenwald, William
Silver, A. H.
Sobeloff, I.
Wise, J. B.
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File 271: Organizations: NGOs, National Budget Committee for War Appeals (NBCWA), 1942 October - 1944
Joint Memo: CJFWF - NBCWA, "Jewish Fund-Raising Activities and their Relation to Community War Chest Appeals", 12/1/42. CJFWF Bulletins and Statements: "Hold Everything", 11/13/42; "War Chest Developments", 12/10/42; "Further War Chest Developments", 4/14/43; "Annual Meeting CCC", 5/6/43. Minutes and Memos of Meetings: UJA-War Relief Central Board, 11/5/42. Also see: File 270, 9/16/42. Correspondence: A. Abrahamson, P. Baerwald, I. Coons, S. Hollander, J.C. Hyman, H.L. Lurie, H. Montor, C.A. Riegelman, Wm. Rosenwald.
Index Terms:
Abrahamson, Albert
Baerwald, Paul
Coons, I.
Hollander, S.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Lurie, H. L.
Montor, H.
National Budget Committee for War Appeals (NBCWA)
Riegelman, Charles A.
Rosenwald, William
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Series 37: Organizations: NGOs, National Conference of Christians and Jews
File 272: Organizations: NGOs, National Conference of Christians and Jews
National Conference of Jews and Christians (1928). National Conference of Christians and Jews (1939). The Conference was established in 1928 in an effort to develop aid and understanding between religious groups in the U.S. It raised funds privately. In 1939, the Conference underwent a change in the name order, as noted above. The Rev. Everett R. Clinchy served as the Conference Director between 1933 - 1944 and as its President for over a decade thereafter. Relationships with the JDC were cordial and continuing over the years. Early in 1934, the Conference organized the American Christian Committee for German Refugees, and its relationship with the JDC proved equally cordial and continuing. For materials, see: American Chr. Committee, Files 202-203.Publication: Report of the Director, November 2, 1939. Correspondence: R.A. Ashworth, E.R. Clinchy, J.C. Hyman, M.J. Joslow, R.T. Kennedy, J.S. Shapiro.
Index Terms:
Ashworth, R. A.
Clinchy, Reverend Everett R.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Joslow, H. J.
Kennedy, R. T.
National Conference of Christians and Jews
National Conference of Jews and Christians
Shapiro, J. S.
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Series 38: Organizations: NGOs, National Conference of Jewish Social Welfare (NCJSW)
National Conference of Jewish Social Service (NCJSS) 1918.National Conference of Jewish Social Welfare (NCJSW) 1936.The NCJSS was formed in 1918 and became the NCJSW in 1936. It served as a National Conference, and not as a functional agency, to Jewish social and communal workers on problems which local Jewish organizations were unable to cope with single-handed. J.C. Hyman served as a member of the Executive Committee in 1937 - 1938, and from 1940 - 1945. L.H. Sobel served as President in 1947, and as a member of the Executive Committee from 1945 - 1955. Other JDC staff members also participated in the activities of the NCJSW over the years.
Index Terms:
Hyman, Joseph C.
National Conference of Jewish Social Welfare (NCJSW)
Sobel, L. H.
File 273: Organizations: NGOs, National Conference of Jewish Social Welfare (NCJSW), 1929 - 1938; 1940
Correspondence: M.W. Beckelman, H. Greenstein, J.C. Hyman, M.J. Karpf, M.A. Leavitt, J.J. Schwartz, L.H. Sobel.
Index Terms:
Beckelman, M. W.
Greenstein, H.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Karpf, M. J.
Leavitt, M. A.
National Conference of Jewish Social Welfare (NCJSW)
Schwartz, J. J.
Sobel, L. H.
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File 274: Organizations: NGOs, National Conference of Jewish Social Welfare (NCJSW), 1945 - 1950
The JDC granted $1,000 to the NCJSW to aid in the publication of: "The History of Jewish Social Welfare". Correspondence: H.H. Aptekar, B.B. Goldman, J.C. Hyman, L. Kraft, L.H. Sobel.
Index Terms:
Aptekar, H. H.
Goldman, Blanche B.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Kraft, L.
National Conference of Jewish Social Welfare (NCJSW)
Sobel, L. H.
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Series 39: Organizations: NGOs, National Coordinating Committee (NCC) for Aid to Refugees and Emigrants Coming from Germany
The NCC was organized in 1934 to coordinate the activities of national agencies serving emigres and refugees, and to act as a national clearing agency of activities conducted on behalf of emigres to the U.S. Some 22 organizations were associated with the NCC, most notably the Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars, the Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Physicians, the German-Jewish Children's Aid, the Greater New York Committee for German Refugees, and the National Council of Jewish Women. From 1934 - 1939, Joseph B. Chamberlain served as Chairman, Wm. Rosenwald, Vice-Chairman, (1936 - 1939), Paul Felix Warburg, Treasurer, and Cecilia Razovsky, Secy and Executive Director. Jewish refugee migration to the U.S. in the 1930's came from Germany in the main, and later also from Austria and Czechoslovakia. It soared from some 7,000 persons in 1934 to 10,500 in 1936, to 25,500 in 1938, to 51,000 in 1939. Over the same span, JDC allocations to the NCC and its affiliated organizations took the following pattern:1934: $10,000.1935: $15,000.1936: $87,500.1937: $150,000.1938: $150,000.Total: $412,500.In addition, the UJA made direct grants of $80,000 in 1934/35, of which $48,000 was the portion credited to the JDC. Funds from private foundations also flowed to the NCC via the JDC, and from Welfare Funds, the latter starting in 1938. But by mid-1938, refugee needs in the U.S. soared beyond the volume of funds at the disposal of the JDC for its world-wise operations. In consequence, the NCC became a UJA beneficiary in 1939, along with the JDC and the UPA. The financial switchover was accompanied by a structural reorganization of the NCC and its affiliates, and the National Refugee Service (NRS) became the successor organization. Most of the JDC activists in the NCC continued to serve the NRS in similar capacities. From the start, the newcomer refugees congregated in New York City and vicinity, in the main, giving rise to complex organizational and fiscal problems. In consequence, a Greater N.Y. Committee for German Refugees (Chairman: David Sulzberger) was created so as to coordinate the activities of the relevant local organizations. The necessary funds came from the JDC and from private foundations, among them the New York Foundation, the Baron de Hirsch Fund, the Hofheimer Foundation and the Rosenwald Foundation. By mid-1936, refugee needs in the New York area had expanded to the point where a special committee, the Allocations Committee (AC) of the NCC was organized to administer the funds and widen the base of national support. Eustace Seligman served as Chairman and the membership included representatives of the contributing foundations. The AC was incorporated in 1938 and renamed the NCC Fund Inc. In 1939, the NCC and the NCC Fund were merged in the NRS. For data on the Greater N.Y. Committee for German Refugees between 1934 - 1936 (March), see above: File 240. For data on the individual refugee group committees, see: Files 406 - 409.
Index Terms:
Austria
Chamberlain, J. P.
Czechoslovakia
Germany
National Coordinating Committee (NCC)
Physicians and Doctors
Razovsky, Cecilia
Refugees
Rosenwald, William
Scholars and Teachers
Seligman, Eustace
Sulzberger, David H.
Warburg, Paul Felix
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File 275: Organizations: NGOs, National Coordinating Committee (NCC), General, 1934 - 1935
The JDC allocated $5,000 to the NCC to aid it in getting under way, 6/15/34, 6/18/34. The JDC guaranteed three-fourths of the $10,000 in small loans to German refugees granted by the Hebrew Free Loan Fund, 7/1/35. Minutes of NCC meetings: 4/26/34, 6/7/34, 6/29/34(2), 7/23/34, 11/12/34, 12/31/34, 2/21/35, 10/11/35. In other minutes of meetings refugee problems are discussed, 10/3/34. Brief reports on NCC activities, 7/16/34, 9/20/34, 11/13/34, 12/21/34. Memos: Organizations providing German refugee aid in N.Y., 7/16/34, 5/22/35. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, J.P. Chamberlain, J.C. Hyman, E.M. Morrissey, C. Razovsky, D.J. Schweitzer, D.H. Sulzberger, J.B. Wise.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, Paul
Chamberlain, J. P.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Morrissey, Evelyn M.
National Coordinating Committee (NCC)
Razovsky, Cecilia
Refugees
Schweitzer, D. J.
Sulzberger, David H.
Wise, J. B.
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File 276: Organizations: NGOs, National Coordinating Committee (NCC), General, 1936
Minutes of meetings: 1/6/36 - 1/7/36, 6/12/36, 8/19/36. The NCC was reorganized, its Board of Directors enlarged, and Wm. Rosenwald was elected Vice-Chairman, 6/12/36 - 6/25/36, 7/8/36, 7/30/36, 8/5/36, 8/19/36, 8/26/36. An Allocations Committee was appointed to administer funds supplied by the JDC and private foundations, 10/24/36. Reports: Organizations Providing German Refugee Aid in N.Y., April 1936(2). The NCC by C. Razovsky, 10/22/36. Fin. Statements: Summary of Funds raised for German refugee aid in U.S. 1933 - 1935, 5/15/36; German Refugee Aid in the U.S., 10/30/36; German refugee aid in N.Y., 11/11/36, arrangement renewed with the Hebrew Free Loan Fund, 11/5/36. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, J.P. Chamberlain, J.C. Hyman, S. Lowenstein, E.M. Morrissey, C. Razovsky, Wm. Rosenwald.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, Paul
Chamberlain, J. P.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Lowenstein, Solomon
Morrissey, Evelyn M.
National Coordinating Committee (NCC)
Razovsky, Cecilia
Refugees
Rosenwald, William
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File 277: Organizations: NGOs, National Coordinating Committee (NCC), General, 1937
Jacob Billikopf was appointed Associate Executive Dir. of the NCC and charged with organizing local committees on refugee care to cope with employment and adjustment problems, 1/19/37. Organizations associated with the NCC in New York expended over $800,000 on refugee aid from 1934 - 1936, 3/4/37, 3/8/37. A special JDC Committee appointed (Chairman: Eustace Seligman) to consider German refugee problems in the U.S., 5/18/37, 6/2/37 and attachments, 6/24/37 and attachments. Officers of the principal organizations affiliated with the NCC, 6/11/37. Difficult fin. status of the NCC, 1/21/37, 2/16/37, 4/28/37, 5/7/37, 5/19/37 attachment, 6/11/37, 6/22/37 attachment. NCC Board of Directors Minutes, 6/24/37, 10/4/37 attachment, 10/7/37. Reports: Activities of the NCC, July 1936 - March 1937 presented by Wm. Rosenwald, 5/14/37. Allocations for 1937, 12/31/37. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, J. Billikopf, H.K. Buchman, J.P. Chamberlain, I. Coons, J.C. Hyman, H. Katzki, E.M. Morrissey, C. Razovsky, Wm. Rosenwald, E. Seligman, J.B. Wise.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, Paul
Billikopf, Jacob
Buchman, H. K.
Chamberlain, J. P.
Coons, I.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Katzki, Herbert
Morrissey, Evelyn M.
National Coordinating Committee (NCC)
Razovsky, Cecilia
Refugees
Rosenwald, William
Seligman, Eustace
Wise, J. B.
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File 278: Organizations: NGOs, National Coordinating Committee (NCC), General, 1938 January-June
Speeches on the NCC and affiliated agencies presented at conferences held 1/10/38, attachment to 3/11/38. Baron de Hirsch Fund allocated $50,000 for German refugee relief in NYC via the JDC and the NCC, 1/25/38, 1/26/38, 2/2/38(2), 2/16/38 (Katzki to Troper), 3/28/38, 3/31/38 Benjamin to Baerwald. The NCC applied to Welfare Funds and Campaign Budget Committees for aid, 2/17/38 Baerwald to Steinhart, 2/18/38 Hyman to Gerson and Circular Letter March 1938.Reports: Activities of the NCC and affiliated organizations for 1937, 5/23/38; The German Emigres in the U.S., by C. Razovsky, 6/9/38. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, E.S. Benjamin, J. Billikopf, M. Fainberg, J.C. Hyman, S.C. Kohs, J.B. Lightman, C. Razovsky, Wm. Rosenwald.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, Paul
Benjamin, E. S.
Billikopf, Jacob
Fainberg, M.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Katzki, Herbert
Kohs, S. C.
Lightman, J. B.
National Coordinating Committee (NCC)
Razovsky, Cecilia
Refugees
Rosenwald, William
Troper, Morris C.
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File 279: Organizations: NGOs, National Coordinating Committee (NCC), General, 1938 July-December
Thumbnail identifications of the NCC B. of D., 9/17/38. In 1938, the JDC advanced $265,000 to the NCC against reimbursement, in addition to its allocation, 12/30/38 Morrissey to Lew. Minutes of meetings: NCC Executive Committee 10/12/38; JDC Officers Meeting 10/27/38.Publication: Proceedings of NCC Conference, 9/17/38. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, W. Bieringer, D. Bressler, M. Fainberg, I.B. Goldwasser, J.C. Hyman, H. Katzki, S.C. Kohs, C. Razovsky, Wm. Rosenwald, E. Seligman.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, Paul
Bieringer, W.
Bressler, David M.
Fainberg, M.
Goldwasser, I. E.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Katzki, Herbert
Kohs, S. C.
Morrissey, Evelyn M.
National Coordinating Committee (NCC)
Razovsky, Cecilia
Rosenwald, William
Seligman, Eustace
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File 280: Organizations: NGOs, National Coordinating Committee (NCC), General, 1939; 1941
Agencies associated with the NCC and their functions, 1/21/39. Estimated needs for 1939 of the NCC and affiliated agencies rises to $3,000,000, 2/7/39, 3/9/39 Rosenwald letter, 3/25/39, 3/28/39 and attachments. Status of Nazi refugee migration to Latin America, 3/9/39 "Bound for Nowhere". The NCC was reorganized and succeeded by the National Refugee Service (NRS), NCC Policy Committee Minutes 4/7/39. Report to the JDC Executive Committee by Wm. Rosenwald, 4/19/39. Reorganization Study of the NCC by H. Greenstein, May 1939. The NCC Recast, by H. Greenstein, 6/5/39 CJFWF News and Notes. The NCC repaid the JDC $806,000 in advances extended to it in 1938 - 1939, 6/21/39. JDC allocations to the NCC 1933 - 1938, 1/17/41. Correspondence: J.P. Chamberlain, I. Coons, M. Fainberg, J.C. Hyman, C. Razovsky, Wm. Rosenwald, E. Seligman.
Index Terms:
Chamberlain, J. P.
Coons, I.
Fainberg, M.
Greenstein, H.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Latin America
National Coordinating Committee (NCC)
Razovsky, Cecilia
Refugees
Rosenwald, William
Seligman, Eustace
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File 281: Organizations: NGOs, National Coordinating Committee (NCC), Funds: Allocations Committee (AC) Associated with NCC and NCC Fund, Inc., 1936 - 1938 March
Minutes of meetings AC/NCC: 11/19/36, 1/21/37 (summary), 1/19/38 transcript and summary. The AC applied to the CJFWF for an allocation, 6/14/37. AC memo outlined costs and scope of German refugee programs in 1937, 6/15/37. S. Lowenstein of the CJFWF maintained that the refugee problem is a communal responsibility and should not fall on his organization, 6/17/37. The AC appealed afresh to the CJFWF, 10/5/37 attachment to 10/4/37; 1/28/38 Hyman to Seligman; 2/1/38. Fin. strains mounted as the JSSA was forced to discontinue the grant of advances vs. future reimbursement, 2/17/38. The CJFWF allocated $75,000 to the NCC for refugee care in N.Y., 2/23/38. Correspondence: M. Fainberg, J.C. Hyman, H. Katzki, S. Lowenstein, C. Razovsky, Wm. Rosenwald, E. Seligman.
Index Terms:
Fainberg, M.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Katzki, Herbert
Lowenstein, Solomon
National Coordinating Committee (NCC)
Razovsky, Cecilia
Refugees
Rosenwald, William
Seligman, Eustace
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File 282: Organizations: NGOs, National Coordinating Committee (NCC), Funds: Allocations Committee (AC) Associated with NCC and NCC Fund, Inc., 1938 April - 1939
Minutes of meetings of AC/NCC: 5/20/38, 6/16/38, 11/2/38, and of the NCC Sub-Committee on Physicians and Scholars, 4/28/38. Legacy of $94,000 from the Jacob Fox Estate went to the AC/NCC, via the JDC, for the aid of German-Jewish refugees in the U.S., 6/28/38(3). Deficit of the AC/NCC estimated at $230,000 for 1938 and a shortfall of $800,000 was projected for 1939, 11/2/38 AC/NCC Minutes, 11/3/38. Summary of AC/NCC Activities Report by Wm. Rosenwald, 1/26/39. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, M. Feinberg, J.C. Hyman, S. Lowenstein, Wm. Rosenwald, E. Seligman, M.C. Troper.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, Paul
Feinberg, M.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Lowenstein, Solomon
National Coordinating Committee (NCC)
Physicians and Doctors
Refugees
Rosenwald, William
Scholars and Teachers
Seligman, Eustace
Troper, Morris C.
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File 283: Organizations: NGOs, National Coordinating Committee (NCC), Funds: NCC Capital Outlay Fund (COF), Rosenwald Family Capital Outlay Fund (RFCOF) and National Refugee Service, Capital Loan Fund (NRSCLF), 1938 - 1944
The Rosenwald Family Capital Outlay Fund was organized in July 1938 to grant loans for economic adjustment which were unobtainable elsewhere, to artisans, small businessmen and members of the professions among German-Jewish refugees in the U.S. The Rosenwald Family contributed $20,000 to the Fund and matching amounts came from several sources. The COF was administered by the NCC. When the NRS became the successor agency, its Capital Outlay Committee became the successor of the COF. Abner Bregman served as Chairman and M. Feinberg as Secretary of the successive Capital Loan Funds. For other Rosenwald Funds, see: American Philanthropic Fund, File 268.4.Minutes of Meeting of the Organization Committee of the RFCOF, 7/7/38. .Reports: Activities of the RFCOF, 4/3/39, 6/26/39, 2/8/40. Activities of the NRSCLF 7/26/40 attachment to 7/30/40, and The Year 1940, 4/2/41. Correspondence: J.C. Hyman, N.W. Levin, Wm. Rosenwald.
Index Terms:
Bregman, Abner
Feinberg, M.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Levin, N. W.
National Coordinating Committee (NCC)
Refugees
Rosenwald, William
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File 284: Organizations: NGOs, National Coordinating Committee (NCC), Publications and Publicity: Publications by the NCC and by affiliated and associated agencies, 1939
Publications by the NCC and by affiliated and associated agencies, 1939.
Index Terms:
National Coordinating Committee (NCC)
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File 285: Organizations: NGOs, National Coordinating Committee (NCC), Publications and Publicity: Immigration Requirements, Regulations and Procedures of Various Countries, 1938 - 1939
Immigration Requirements, Regulations and Procedures of Various Countries, 1938 - 1939.
Index Terms:
Immigration and Emigration
National Coordinating Committee (NCC)
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File 286: Organizations: NGOs, National Coordinating Committee (NCC), Financial Reports, Loeb and Troper Fin. Statements, 1935 - 1938
Loeb and Troper Fin. Statements, 1935 - 1938
Index Terms:
National Coordinating Committee (NCC)
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File 287: Organizations: NGOs, National Coordinating Committee (NCC), Weekly Financial Reports, 1938 - 1939
NCC Weekly Reports: Cash in Bank and Pledges, July 1938 - October 1939 Pledges and Payments, August 1938 - November 1939.
Index Terms:
National Coordinating Committee (NCC)
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File 288: Organizations: NGOs, National Coordinating Committee (NCC), Financial/Statistical Reports, First Quarter, 1937
First Quarter, 1937
Index Terms:
National Coordinating Committee (NCC)
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File 289: Organizations: NGOs, National Coordinating Committee (NCC), Statistical Reports, 1936
Statistical reports for 1936 by the NCC and 12 affiliated organizations. For some organizations, the first quarter of 1937 is included.
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File 290: Organizations: NGOs, National Coordinating Committee (NCC), Statistical Reports, 1937
Statistical reports on aid granted by the NCC and affiliated organizations in 23 large cities to Jewish immigrants from Germany.
Index Terms:
Germany
National Coordinating Committee (NCC)
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File 291: Organizations: NGOs, National Coordinating Committee (NCC), Statistical Reports, 1937 - 1938
Annual statistical reports for 1938, plus monthly statistical reports by the NCC and affiliated organizations, August 1938 - June 1939.
Index Terms:
National Coordinating Committee (NCC)
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File 292: Organizations: NGOs, National Coordinating Committee (NCC), Statistical Reports, 1938 - 1939
Weekly statistical reports by the NCC and affiliated organizations, July 1938 - June 1939.
Index Terms:
National Coordinating Committee (NCC)
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Series 40: Organizations: NGOs, Resettlement Division
File 293: Organizations: NGOs, Resettlement Division, 1938 - 1939
The Resettlement Division was organized in October 1936 to aid in resettling throughout the U.S. refugees from Germany who had congregated in New York and vicinity. Jacob Billikopf served as Director in 1938. Resettlement needs grew more critical following the Nazi annexation of Austria and of the Sudentenland. Minutes of meeting, Resettlement Division, 5/29/38, 9/17/38. Minutes of meeting on resettlement problems by communal representatives from the Eastern U.S., 6/26/38. Correspondence: J.C. Hyman, S.C. Kohs, Wm. Rosenwald, W.B. Thalheimer, J.B. Wise.
Index Terms:
Austria
Billikopf, Jacob
Germany
Hyman, Joseph C.
Kohs, S. C.
Refugees
Resettlement Division
Rosenwald, William
Thalheimer, W. B.
Wise, J. B.
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Series 41: Organizations: NGOs, National Council of Jewish Federations and Welfare Funds (CJFWF)
The CJFWF, composed of local federations, welfare funds and community councils, was organized in 1932 to serve its members as a national coordinating agency. It held annual regional conferences in various cities to discuss problems of Jewish education and to formulate policy, as well as annual sessions of its general assembly. It also issued confidential reports to members on regional, national and overseas agencies which sought local support. From 1937 onwards, the CJFWF urged the JDC to conduct united fund-raising drives with the UPA, see Memo 9/28/38 below. Over the years, the CJFWF maintained a close and continuing relationship with the JDC.
Index Terms:
Education, Jewish
National Council of Jewish Federations and Welfare Funds (CJFWF)
File 294: Organizations: NGOs, National Council of Jewish Federations and Welfare Funds (CJFWF), 1934 - 1936
S.S. Wise appealed to the CJFWF for increased support to the UPA and the JDC in aiding 100,000 Jews to emigrate from Germany, 2/21/36, The CJFWF invited the JDC and the UPA to a joint conference on the 1937 campaign and to appoint a joint committee, 10/9/36-10/19/36, 11/5/36. Correspondence: I. Coons, J.C. Hyman, H.L. Lurie, E.M. Morrissey, B. Renard, Wm. Rosenwald, Wm. J. Schroder, S.S. Wise.
Index Terms:
Coons, I.
Germany
Hyman, Joseph C.
Lurie, H. L.
Morrissey, Evelyn M.
National Council of Jewish Federations and Welfare Funds (CJFWF)
Renard, B.
Rosenwald, William
Schroder, William J.
Wise, Rabbi Stephen S.
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File 295: Organizations: NGOs, National Council of Jewish Federations and Welfare Funds (CJFWF), 1937
An Agreement for 1937 between the JDC, the UPA and the CJFWF was reached on the division of funds raised for overseas use in specified cities, 2/4/37, 2/5/37, 3/13/37; also see: File 294, 12/16/36-12/30/36. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, H.K. Buchman, I. Coons, M.R. Herman, J.C. Hyman, H.L. Lurie, B. Renard, Wm. Rosenwald, Wm. J. Schroder.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, Paul
Buchman, H. K.
Coons, I.
Herman, M. R.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Lurie, H. L.
National Council of Jewish Federations and Welfare Funds (CJFWF)
Renard, B.
Rosenwald, William
Schroder, William J.
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File 296: Organizations: NGOs, National Council of Jewish Federations and Welfare Funds (CJFWF), 1938
An Agreement for 1937 between the JDC and the UPA was reached along the same lines as in 1937, 1/6/38, 1/18/38-3/21/38; also see: File 295, 12/9/37, 12/16/37-12/29/37. J.C. Hyman commented on responsibilities of the CJFWF, 5/5/38, 5/25/38. The CJFWF pressed the JDC and the UPA to conduct a united campaign, 10/25/38, 10/26/38, 11/1/38. The JDC weighed the course to take, 9/28/38, 10/31/38, 11/7/38 Hyman to JDC Officers, 12/6/38; also see above: JDC Executive Committee File 17, 11/28/38. The JDC, the UPA and the CJFWF held joint discussions on a united campaign, 11/22/38, 12/8/38, and agreement was reached 12/9/38, 12/20/38-12/21/38. Correspondence: C. Adler, P. Baerwald, J.C. Hyman, C.M. Morrissey, B. Renard, Lessing J. Rosenwald, Wm. Rosenwald, J. Rubenstein, Wm. J. Schroder, A.H. Silver, J.B. Wise.
Index Terms:
Adler, Cyrus
Baerwald, Paul
Hyman, Joseph C.
Morrissey, Evelyn M.
National Council of Jewish Federations and Welfare Funds (CJFWF)
Renard, B.
Rosenwald, Lessing J.
Rosenwald, William
Rubenstein, J.
Schroder, William J.
Silver, A. H.
Wise, J. B.
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File 297: Organizations: NGOs, National Council of Jewish Federations and Welfare Funds (CJFWF), 1939
The JDC granted $5,000 to the CJFWF for 1939 as a contribution to the costs of its N.Y. operations, after the N.Y. UJA had rejected a similar request for jurisdictional reasons, 6/26/39, 11/17/39, 11/24/39(2). Correspondence: H.K. Buchman, S. Hollander, J.C. Hyman, H.L. Lurie, B. Renard, Wm. Rosenwald.
Index Terms:
Buchman, H. K.
Hollander, S.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Lurie, H. L.
National Council of Jewish Federations and Welfare Funds (CJFWF)
Renard, B.
Rosenwald, William
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File 298: Organizations: NGOs, National Council of Jewish Federations and Welfare Funds (CJFWF), 1940 January-August
Agencies and individuals associated with the CJFWF urged the JDC to reach agreement with the UPA on a united campaign for 1940, see above: File 79, 1/18/40 attachments to letter Schwartz to Solender. The JDC granted $5,000 to the CJFWF as a contribution for 1940, 6/27/40 and File 299 below, 11/1/40 Leavitt to Lurie. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, S.A. Goldsmith, S. Hollander, J.C. Hyman, H.L. Lurie, B. Renard, Wm. Rosenwald.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, Paul
Goldsmith, S. A.
Hollander, S.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Leavitt, M. A.
Lurie, H. L.
National Council of Jewish Federations and Welfare Funds (CJFWF)
Renard, B.
Rosenwald, William
Schwartz, J. J.
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File 299: Organizations: NGOs, National Council of Jewish Federations and Welfare Funds (CJFWF), 1940 September-December
The CJFWF and the JDC representatives met to urge a united campaign for 1941 but a meeting of the minds failed to follow, 12/12/40, 12/17/40. Correspondence: I. Coons, S. Hollander, J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt, H.L. Lurie.
Index Terms:
Coons, I.
Hollander, S.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Leavitt, M. A.
Lurie, H. L.
National Council of Jewish Federations and Welfare Funds (CJFWF)
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Series 42: Organizations: NGOs, National Refugee Service (NRS)
The NRS was created in June 1939 as the successor organization to the NCC (see: Files 275-293), so as to carry on more intensively the range of services required by Nazi victim refugees in the U.S. These services spanned a broad range in relief, rehabilitation, resettlement and integration. From 1939-1945, the NRS was one of the three constituent organizations of the UJA, along with the JDC and the UPA, and it obtained a great share of its funds from that body. Jewish refugee migration to the U.S. in the pre-war years reached a peak of 51,000 persons in 1939, on the momentum of Nazi persecutions and pressures. Following the outbreak of the war, migration to the U.S. was curtailed sharply, dropping to 42,400 persons in 1940 and to 28,800 in 1941. More drastic cuts followed in the wake of Pearl Harbor-to 12,100 persons in 1942 and to 5,600 in 1943. UJA allocations to the NRS followed a broadly comparable pattern, within a descending curve: 1939: $2,600,000.1940: $2,500,000; $1,000,000 (by Greater N.Y. UJA).1941: $2,000,000.1942: $2,000,000.1943: $1,500,000.1944: $1,000,000.1945: $979,000. In 1940-1941, the JDC loaned the NRS some $1,500,000 all told to tide it over periods of income shortfalls from the UJA. The JDC also guaranteed an NRS bank loan of $500,000. Subsequently, the loans were all repaid in full. The NRS officers included: Pres: Wm. Rosenwald 1939-1944, Charles A. Riegelman, 1944-1946. Hon. Pres: Wm. Rosenwald 1944-1946. Chairman of the Board: Joseph P. Chamberlain. Executive Secretary: Wm. Haber, 1939-1941 (February), Albert Abrahamson 1941-1943 (April), and Joseph E. Beck, 1943-1946.In 1946, the NRS merged with the United Service for New Americans, and in 1954 that organization in turn merged with the United HIAS Service (UHS).
Index Terms:
Abrahamson, Albert
Beck, Joseph E.
Chamberlain, J. P.
Haber, William
National Refugee Service (NRS)
Refugees
Riegelman, Charles A.
Rosenwald, William
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File 300: Organizations: NGOs, National Refugee Service (NRS), General, 1939 - 1940
The Baron de Hirsch Fund made a direct gift of $25,000 to the NRS, 2/23/40. The JDC loaned some $700,000 to the NRS in 1940, to tide it over income shortfalls from the UJA, 3/29/40, 11/22/40. Correspondence: I.E. Goldwasser, Wm. Haber, J.C. Hyman, I. Rosen, Wm. Rosenwald. Also see below: File 304, Board of Directors Minutes of Meetings. Files 305-306, Executive Committee Minutes of Meetings, 1939 - 1940.File 303, Fin. Budgets. File 313, Reports, Annual and Quarterly.
Index Terms:
Goldwasser, I. E.
Haber, William
Hyman, Joseph C.
National Refugee Service (NRS)
Rosen, I.
Rosenwald, William
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File 301: Organizations: NGOs, National Refugee Service (NRS), General, 1941 - 1942
The NRS prepared to conduct an independent fund-raising campaign for 1941 in light of the dissolution of the UJA Agreement, 1/13/41, 1/20/41, 2/10/41, 2/28/41 Rosenwald to Hyman. The UJA was reconstituted for 1941 and the NRS was promised a $2,000,000 allocation towards a budget of $4,342,000, 4/4/41. The JDC loaned some $795,000 to the NRS in 1941, to tide it over income shortfalls from the UJA, 5/27/41, 8/25/41, 11/24/41, 12/3/41. The NRS was scheduled to receive a $2,000,000 allocation from the UJA for 1942, 12/23/41. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, S.A. Goldsmith, I.E. Goldwasser, J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt, E.M.M. Morrissey, C.A. Riegelman, C.J. Rosenbloom, Wm. Rosenwald, E.M. Warburg.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, Paul
Goldsmith, S. A.
Goldwasser, I. E.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Leavitt, M. A.
Morrissey, Evelyn M.
National Refugee Service (NRS)
Riegelman, Charles A.
Rosenbloom, C. J.
Rosenwald, William
Warburg, Edward M. M.
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File 302: Organizations: NGOs, National Refugee Service (NRS), General, 1943 - 1945
Activities of the NRS, Facts and Figures: 5/10/43, 9/10/43, 9/14/44. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, J.E. Beck, J.C. Hyman, C.A. Riegelman, Wm. Rosenwald, A.H. Silver.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, Paul
Beck, Joseph E.
Hyman, Joseph C.
National Refugee Service (NRS)
Riegelman, Charles A.
Rosenwald, William
Silver, A. H.
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File 303: Organizations: NGOs, National Refugee Service (NRS), Financial
Annual budgets 1940 - 1945
Index Terms:
National Refugee Service (NRS)
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File 304: Organizations: NGOs, National Refugee Service (NRS), Minutes of Meetings, Board of Directors, 1939 - 1946
Annual (A) and Special Meetings: 7/29/39, 12/2/39, 5/21/40(A), 1/18/41 - 1/19/41; 5/25/41(A), 5/24/42(A), 1/23/43, 1/15/44 - 1/16/44 (A).
Index Terms:
National Refugee Service (NRS)
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File 305: Organizations: NGOs, National Refugee Service (NRS), Minutes of Meetings, Executive Committee, June 1939 - March 1940
9/25/39 (Summary), 10/9/39, 10/23/39, 11/6/39, 11/21/39, 11/28/39, 12/19/39, 1/2/40, 1/23/40, 2/6/40, 3/5/40, 3/19/40.
Index Terms:
National Refugee Service (NRS)
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File 306: Organizations: NGOs, National Refugee Service (NRS), Minutes of Meetings, Executive Committee, 1940 April-December
4/2/40, 4/16/40, 4/30/40, 5/16/40, 6/4/40, 6/18/40, 7/2/40, 7/16/40, 7/30/40, 8/13/40, 9/10/40, 9/24/40, 10/22/40, 11/12/40, 11/26/40.
Index Terms:
National Refugee Service (NRS)
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File 307: Organizations: NGOs, National Refugee Service (NRS), Minutes of Meetings, Executive Committee, 1941
1/7/41, 1/14/41, 1/28/41, 2/11/41, 2/25/41, 3/11/41, 3/25/41, 4/8/41, 4/22/41, 5/6/41, 5/20/41, 6/3/41, 6/10/41, 6/17/41, 7/1/41, 7/15/41, 8/12/41, 8/26/41, 9/9/41, 9/25/41, 10/7/41, 10/21/41, 11/5/41, 11/18/41, 12/16/41, 12/30/41.
Index Terms:
National Refugee Service (NRS)
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File 308: Organizations: NGOs, National Refugee Service (NRS), Minutes of Meetings, Executive Committee, 1942 - 1946
1/27/42, 2/10/42, 3/3/42, 3/17/42, 3/31/42, 4/28/42, 5/19/42, 6/18/42, 7/16/42, 9/10/42, 11/5/42, 12/17/42, 1/23/43, 3/1/43, 4/15/43, 5/20/43, 7/29/43, 9/23/43, 10/20/43, 12/2/43, 1/15/44, 2/17/44, 3/16/44, 5/4/44, 6/15/44, 9/21/44, 11/16/44, 1/21/45, 2/15/45, 2/27/45, 4/19/45, 5/24/45, 6/28/45, 12/13/45, 3/14/46, 6/9/46.
Index Terms:
National Refugee Service (NRS)
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File 309: Organizations: NGOs, National Refugee Service (NRS), Publications: NRS Special Information Bulletin, 1941 - 1946
#1-69 (except #32, 38, 51, 52, 61)
Index Terms:
National Refugee Service (NRS)
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File 310: Organizations: NGOs, National Refugee Service (NRS), Publications: NRS Information Bulletins, various, 1939 - 1946
Information Bulletin, 1939 - 1940: #1-7.Community Bulletin, 1940: #1, 3-6; 1941: #5; 1943: #5; 1944: #1-3; 1945: #1-2.Community Service Bulletin, 1940 - 1941: #1-5, 7-8, 15, 17.News, 1941 - 1946, various
Index Terms:
National Refugee Service (NRS)
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File 311: Organizations: NGOs, National Refugee Service (NRS), Publications: Printed Matter
Brochures, reprints, magazine articles, 1939 - 1945
Index Terms:
National Refugee Service (NRS)
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File 312: Organizations: NGOs, National Refugee Service (NRS), Monthly Activities Reports to the Executive Committee by the Executive Director
1939: July-Aug; 1941: May-September, November-Dec; 1942: January-February, July-Dec; 1943: January-May, July-August, November-Dec; 1944: September
Index Terms:
National Refugee Service (NRS)
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File 313: Organizations: NGOs, National Refugee Service (NRS), Annual, Quarterly and Bi-Monthly Reports
Annual: 1939 - 1943.Quarterly: April 1940 - September 1941. Bi-Monthly: 1939: September/October, November/December
Index Terms:
National Refugee Service (NRS)
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File 314: Organizations: NGOs, National Refugee Service (NRS), Statistical Reports, Various
Monthly Relief Expenditures, January-August 1939.Weekly Report, 6/5-9/39 - 7/24-28/39. Study of Employment Department Activities, 5/6/41. Study of Central Reception and Information Applicants, December 1940, 6/12/41
Index Terms:
National Refugee Service (NRS)
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Series 43: Organizations: NGOs, National War Fund (NWF)
File 315: Organizations: NGOs, National War Fund (NWF)
The NWF was created in 1942, at the initiative of the President's War Relief Control Board, to conduct a single national fundraising campaign per year in support of voluntary war-related appeals. Campaigns were conducted in the fall of 1943 and 1944 via local war-chests and war-funds. Neither the UJA nor the JDC affiliated themselves with the NWF and the JDC received its funds in both years via UJA campaigns. Winthrop W. Aldrich served as President of the NWF. The UJA weighed whether or not to affiliate itself with the NWF, 2/17/43, 2/19/43, 3/15/43 Minutes of Meeting, Memos 3/15/43, 3/16/43, 4/1/43, 4/7/43, 5/5/43. The UJA expressed its readiness to let local welfare funds work out their own arrangements on whether to affiliate with local war chests, 3/26/43, 5/18/43, but it would not affiliate itself, 6/25/43, 9/9/43. Report by CJFWF "Further War Chest Developments", 4/14/43. Correspondence: I. Coons, M.R. Herman, J.C. Hyman, R.O. Loosely, H.L. Lurie, C.A. Riegelman.
Index Terms:
Coons, I.
Herman, M. R.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Loosely, R. O.
Lurie, H. L.
National War Fund (NWF)
Riegelman, Charles A.
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Series 44: Organizations: NGOs, Office of Foreign Relief and Rehabilitation Operations (OFRRO)
File 316: Organizations: NGOs, Office of Foreign Relief and Rehabilitation Operations (OFRRO)
In November 1942, President Roosevelt created the Office of Foreign Relief and Rehabilitation Operations in the State Department and appointed Gov. H.H. Lehman its director. The OFRRO sent a relief mission to North Africa in January 1943 to serve in the newly liberated territories. The organization was dissolved at the creation of UNRRA in November 1943 and the appointment of Gov. Lehman as its Director. The JDC allocated $25,000 as a contribution to refugee relief and rehabilitation in N. Africa, 3/17/43, 4/10/43. The OFRRO used but $5,000 of that sum, 1/13/44, and the remaining $20,000 was subsequently expended in N. Africa - $17,000 in aid of Jewish refugees and $3,000 for non-sectarian relief, 4/20/44, 5/12/44, 9/2/44, 10/13/44. Memo on the relationship between the OFRRO and the JDC based on the N. African experience, 7/29/43. Correspondence: N. Aronovici, P. Baerwald, K. Dayton, J.C. Hyman, H.H. Lehman, C.E. Pickett, G.L. Warren.
Index Terms:
Office of Foreign Relief and Rehabilitation Operations (OFRRO)
Aronovici, Noel
Baerwald, Paul
Dayton, K.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Lehman, Governor H. H.
North Africa
Pickett, Clarence E.
Refugees
Roosevelt, President Franklin D.
Warren, G. L.
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Series 45: Organizations: NGOs, ORT
American ORT Federation (AOF). People's ORT Federation (POF). The POF (subsequently renamed the AOF) was the American branch of the World ORT Union (WOU) and acted for it as the national fund-raising agency in the United States. Between 1933 - 1937, the AOF conducted no fund-raising campaigns of its own and JDC allocations ran as follows: 1933/34: $10,000.1935: $10,000.1936: $140,000.1937: $130,000.JDC allocations were discontinued in 1938 when the AOF began to run independent campaigns and the practice on both sides continued throughout the war years. B. Charney Vladeck served as the POF - AOF President from 1933 until his death in 1939, and he was followed by George Backer who served throughout the war years. Henry Moscowitz acted as Chairman of the Board of Directors until his death in 1936, and was followed by Louis B. Boudin. Backer, Moscowitz and Vladeck also sat on the JDC Executive Committee at one time or another, while Backer served in addition as a JDC Vice-Chairman between 1937 - 1944. For earlier materials, see: Archives 1921 - 1932, Files 98-101a 1919 - 1921, File 87b
Index Terms:
Backer, George
Boudin, Louis B.
Moscowitz, Henry
ORT
Vladeck, B. Charney
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File 317: Organizations: NGOs, ORT, 1933 - 1935
Status of relations between the JDC and the ORT, 6/8/34 Hyman to Saltzstein, 8/28/34, 11/2/34, 1/18/35, 4/17/35. ORT Union report: Extent of the Constructive Work in Europe, December 1935. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, P. Block, L. Bramson, D.A. Brown, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, W. Kleeman, D. Lvovitch, E.M. Morrissey, H. Moscowitz, J.N. Rosenberg, Wm. Rosenwald, A. Syngalowski, B.C. Vladeck.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, Paul
Block, P.
Bramson, L.
Brown, David A.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Kahn, Dr. Bernhard
Kleeman, W.
Lvovitch, D.
Morrissey, Evelyn M.
Moscowitz, Henry
ORT
Rosenberg, James N.
Rosenwald, William
Vladeck, B. Charney
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File 318: Organizations: NGOs, ORT, 1936
The ORT offered to merge its independent fund-raising campaign for $500,000 with the JDC - ORT representatives agreed on $140,000 allocation, 2/14/36, and on Memo of Understanding, 3/12/36 - 3/20/36, 4/2/36 and Press Release 4/21/36. Status of Agreement with the ORT, 11/17/36. ORT Union Reports: Fin. Statement for 1936, undated; November 1935 - August 1936, 9/7/36 - 9/9/36. Also see: File 319, 12/17/37. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, P. Block, L. Bramson, D.A. Brown, H.K. Buchman, I. Coons, J.C. Hyman, A. Kahn, B. Kahn, D. Lvovitch, E.M. Morrissey, H. Moscowitz, B. Renard, J.N. Rosenberg, D.J. Schweitzer, B.C. Vladeck, J.B. Wise.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, Paul
Block, P.
Bramson, L.
Brown, David A.
Buchman, H. K.
Coons, I.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Kahn, Alexander
Kahn, Dr. Bernhard
Lvovitch, D.
Morrissey, Evelyn M.
Moscowitz, Henry
ORT
Renard, B.
Rosenberg, James N.
Schweitzer, D. J.
Vladeck, B. Charney
Wise, J. B.
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File 319: Organizations: NGOs, ORT, 1937
The ORT agreed to accept a $130,000 allocation for 1937 and to refrain from undertaking a separate fund-raising campaign for that year, 3/12/37, 4/21/37, 4/23/37 Hyman to Renard. It was the consensus of the JDC officers that the JDC should shift course on the ORT allocations in 1938, Memo 11/23/37. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, P. Block, I. Coons, J.C. Hyman, A. Kahn, S. Lowenstein, D. Lvovitch, E.M. Morrissey, B.C. Vladeck.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, Paul
Block, P.
Coons, I.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Kahn, Alexander
Lowenstein, Solomon
Lvovitch, D.
Morrissey, Evelyn M.
ORT
Renard, B.
Vladeck, B. Charney
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File 320: Organizations: NGOs, ORT, 1938
The JDC and the ORT agreed that each will conduct its own fund-raising campaign in 1938, 2/17/38. No JDC allocation was granted in 1938, 2/18/38. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, H.K. Buchman, I. Coons, J.C. Hyman, A. Kahn, B. Kahn, M.D. Steuer.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, Paul
Buchman, H. K.
Coons, I.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Kahn, Alexander
Kahn, Dr. Bernhard
ORT
Steuer, M. D.
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File 321: Organizations: NGOs, ORT, 1939
JDC allocations to the ORT, in the years 1921 - 1937, came to $1,186,285, 3/15/39. Correspondence: H. Altschul, P. Baerwald, L.B. Boudin, H.K. Buchman, M.R. Herman, J.C. Hyman, D. Lvovitch, Wm. Rosenwald, D.J. Schweitzer.
Index Terms:
Altschul, H.
Baerwald, Paul
Boudin, Louis B.
Buchman, H. K.
Herman, M. R.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Lvovitch, D.
ORT
Rosenwald, William
Schweitzer, D. J.
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File 322: Organizations: NGOs, ORT, 1940 - 1941
Fin. Statement of Income and Expenditure 1939, 2/7/40. For 1940, the ORT merged its fund-raising campaign in NYC with the UJA but planned to conduct an independent campaign else-where, American ORT Journal March 1940, 4/5/40. Summary of the ORT activities in 1939 and Budget Information for 1940, undated. Report on the AOF by the CJFWF, September 1940. The ORT advanced $20,000 to the JDC to aid vocational training activities in Poland, 10/1/40, 10/8/40. Status of the ORT activities in Europe: 4/12/40, 8/15/40, 2/24/41, 5/21/41. Expenditures abroad by the AOF on behalf of the WOU 1940 and 1941, 2/12/42. Correspondence: F.A. Adlerstein, L.B. Boudin, D.M. Bressler, H.K. Buchman, A. Held, M. Herzfeld, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, M.A. Leavitt, S. Lowenstein, B. Renard, E. Salinger, J.J. Schwartz, M.C. Troper, E.M.M. Warburg.
Index Terms:
Adlerstein, F. R.
Boudin, Louis B.
Bressler, David M.
Buchman, H. K.
Held, Adolph
Herzfeld, M.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Kahn, Dr. Bernhard
Leavitt, M. A.
Lowenstein, Solomon
ORT
Poland
Renard, B.
Schwartz, J. J.
Troper, Morris C.
Warburg, Edward M. M.
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File 323: Organizations: NGOs, ORT, 1942 - 1944
Reports: B. Kahn, "JDC Activities in Training for Crafts and Agriculture", 6/1/43; CJFWF, "AOF", 6/29/43, also see: 5/12/43 - 5/17/43; CJFWF, "The WOU and the AOF", 7/15/43; AOF, "Budget WOU for 1944 and Summary of ORT Activity during 1943", undated; CJFWF, "AOF", May 1944. Correspondence: L.B. Boudin, H.K. Buchman, J.C. Hyman, C.H. Jordan, A. Kahn, B. Kahn, M.J. Karpf, J.B. Lightman, B. Lvovitch, R. Pilpel, Wm. Rosenwald, L.H. Sobel.
Index Terms:
Boudin, Louis B.
Buchman, H. K.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Jordan, Charles H.
Kahn, Alexander
Kahn, Dr. Bernhard
Karpf, M. J.
Lightman, J. B.
Lvovitch, D.
ORT
Pilpel, Robert
Rosenwald, William
Sobel, L. H.
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File 324: Organizations: NGOs, ORT, Publications, 1934 - 1944
Publicity Pamphlets, various, 1934 - 1940.ORT Economic Bulletin, 1940 - 1941. Vol. 1: #1-6 (except 5); Vol. 2: #1-3.ORT Economic Review, 1941 - 1942. Vol. 2: #4-6, Vol. 3: #1.ORT News (Yiddish), February 1944.
Index Terms:
ORT
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Series 46: Organizations: NGOs, OSE
World Union OSE American National Committee OSE, New York OSE-TOZ Central Emergency Committee, New York. The Society OSE, an acronym of "Obsczestvo Sdravoochraneniya Evreyev" - "Jewish Health Protection", was launched in Russia in 1912 to provide Jews with health and hygiene care. After W.W.I., its activities spread to Latvia, Lithuania, Poland (TOZ) and Rumania in 1923 and these branches united to form at Berlin the World Union OSE. Subsequently, sympathizers also opened branches in London, Paris, New York, and other Jewish centers around the world. Upon the rise of Hitler, OSE headquarters were transferred to Paris and remained there until the Nazi occupation of France. Between 1919 - 1924, the JDC financed virtually all OSE activities in Eastern Europe, except in the Soviet Union. Funds from other sources began to flow to the OSE in the years that followed. Between 1922 - 1936, JDC allocations to the OSE and to the TOZ, its Polish affiliate, reached $1,198,104 and covered 28% of their combined budgets, see memo 9/30/37 below. From 1933 - 1940, JDC allocations to OSE-TOZ took the following pattern:(Year: OSE/TOZ/Combined).1933: $13,488/$25,276/$38,764.1934: $11,261/$29,992/$41,253.1935: $10,959/$48,325/$59,284.1936: $21,210/$75,819/$97,029.1937: $30,339/$118,790/$149,129.1938: $31,913/$100,341/$132,254.1939: $87,970/$83,686*/$171,656.1940: $130,500/--/$130,500.Total for all years: $337,640/$482,229/$819,869.The OSE activities in France continued throughout the war years but the records of OSE-TOZ expenditures between 1941 - 1944 and the JDC share of them are available only in local currencies and not in dollars. The JDC funds covered the overwhelming share of all OSE expenditures in Nazi occupied countries. In the U.S., the OSE opened an emergency branch of its European Central Committee at the close of 1941, after communications with France and other occupied countries were cut. The N.Y. OSE Committee received JDC allocations for administration between 1942 - 1944.From 1926 onwards, the OSE in conjunction with the ORT (Joint Committee ORT-OSE) raised funds abroad for its own account, but agreed to refrain from doing so in the U.S. and Canada. Dr. J.J. Golub headed the American National Committee OSE from 1933 - 1937, and was followed by Dr. A.J. Rongy. Albert Einstein served as Honorary Chairman from 1940 onwards. Dr. Golub and Dr. Rongy were both activists in JDC medical programs. For additional materials on OSE-TOZ activities in Europe between 1939 - 1944, see: EUREXCO, Files 189-191. Also see: SM Archives, File 26: OSE General, 1942 - 1945; File 27: OSE Holland, Hungary, Poland, Rumania and Yugoslavia; File 35a: OSE France; Archives 1921 - 1932, Files: OSE 102, 102a.
Index Terms:
Berlin
Einstein, Albert
France
Golub, Dr. J. J.
Latvia
Lithuania
London
Medical
Paris
Poland
Romania
Rongy, Dr. A.J.
Russia
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File 325: Organizations: NGOs, OSE, General, 1933 - 1939
Discussions between the JDC-OSE on the opening of an OSE office in the U.S., 6/15/39 - 8/11/39. Reports: Annual Report OSE-TOZ 1936, 6/11/37; Summary, 25 years of OSE Activity 1912 - 1937 by L. Gourvitch, 10/6/37 - for the full report, see below: File 330. Activities of the OSE Central Board 1934 - 1937, 10/11/37. Summary of Activities OSE-TOZ 1937, undated.* 1st 8 months 1939. Correspondence: J. Brutzkus, H.K. Buchman, I.E. Goldwasser, J.J. Golub, J.C. Hyman, A. Kahn, A.J. Rongy, M.C. Troper.
Index Terms:
Brutzkus, J.
Buchman, H. K.
Goldwasser, I. E.
Golub, Dr. J. J.
Gourvitch, L.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Kahn, Alexander
OSE
Rongy, Dr. A.J.
Troper, Morris C.
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File 326: Organizations: NGOs, OSE, General, 1940
The American Committee OSE, New York, established as an emergency branch of the Central OSE Committee in Europe, and agreed to forego fund-raising in the U.S., 12/18/40, 12/24/40, 12/28/40, 12/31/40; also see below: File 327, Hyman to Leavitt 2/18/41, 3/27/41 and File 328, 7/22/41, 7/23/41, 8/1/41. Reports, General: OSE Activities 1939, 5/23/40. Record of Oral Statement on OSE-TOZ Activity, August 1940. Reports, France: 2/8/40; August 1940 Memorial; 9/19/40; October 1940 and November 1940 both undated, 12/6/40. Correspondence: J. Brutzkus, H.K. Buchman, S. Hayes, L. Gourvitch, H. Katzki, E.M. Morrissey, E. Papanek, A.J. Rongy, J.J. Schwartz, L. Wulman.
Index Terms:
Brutzkus, J.
Buchman, H. K.
France
Gourvitch, L.
Hayes, S.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Katzki, Herbert
Leavitt, M. A.
Morrissey, Evelyn M.
OSE
Papanek, E.
Rongy, Dr. A.J.
Schwartz, J. J.
Wulman, L.
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File 327: Organizations: NGOs, OSE, General, 1941 January-June
OSE Summer Activities in Eastern Europe, 6/18/41. Reports, France: 2/17/41; 2/18/41; 2/20/41; 2/21/41; 3/26/41; Table of Residents Children's Homes, undated (April 1941?); 4/23/41; 5/8/41; 5/29/41; 5/31/41. Correspondence: F.R. Adlerstein, H.K. Buchman, Albert Einstein, Baroness Guinsbourg, L. Gourvitch, J.C. Hyman, H. Katzki, M.A. Leavitt, A. Lourie, E. Papanek, M. Stephany, L. Wulman.
Index Terms:
Adlerstein, F. R.
Buchman, H. K.
Children
Einstein, Albert
France
Gourvitch, L.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Katzki, Herbert
Leavitt, M. A.
OSE
Orphans and Orphanages
Papanek, E.
Stephany, M.
Wulman, L.
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File 328: Organizations: NGOs, OSE, General, 1941 July-December
Reports, France: Budget OSE France 1st 6 months 1942, 12/9/41; Fin. Report Union OSE December 1941. The JDC allocated $4,000 for aid to OSE France, 8/27/41 and attachments. Correspondence: H.K. Buchman, J.J. Golub, L. Gourvitch, R. Pilpel, J.J. Schwartz, M.C. Troper, L. Wulman.
Index Terms:
Buchman, H. K.
France
Golub, Dr. J. J.
Gourvitch, L.
OSE
Pilpel, Robert
Schwartz, J. J.
Troper, Morris C.
Wulman, L.
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File 329: Organizations: NGOs, OSE, General, 1942 - 1944
Reports, France: OSE Activities in the Internment Centers for December 1941 and January 1942, undated; Activities March and April 1942, undated. Liberation of Children, 4/20/42; Activities: April to Mid-May 1942, 5/12/42; May 1942 undated; June 1942, 7/15/42; Rescue Activities of Children in France, 5/22/44. Correspondence: H.D. Biele, J. Brutzkus, H.K. Buchman, L. Gourvitch, J.C. Hyman, H. Katzki, M.A. Leavitt, J.B. Lightman, J. Pat, R. Pilpel, J.J. Schwartz, L.H. Sobel, M. Stephany, L. Wulman.
Index Terms:
Biele, H. D.
Brutzkus, J.
Buchman, H. K.
Children
France
Gourvitch, L.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Katzki, Herbert
Leavitt, M. A.
Lightman, J. B.
OSE
Pat, Jacob
Pilpel, Robert
Schwartz, J. J.
Sobel, L. H.
Stephany, M.
Wulman, L.
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File 330: Organizations: NGOs, OSE Publications
Reports: L. Gourvitch, Twenty-Five Years OSE (1912 - 1937).Publications: Revue OSE: October 1935; February 1937, December 1939, February 1940 American OSE Review, 1942, January-July; 1943, January-July; 1944, Spring and Summer.
Index Terms:
Gourvitch, L.
OSE
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Series 47: Organizations: NGOs, President's Advisory Committee on Political Refugees (PACPR)
File 331: Organizations: NGOs, President's Advisory Committee on Political Refugees (PACPR)
The PACPR was created as a private body, in 1938, by a group of distinguished personalities, with the aim of keeping the President informed on refugee problems. In the first three years, the JDC and Rabbi Stephen Wise shared the costs of administration, which ran to some $12,000 per year. In 1941, Rabbi Wise withdrew his support, owing to a shortage of funds, and thereafter the JDC shouldered the administration costs in full. James G. McDonald served as Chairman. James M. Speers was treasurer and after his death, his son, Wm. E. Speers, succeeded him. Activities ended in 1949.The entire PACPR discussed refugee problems with President Roosevelt, 9/6/41, and forwarded a statement to him, attachment to 1/14/42. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, James G. McDonald, J.M. Speers, Wm. E. Speers, G.L. Warren.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, Paul
McDonald, James G.
Refugees
Roosevelt, President Franklin D.
Speers, James M.
Speers, William E.
Warren, G. L.
Wise, Rabbi Stephen S.
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Series 48: Organizations: NGOs, President's War Relief Control Board
President's Committee on War Relief Agencies (1941 March 13).President's War Relief Control Board (1942 July 25).On 3/13/41, the President's Committee was appointed to study and correlate the fund-raising campaigns of private - foreign war-relief agencies and to weigh their activities vis-a-vis those of the ARC. Committee members Joseph E. Davies, Chairman, Charles P. Taft and Frederick P. Keppel. The membership continued unchanged when the President's Committee became the President's Board on 7/25/42, while its powers were broadened to include among others the registration and licensing of war relief agencies and the regulation and coordination of their fund-raising appeals. The Board was empowered to remain in operation for the duration of the war plus six months, and it liquidated its activities by 3/31/46.Relations with the JDC always remained on a firm and friendly footing. In the later war years, the Board frequently consulted the JDC on the merits of organizations that sought to conduct fund-raising appeals for Jewish war-relief purposes, and it directed a good many who sought a license for fund-raising to coordinate their programs for overseas aid with those of the JDC.
Index Terms:
Davies, Joseph E.
Keppel, Frederick P.
President's Committee on War Relief Agencies
President's War Relief Control Board
Taft, Charles P.
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File 332: Organizations: NGOs, President's War Relief Control Board, 1941 - 1943 June
Interim Report by the President Committee 10/4/41, JDC summary 10/14/41 and Committee Press Release 12/11/41. Davies cited the importance of JDC activities in wartime, 12/16/41 - 12/19/41. Roosevelt established the President's War Relief Control Board, 8/7/42 and attachments. Minutes of discussions by representatives of the UJA and the Board, 11/5/42. Correspondence: J.H. Becker, I. Coons, Joseph E. Davies, H.S. Fox, J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt, E.M. Morrissey, C.A. Riegelman, A.C. Ringland, E.M.M. Warburg, J.C. Wise.
Index Terms:
Becker, J. H.
Coons, I.
Davies, Joseph E.
Fox, H. S.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Leavitt, M. A.
Morrissey, Evelyn M.
President's Committee on War Relief Agencies
President's War Relief Control Board
Riegelman, Charles A.
Ringland, A. C.
Roosevelt, President Franklin D.
Warburg, Edward M. M.
Wise, J. B.
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File 333: Organizations: NGOs, President's War Relief Control Board, 1943 July - 1944
Minutes of discussions by representatives of the UJA and the Board, 2/24/44, 6/28/44. The JDC offered to supplement with its own funds special earmarked contributions for war relief projects by landsmann-schaften, 8/3/44 - 8/14/44, 10/16/44, 10/18/44, 12/7/44. Correspondence: J. Brunot, H.S. Fox, J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt.
Index Terms:
Brunot, J.
Fox, H. S.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Leavitt, M. A.
President's Committee on War Relief Agencies
President's War Relief Control Board
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File 333a: Organizations: NGOs, President's War Relief Control Board, 1945 - 1946
The JDC informed the Control Board that the UJA Agreement was not continued for 1945, 3/6/45. The Control Board demanded that the Agreement be continued, 5/1/45 Minutes and Baerwald Letter to Control Board, 5/1/45, 5/25/45. The UJA Agreement for 1945 was ratified 6/7/45, 6/8/45. The Control Board expressed the intention to close operations by 3/31/46, 10/12/45. Minutes of the meeting 10/19/45 between the Control Board and the UJA et al, inviting views of the registered agencies on the liquidation, 10/25/45, 11/13/45. The JDC expressed its views on the liquidation, 11/20/45. The Control Board issued a Report to the President, March 1946. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, J. Brunot, H.K. Buchman, Joseph E. Davies, J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt, A.C. Ringland, L.E. Sobel, Charles P. Taft.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, Paul
Brunot, J.
Buchman, H. K.
Davies, Joseph E.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Leavitt, M. A.
President's Committee on War Relief Agencies
President's War Relief Control Board
Ringland, A. C.
Sobel, L. H.
Taft, Charles P.
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Series 49: Organizations: NGOs, Refugee Economic Corporation (REC)
The Refugee Economic Corporation (REC) and the Emigre Charitable Fund (ECF) were established in 1934 to aid in the resettlement and rehabilitation of refugees from Nazi Germany (and subsequently from Austria, Czechoslovakia et al). The prime mover in the organization of both, as well as the largest subscriber and the first president as well, was Felix M. Warburg, the Hon. Chairman of the JDC. The REC was programmed to conduct its activities as an investment organization and the ECF as a philanthropic one. For data on the ECF, see: Files 224a-224c.The two organizations worked hand-in-glove. Board meetings of the two coincided most of the time, the officers were usually identical, and subscribers stemmed in considerable degree from the same pool of JDC activists or at least of generous JDC contributors. Moreover, the JDC and the REC/ECF shared the costs of numbers of resettlement projects for the benefit of refugees and cooperated closely. The major countries considered for refugee resettlement and rehabilitation by the REC/ECF included Australia, British Honduras, Costa Rica, Palestine, Philippines and a number of South American lands (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador et al). Charles J. Liebman succeeded Felix Warburg as President of the REC/ECF in 1937 and his tenure extended throughout the lifetime of the organizations.
Index Terms:
Argentina
Australia
Austria
Brazil
British Honduras
Costa Rica
Czechoslovakia
Ecuador
Emigre Charitable Fund (ECF)
Germany
Liebman, Charles J.
Palestine
Philippines
Refugee Economic Corporation (REC)
Refugees
South America
Warburg, Felix M.
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File 334: Organizations: NGOs, Refugee Economic Corporation (REC), General
The REC was incorporated in Delaware 11/26/34, and in N.Y. 7/12/37. Prospectus for Subscription to Common Stock: 8/7/35, 5/31/38, 8/15/41. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, C.J. Liebman, J.N. Rosenberg, F.M. Warburg.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, Paul
Emigre Charitable Fund (ECF)
Liebman, Charles J.
Refugee Economic Corporation (REC)
Rosenberg, James N.
Warburg, Felix M.
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File 334a: Organizations: NGOs, Refugee Economic Corporation (REC), Board of Directors
Minutes of Meetings (Between 12/8/38 - 7/2/40, 12/10/40 - 6/23/41, and 1/20/42 - 12/17/46 Statis. and Fin. data are provided but there are no Minutes of Meetings.).1936: 1/30, 4/9, 5/14, 9/25, 11/23.1937: 1/14, 3/3, 5/13, 6/10, 9/23, 10/25, 11/19, 12/30.1938: 1/24, 3/10, 5/12, 10/13, 12/8.1939: 1/10, 4/11, 6/13, 9/12, 10/10, 11/1, 12/12.1940: 3/12, 5/14, 7/2, 9/12, 10/31, 12/10.1941: 2/18, 4/10, 6/23, 10/21, 12/31.1942: 1/20, 6/30, 9/22.1946: 3/21, 6/18, 10/15, 12/17.1950: 3/9, 4/6, 5/24
Index Terms:
Emigre Charitable Fund (ECF)
Refugee Economic Corporation (REC)
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File 334b: Organizations: NGOs, Refugee Economic Corporation (REC), Directors, Officers, Stockholders
Annual lists
Index Terms:
Emigre Charitable Fund (ECF)
Refugee Economic Corporation (REC)
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File 334c: Organizations: NGOs, Refugee Economic Corporation (REC), Financial
Annual lists of office expenditures.
Index Terms:
Emigre Charitable Fund (ECF)
Refugee Economic Corporation (REC)
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File 334d: Organizations: NGOs, Refugee Economic Corporation (REC), Reports
Annual: 1936, 1937, 1938, 6/1/41, 4/15/42, 1943, 1944, 1946, 6/15/48, 8/31/49.
Index Terms:
Emigre Charitable Fund (ECF)
Refugee Economic Corporation (REC)
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Series 50: Organizations: NGOs, Russian War Relief (RWR)
Russian War Relief (RWR) 1941.American Society for Russian Relief (ASRR) 1945. Jewish Council for Russian War Relief (JCRWR) 1945. Jewish Council for Russian Relief (JCRR) 1945. The RWR was organized in September 1941 to ship medical supplies, food, clothing and related goods for civilian aid in Russia. A roster of prominent Americans joined the Board of Directors among them Edward M.M. Warburg; James N. Rosenberg and Joseph Rosen followed him soon after. After VE Day (May 1945), the RWR changed names, see above, and ended its existence on 12/31/46. Edward C. Carter served as President from start to finish. Early in 1942, the JCRWR was organized in a bid to enlist the interest of the Landsmannschaften and other Jewish groups in Russian war relief. Like the RWR, it changed its name after VE Day, see above. To the RWR, the JCRWR contributed $200,000 in 1942, $1,000,000 in 1943, $2,000,000 in 1944 and $5,072,591 in 1945. James N. Rosenberg served as Co-Chairman of the Advisory Board and resigned at the end of 1946. Between 1942 - 1946, Louis Levine served as Chairman and Albert Einstein as Honorary Co-Chairman. The JCRR continued operations after the ASRR ended its existence. In May 1942, the JDC approved a $5,000 contribution to the RWR by the Agro-Joint, upon the urging of Rosenberg. In August 1942, Rosenberg urged the JDC to grant $50,000 to the RWR as an outright gift, but the JDC took no action on the proposal then or later. In January 1953, Rosenberg set down his thoughts on JDC relations with Russia in the decade preceding, see: File 336. In the matter of the cleavage on Russian relief between Rosenberg and the JDC, see below: Files 430-431.
Index Terms:
American Society for Russian Relief (ASRR)
Carter, Edward C.
Einstein, Albert
Jewish Council for Russian Relief
Jewish Council for Russian War Relief (JCRWR)
Levine, Louis
Medical
Rosen, Joseph A.
Rosenberg, James N.
Russia
Russian War Relief (RWR)
Warburg, Edward M. M.
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File 335: Organizations: NGOs, Russian War Relief (RWR), 1941 - 1944
Fin. Audit of the JCRWR 12/31/42, 2/13/43. Bulletin by the CJFWF on the JCRWR, January 1944. Reports: "Russian War Relief Report", undated (4/1/44); "Soviet Russia Has Set Them Free", undated. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, M.I. Finkelstein, J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt, F. Myers, J.N. Rosenberg, E.M.M. Warburg.
Index Terms:
American Society for Russian Relief (ASRR)
Baerwald, Paul
Finkelstein, M. I.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Jewish Council for Russian Relief
Jewish Council for Russian War Relief (JCRWR)
Leavitt, M. A.
Myers, F.
Rosenberg, James N.
Russia
Russian War Relief (RWR)
Warburg, Edward M. M.
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File 336: Organizations: NGOs, Russian War Relief (RWR), 1945 - 1947; 1953
Summary of meeting between representatives of the JCRR and the JDC, 3/6/45 attachment to 3/23/45. "Report to the Public 1945" attachment to 4/26/46. The JCRR affirmed that its existence will continue after the parent body closed its activities on 12/31/46, 6/7/46.Correspondence: P. Baerwald, E.C. Carter, Albert Einstein, A. Gurin, S.M. Isaacs, L. Levine, J.N. Rosenberg, L.H. Sobel.
Index Terms:
American Society for Russian Relief (ASRR)
Baerwald, Paul
Carter, Edward C.
Einstein, Albert
Gurin, A.
Isaacs, S. M.
Jewish Council for Russian Relief
Jewish Council for Russian War Relief (JCRWR)
Levine, Louis
Rosenberg, James N.
Russia
Russian War Relief (RWR)
Sobel, L. H.
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Series 51: Organizations: NGOs, Unitarian Service Committee (USC)
File 337: Organizations: NGOs, Unitarian Service Committee (USC)
The USC, an auxiliary of the American Unitarian Association, was established in 1940 to help refugees escape from Nazi occupied countries. In the course of W.W. II, it maintained a European Hq. at Lisbon and branch offices first in unoccupied France and subsequently in Switzerland. The Nazi victims it aided were Christians, in the main. In the post-war era, the USC adapted its program to changing needs in social work, and added medical aid, rehabilitation and education most notably. In Germany and Austria, the USC and the JDC cooperated, and relations between them were cordial throughout the years. The JDC granted $15,000 to the USC for its overseas program in 1942, 11/18/42, and it included medical aid in French internment camps in unoccupied France, 6/22/42, 10/9/42, 11/9/42, 1/4/43. Also see: France, USC, File 602. The JDC aided a USC Refresher Course for DP Physicians in Germany, 4/1/49, and a USC dental clinic in Vienna, 2/6/50, 2/10/50. Correspondence: H.L. Brooks, N. Field, I.O. Hay, J.C. Hyman, C.R. Joy, M.C. Troper, L.H. Sobel.
Index Terms:
Austria
Brooks, H. L.
Education, General
Field, N.
France
Germany
Hay, I. O.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Joy, C. R.
Lisbon
Medical
Physicians and Doctors
Refugees
Sobel, L. H.
Switzerland
Troper, Morris C.
Unitarian Service Committee (USC)
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Series 52: Organizations: NGOs, United Galician Jews of American (UGC)
File 338: Organizations: NGOs, United Galician Jews of American (UGC)
United Galician Jews of American (UGC) 1937. American Committee for the Aid of Jews in Galicia 1936. The American Committee was formed in 1936. It became the UGC in 1937, and some 140 Galician landsmannschaften had affiliated themselves with it by October. The UGC expressed the desire to cooperate with the JDC on sundry occasions, and in 1939 besought JDC support in its jurisdictional disputes with the Federation of Polish Jews in America. Contributions in aid of Galician Jews in Poland reached the JDC in 1938/39 and again between 1946 - 1949. In the latter year, the JDC was expelled from Poland as a foreign aid organization, but it returned in 1957 upon the invitation of the Polish Government. The UGC offered the JDC its cooperation in raising funds for constructive projects in Galicia, 3/12/37, 5/21/37, 12/1/37, and reaffirmed the offer, 10/10/39, 2/5/42. The JDC received $8,000 from the UGC in its 1937 campaign - $5,000 directly and $3,000 from affiliated landsmannschaften for specific activities, 4/13/38, 4/19/38. The UGC offered a $5,000 contribution to the WUZET if the JDC would match the sum, 8/1/39, 8/2/39. The UGC contributed some $26,000 in 1947, 5/12/47, 5/22/47, $2,500 in 1948, 1/9/48, and $5,000 in 1949, 1/7/49, all in aid of children's homes. Correspondence: H.K. Buchman, L. Flashenberg, H. Frankel, N.M. Gilmovsky, I. Giterman, J.C. Hyman, A. Kahn, B. Kahn, S. Low, J.J. Schwartz, B. Smolar, L.H. Sobel, H.B. Sussman, S. Tarshansky, M.C. Troper, F.M. Warburg.
Index Terms:
American Committee for the Aid of Jews in Galicia
Buchman, H. K.
Children
Flashenberg, L.
Frankel, H.
Galicia
Gilmovsky, N. V.
Giterman, I.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Kahn, Alexander
Kahn, Dr. Bernhard
Low, S.
Orphans and Orphanages
Poland
Schwartz, J. J.
Smolar, B.
Sobel, L. H.
Sussman, H. B.
Tarshansky, S.
Troper, Morris C.
United Galician Jews of American (UGC)
Warburg, Felix M.
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Series 53: Organizations: NGOs, United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA)
File 339: Organizations: NGOs, United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA)
The UNRRA was created on 11/9/43 when representatives of 44 nations signed the agreement establishing the agency. UNRRA's aim was to grant emergency aid to war victims and to help liberated peoples in regaining strength and stability. In Europe, its main operations went into effect only after VE Day (May 1945), and in Asia after VJ Day (August 1945). Gov. H.H. Lehman served as Director-General. The member governments of UNRRA attended to its financing. To meet operating costs, governments whose territories had escaped invasion were invited to contribute 1% of their national income for the year ending 6/30/43. To meet administrative costs, all member governments were expected to contribute. Up to 11/30/44, appropriations for operating expenses reached $1,217,092,000, and the lion's share stemmed from the U.S. Relations between the UNRRA and the JDC were cooperative on the whole. The JDC dealt directly with UNRRA officials as well as via the American Council of Voluntary Agencies of which it was a member. In 1944, trained staff members qualified to serve in liberated countries were in short supply. In midyear, the JDC loaned 10 of its staff members for service on UNRRA's Balkan Unit. Following the liberation of France, UNRRA, in turn, loaned the JDC some of its staff members who were awaiting reassignment in that country. Also see above: OFFRO, File 316. J.L. Trobe was selected to head the JDC unit on loan to UNRRA and to serve as the liaison between the two agencies, 6/14/44, 11/1/44. UNRRA and JDC relationships, 10/17/44. Report: UNRRA, Organization, Aims, Progress, December 1944. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, Albert Einstein, J.C. Hyman, L. Iberg, H.H. Lehman, J.L. Magnes, R.B. Resnick, J,J. Schwartz, L.H. Sobel, G.L. Warren.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, Paul
Einstein, Albert
France
Hyman, Joseph C.
Iberg, L.
Lehman, Governor H. H.
Magnes, J. L.
Resnick, R. B.
Schwartz, J. J.
Sobel, L. H.
Trobe, J. L.
United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA)
Warren, G. L.
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Series 54: Organizations: NGOs, United Palestine Appeal (UPA)
The UPA was established in 1936 to raise funds for the Keren Hayesod and the Jewish National Fund. Subsequently, the Mizrachi Palestine Fund was added. From 1936 - 1938, the UPA conducted independent campaigns, but from 1939 - 1944 it merged forces with the JDC in the United Jewish Appeal (UJA). The two agencies negotiated campaign agreements but they covered only a single campaign each and called for annual renegotiation. In addition, for the 1937 and 1938 campaigns, the UPA and the JDC reached limited agreements in a number of cities and towns on the division of funds collected for overseas use. In 1934 and 1935, the JDC and the American Palestine Campaign (APC) had conducted joint drives. For materials on those campaigns, see above: APC, File 214. Thereafter, the APC merged with the UPA. For additional materials, see above: Files 75-84.
Index Terms:
United Palestine Appeal (UPA)
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File 340: Organizations: NGOs, United Palestine Appeal (UPA), 1936 - 1940
On the UPA and the JDC: 2/5/36, 3/2/36 - 3/4/36, 3/23/36, 3/25/36, 4/7/36, 3/24/37, 4/27/38, 5/26/38. Agreements: 1937, JDC campaign UPA and CJFWF on division of funds in selected communities for overseas use, 1/29/37 attachment to 2/4/37. 1939 campaign, see above: File 78, 11/22/38 - 12/9/38. 1940 campaign, see above: File 80, 2/8/40, 3/9/40, 3/11/40. 1941 campaign, 11/19/40 - 11/28/40, 12/27/40 Silver to Perlman, also see above: Files 82-84.Fin. Data and Reports: UPA Expend. in Palestine 10/1/32 - 3/31/36, May 1936; Collections in JDC Campaigns 1926 - 1937 and comments by E.M. Morrissey, 8/9/37; Statement of UPA Income and Expenditures 1936 - 1937, 4/20/38; UPA Collections 1/1/38 - 6/30/38; UPA Budgetary Analysis 1939, March 1939; UPA Budgetary Analysis 1940, undated. JDC cleared $170,000 in collections 1933 - 1938 by Zionist groups in Poland 6/6/39 attachment to 6/19/39.Reports: UPA New York City by CJFWF, July 1937. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, I. Coons, M.R. Herman, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, E.M. Morrissey, H. Montor, J.N. Rosenberg, Wm. Rosenwald, J. Rubenstein, J.J. Schwartz, A.H. Silver, M. Simon, S.S. Wise.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, Paul
Coons, I.
Herman, M. R.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Kahn, Dr. Bernhard
Montor, H.
Morrissey, Evelyn M.
Palestine
Poland
Rosenberg, James N.
Rosenwald, William
Rubenstein, J.
Schwartz, J. J.
Silver, A. H.
Simon, M.
United Palestine Appeal (UPA)
Wise, Rabbi Stephen S.
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File 341: Organizations: NGOs, United Palestine Appeal (UPA), 1941 - 1944
On the UPA and the UJA: 1/6/41 attachment to 1/23/41, 1/13/41, 2/13/41, 6/25/43, 7/21/43, 6/16/44.Agreements: The UJA Agreements for 1942, 1943 and 1944, see above: File 84. Fin. Data and Reports: Estimates of 1940 fundraising in the U.S. by Palesinian agencies and by the JDC, 1/18/41; the UPA 1942 budget (January 1942); Income and Expend. of major agencies supported by the UJA 10/1/41 - 4/1/42, 6/1/42; Preliminary Statement on Budgets of Agencies in Palestine supported by the UJA, 1/14/43; allotments received by the UPA 1939 - 1942 from UJA fund-raising, October 1943, Appendix. Brief Statements on the UPA Activities: 9/28/42, 10/2/42, 7/7/43, 2/2/44, 4/10/44.Reports: The UPA by the CJFWF. Correspondence: F.R. Adlerstein, P. Baerwald, H.K. Buchman, I. Coons, H. Dalsheimer, J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt, H.L. Lurie, H. Montor, C.J. Rosenblum, Wm. Rosenwald.
Index Terms:
Adlerstein, F. R.
Baerwald, Paul
Buchman, H. K.
Coons, I.
Dalsheimer, H.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Leavitt, M. A.
Lurie, H. L.
Montor, H.
Palestine
Rosenblum, C. J.
Rosenwald, William
United Palestine Appeal (UPA)
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Series 55: Organizations: NGOs, United Rumanian Jews of America (URJ)
File 342: Organizations: NGOs, United Rumanian Jews of America (URJ)
The URJ was a landsmannschaften Organization seeking to promote the interests of Rumanian Jews abroad. Their activities partook of a political character, largely. In December 1943, they contributed $1,000 to the JDC in aid of Rumanian Jews and token sums on two earlier occasions. In 1945, the contributions grew to $3,500 and in 1946 to some $15,800. In March 1949, Jewish aid programs in Rumania reached an abrupt end when the Government of that country expelled the JDC as a foreign organization. The JDC was invited to return at the close of 1967. Correspondence, memos, addenda. Correspondence: A. Berkowitz, J. Brunot, J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt, H. Montor, S. Rosman, L.H. Sobel, C. Sonnenreich, S. Tarshansky.
Index Terms:
Berkowitz, A.
Brunot, J.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Leavitt, M. A.
Montor, H.
Romania
Rosman, S.
Sobel, L. H.
Sonnenreich, C.
Tarshansky, S.
United Rumanian Jews of America (URJ)
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Series 56: Organizations: NGOs, U.S. Committee for the Care of European Children
The Committee was organized in June 1940 as a central coordinating non-sectarian body to aid in providing temporary asylum in the U.S. for European refugee children. At the outset, the Committee focused upon evacuations from Great Britain, but by December 1940 evacuations were extended to France and subsequently to Spain and Portugal. The JDC worked hand-in-glove with the Committee in the evacuation of these children and it bore a share of the costs. In May 1943, the two agencies signed an agreement for the evacuation to the U.S. of 1,000 refugee children, whereby the JDC shouldered 45% of the costs of transportation and of maintenance for one year following the date of arrival in the U.S. The JDC made no contributions to Committee operations. Jewish children formed the overwhelming majority of the evacuations. For additional materials, see: France, Files 610-611. The Committee carried on its activities throughout the war, Eleanor Roosevelt serving as Hon. President, Marshall Field as President and Robert Lang as Executive Dir. (the latter joined the armed forces in November 1943). The Committee's activities were restricted to refugee children bound for the United States. Those bound for Latin America, Palestine and the Far East remained a direct responsibility of the JDC. For its relations with the European-Jewish Children's Aid, see: German-Jewish Children's Aid, Files 237-239.
Index Terms:
Children
Field, M.
France
Lang, Robert
Latin America
Palestine
Portugal
Refugees
Roosevelt, Eleanor
Spain
U.S. Committee for the Care of European Children
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File 343: Organizations: NGOs, U.S. Committee for the Care of European Children, June 1940 - June 1941
The Committee brought to U.S. 36 Jewish refugee children from Austria, 8/23/40, 8/24/40, 8/27/40 Hyman to Baerwald, 9/4/40, and 111 children from OSE institutions in France mostly, who arrived on the SS Mouzinho 4/21/41 - 6/20/41. Also see: File 344, 8/6/41. Correspondence: H.K. Buchman, A. Einstein, H.W. Emerson, M. Field, Wm. Haber, J.C. Hyman, H. Katzki, M.A. Leavitt, E.M. Morrissey, J.N. Rosenberg, Wm. Rosenwald, M.C. Troper.
Index Terms:
Austria
Baerwald, Paul
Buchman, H. K.
Children
Einstein, Albert
Emerson, Sir Herbert W.
Field, M.
France
Haber, William
Hyman, Joseph C.
Katzki, Herbert
Leavitt, M. A.
Morrissey, Evelyn M.
Rosenberg, James N.
Rosenwald, William
Troper, Morris C.
U.S. Committee for the Care of European Children
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File 344: Organizations: NGOs, U.S. Committee for the Care of European Children, 1941 July - 1942
The Committee sponsored 45 refugee children arriving on the SS Mouzinho, 8/29/41, 9/18/41, 11/10/41; 51 on the SS Serpa Pinta, 9/10/41, cable, 9/18/41, 10/14/41; 50 on the SS Serpa Pinta, 5/5/42, 6/25/42, 7/1/41; and 38 on the SS Nyassa, 8/3/42, 8/7/42. The Committee proposed sponsoring 1,000 refugee children, jointly with the JDC, at a cost estimated at $950,000, 9/4/42, 9/8/42, 9/26/42 - 10/9/42. The Committee opened a fundraising campaign for $5,208,250, towards which the JDC pledged $2,000,000, 11/5/42. The Nazi occupation of Vichy France on 11/11/42 halted migration from there and the Committee turned to Spain and Portugal for refugee children, 11/24/42, 12/1/42, 12/8/42. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, I. Coons, M. Field, J.C. Hyman, H. Katzki, R. Lang, M.A. Leavitt, J.C. McDonald, M.C. Troper, P.F. Warburg, G.L. Warren.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, Paul
Children
Coons, I.
Field, M.
France
Hyman, Joseph C.
Katzki, Herbert
Lang, Robert
Leavitt, M. A.
McDonald, James G.
Portugal
Refugees
Spain
Troper, Morris C.
U.S. Committee for the Care of European Children
Warburg, Paul Felix
Warren, G. L.
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File 345: Organizations: NGOs, U.S. Committee for the Care of European Children, 1943 - 1945
In 1943, the Committee brought over 125 refugee children on 7 sailings of the SS Serpa Pinto, 9/15/43 and attachments. JDC allocations for child care apart from those linked to Committee activities, 3/10/43, 4/8/43 Montor letter insert, 4/15/43 extract draft bulletin, 4/22/43 Wise to Canter, 6/25/43, 3/20/44, 7/20/44. Report by R. Lang to Committee Board of Directors 5/12/43. The JDC reaffirmed to the U.S. State Department its 1942 offer of joint sponsorship with the Committee for bringing 5,000 refugee children from France, 11/30/43 and attachments. The JDC agreed to underwrite up to $2,000,000 of the estimated costs, and the U.S. Government announced its readiness to accept up to 5,000 children, 1/7/44 Memo. The National War Fund withheld support of the project, 5/12/44. The JDC reaffirmed its guarantee to cover 4/9th of the estimated costs, 6/8/44 J.C. Hyman memo, 7/27/44. The JDC guaranteed maintenance costs of up to 1,000 refugee children who may be admitted to Cuba, 5/16/44, and the Cuban Government agreed to admit that number, 6/8/44. List of refugee children from France who reached Spain and Portugal between March-September 1944, 9/20/44 and attachments, and those who left for the U.S. and Palestine, 1/25/45, 7/21/45. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, J.E. Beck, J.C. Hyman, H. Katzki, R. Lang, M.A. Leavitt, E.M.M. Morrissey, J. W. Pehle, R. Pilpel, B. Renard, C. Riegelman, J.J. Schwartz, M.R. Springer, J.B. Wise.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, Paul
Beck, Joseph E.
Children
Cuba
France
Hyman, Joseph C.
Katzki, Herbert
Lang, Robert
Leavitt, M. A.
Montor, H.
Morrissey, Evelyn M.
Palestine
Pehle, J. W.
Pilpel, Robert
Portugal
Refugees
Renard, B.
Riegelman, Charles A.
Schwartz, J. J.
Spain
Springer, M. R.
U.S. Committee for the Care of European Children
Wise, J. B.
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Series 57: Organizations: NGOs, World Jewish Congress (WJC)
The WJC was organized at Geneva, Switzerland, on 8/8/36, as a voluntary association of Jewish organizations and communities in various countries. Until the outbreak of W.W. II, the WJC viewed itself mainly as a political body on the international scene, charged with defending the rights and interests Jews held in common. It engaged in no social welfare activities. In those years, relations between the WJC and the JDC were cool but correct. But as W.W. II unfolded, several sources of friction arose between the two bodies. The WJC embarked on extensive fund-raising campaigns in Latin American countries starting in 1940, and it raised vehement objections in public whenever the JDC sought to raise funds in any one of those countries during the later years of the war. In its fund-raising campaigns, the WJC expanded its objectives to cover not only political protection activities but relief and rescue operations. The JDC maintained that the latter merely duplicated on a small scale some of the activities it itself was conducting on a great scale. The JDC charged that the WJC in its publicity repeatedly claimed sole credit for relief and rescue activities that in fact were conducted mainly or entirely by the JDC. In those publicity claims, the JDC role received scant mention or none at all. After the outbreak of war, the WJC moved its headquarters from Geneva to New York, but it continued to maintain a small office in Geneva. Over the years 1936 - 1944, Rabbi Stephen S. Wise served as Chairman of the WJC Executive Committee, Dr. Nahum Goldmann as Chairman of the Administrative Committee, and Louis Lipsky as Chairman of the Administrative Council.
Index Terms:
Geneva
Goldmann, Dr. Nahum
Latin America
Lipsky, Louis
Switzerland
Wise, Rabbi Stephen S.
World Jewish Congress (WJC)
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File 346: Organizations: NGOs, World Jewish Congress (WJC), 1932 - 1940
The AJC refused to participate in the formation of the WJC 5/12/36, 5/25/36. J.N. Rosenberg expressed opposition to the formation and to JDC participation in it, 5/12/36, 5/26/36, 5/27/36 Rosenberg to Lowenstein, 5/29/36, 6/9/36 Rosenberg to Wise, 6/10/36 Rosenberg to Hyman. C. Adler stated that the JDC, the B'nai B'rith, the Jewish Labor Committee and the National Council of Jewish Women among others had declined to participate in the new organization, 5/25/36. On the WJC and the JDC, see: 6/8/36, 6/23/36, 9/28/39 - 10/5/39, 10/19/39, 2/2/40, 2/5/40 Hyman to Holzer, 3/14/40, 8/21/40, 9/3/40, 12/2/40, 12/4/40 Hyman to Nathan, 12/27/40, 12/31/40.Correspondence: C. Adler, F.W. Borchard, H.K. Buchman, M.D. Goldsmith, J. Helman, J.C. Hyman, B. Kahn, N. Laski, J.B. Lightman, L. Lipsky, E.M. Morrissey, J.N. Rosenberg, J.J. Schwartz, A. Silberschein, A. Tartakower, M.C. Troper, S.S. Wise, M.D. Waldman.
Index Terms:
Adler, Cyrus
Borchard, F. W.
Buchman, H. K.
Goldsmith, M. D.
Helman, J.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Kahn, Dr. Bernhard
Laski, N.
Lightman, J. B.
Lipsky, Louis
Lowenstein, Solomon
Morrissey, Evelyn M.
Rosenberg, James N.
Schwartz, J. J.
Silberschein, A.
Tartakower, A.
Troper, Morris C.
Waldman, M. D.
Wise, Rabbi Stephen S.
World Jewish Congress (WJC)
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File 347: Organizations: NGOs, World Jewish Congress (WJC), 1941 - 1943
On the WJC and the JDC, see: 1/6/41, 1/23/41, 3/24/41 comments by B. Kahn, 4/4/41, 4/14/41, 5/19/41 and attachments, 2/9/42, 2/16/42, 3/11/42, 7/7/42, 7/28/42, 10/13/42, 10/19/42, 11/18/42, 11/27/42, 3/25/43, 3/31/43. Summary of WJC publication, "One Year of Social Relief Work of the WJC" by A. Tartakower, 1/2/41. WJC holds Inter-American Conference in Baltimore, 12/2/41, 12/31/41, 1/7/42. Balance Sheet, WJC Relief Department 1/1/42 - 7/1/43, 10/15/43, 11/12/43. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, M.W. Beckelman, I. Coons, A. D'Esaguy, N. Goldmann, S. Hayes, J.C. Hyman, A. Kahn, B. Kahn, M.A. Leavitt, A.H. Lieberman, R. Pilpel, B. Smolar, L.H. Sobel, A. Tartakower, M.D. Waldman, S.S. Wise.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, Paul
Beckelman, M. W.
Coons, I.
Goldmann, Dr. Nahum
Hayes, S.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Kahn, Alexander
Kahn, Dr. Bernhard
Leavitt, M. A.
Lieberman, A. H.
Pilpel, Robert
Smolar, B.
Sobel, L. H.
Tartakower, A.
Waldman, M. D.
Wise, Rabbi Stephen S.
World Jewish Congress (WJC)
d'Esaguy, A.
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File 348: Organizations: NGOs, World Jewish Congress (WJC), 1944; 1945
On the WJC and the JDC, see: 1/5, 3/16, 4/10, 6/14, 6/21, 7/7 Hyman to Wise, 7/17, 7/31, 8/8, 8/22, 8/24 Hyman to Lightman, 8/24 Rosenwald to Lurie, 10/30 attachment to 11/2, 10/31, 11/24, 12/1 Biele to Gurfinkle, 12/1 Kahn to WJC and attachments, 12/8. Preliminary Draft of Report presenting JDC position on WJC, 5/18/44. Survey Analysis of Proceedings of War Emergency Conf. of WJC 11/26 - 11/30, by Louis Shub. Correspondence: P. Baerwald, H.D. Biele, P. Dreyfus, B.B. Goldman, O. Gurfinkle, J.C. Hyman, M.A. Leavitt, J.B. Lightman, R. Pilpel, G.D. Pinsky, Wm. Rosenwald, L. Shub, L.H. Sobel, A. Tartakower, S.S. Wise.
Index Terms:
Baerwald, Paul
Biele, H. D.
Dreyfus, P.
Goldman, Blanche B.
Gurfinkle, O.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Kahn, Dr. Bernhard
Leavitt, M. A.
Lightman, J. B.
Lurie, H. L.
Pilpel, Robert
Pinsky, G. D.
Rosenwald, William
Shub, Louis
Sobel, L. H.
Tartakower, A.
Wise, Rabbi Stephen S.
World Jewish Congress (WJC)
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Series 58: Organizations: NGOs, Zionist Organization of America (ZOA)
File 349: Organizations: NGOs, Zionist Organization of America (ZOA)
The ZOA was established in 1917 as a merger of several Zionist groups. Other Zionist groups remained independent of the ZOA or subsequently made themselves independent, e.g. the Revisionists. .After Hitler rose to power, the ZOA and the JDC were often at odds on the issue of Jewish fund-raising in the U.S. for overseas use. The ZOA maintained that Palestine rated the highest priority, while the JDC stressed that the needs of persecuted Jews in central and eastern Europe needed to be weighted along with those in Palestine, the more so since the funds available fell far short of the needs. The creation of the UJA in 1939 progressively lessened the level of frictions between the ZOA and the JDC. For earlier materials, see: Archives 1921 - 1933, File 97.On the JDC and the ZOA: 11/12/34 - 12/14/34, 8/6/35, 7/3/35, 11/20/35 - 12/2/35, 12/24/36, 7/3/40, 11/8/40 - 11/22/40. Correspondence: C. Adler, D.A. Brown, I. Coons, M. Hexter, J.C. Hyman, M.J. Karpf, E.I. Kaufmann, M.A. Leavitt, J.B. Lightman, M.C. Troper, J.B. Wise.
Index Terms:
Adler, Cyrus
Brown, David A.
Coons, I.
Hexter, M. B.
Hyman, Joseph C.
Karpf, M. J.
Kaufmann, E. I.
Leavitt, M. A.
Lightman, J. B.
Palestine
Troper, Morris C.
Wise, J. B.
Zionist Organization of America (ZOA)
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